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otolith physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118200/vestibular-short-latency-evoked-potential-vsep-is-abolished-by-low-frequency-noise-exposure-in-rats
#1
Courtney Elaine Stewart, Ariane C Kanicki, Richard A Altschuler, W Michael King
The vestibular system plays a critical role in detection of head movements and is essential for normal postural control. Because of their anatomical proximity to the cochlea, the otolith organs are selectively exposed to sound pressure and are at risk for noise overstimulation. Clinical reports suggest a link between noise exposure and balance problems, but the structural and physiological basis for this linkage is not well understood. The goal of this study is to determine the effects of low frequency noise (LFN), on the otolith organs by correlating changes in vestibular short latency evoked potentials, (VsEPs), with changes in saccular afferent endings following noise exposure...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988244/evolution-of-sound-source-localization-circuits-in-the-nonmammalian-vertebrate-brainstem
#2
Peggy L Walton, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard, Catherine E Carr
The earliest vertebrate ears likely subserved a gravistatic function for orientation in the aquatic environment. However, in addition to detecting acceleration created by the animal's own movements, the otolithic end organs that detect linear acceleration would have responded to particle movement created by external sources. The potential to identify and localize these external sources may have been a major selection force in the evolution of the early vertebrate ear and in the processing of sound in the central nervous system...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901805/fusiform-vateritic-inclusions-observed-in-european-eel-anguilla-anguilla-l-sagittae
#3
Zoltán Kern, Miklós Kázmér, Tamás Müller, András Specziár, Alexandra Németh, Tamás Váczi
Microscopic inclusions have been observed in 7 out of 106 European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) sagittae using polarizing microscope and scanning electron microscope meanwhile the annual increments were studied to characterize the age structure of the population living in Lake Balaton. The presence of vaterite, a rare calcium carbonate polymorph was observed in these inclusions using Raman spectroscopy. Vateritic sagittae in wild fish are usually considered as symptom of physiological stress. The observed fusiform inclusions represent a new morphological type of vaterite inclusions in eel otolith...
September 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796086/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-clinical-and-laboratory-otolith-function-tests
#4
Lokesh Kumar, Alok Thakar, Bhaskar Thakur, Kapil Sikka
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinic based and laboratory tests of otolith function for their sensitivity and specificity in demarcating unilateral compensated complete vestibular deficit from normal. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital vestibular physiology laboratory. SUBJECTS: Control group-30 healthy adults, 20-45 years age; Case group-15 subjects post vestibular shwannoma excision or post-labyrinthectomy with compensated unilateral complete audio-vestibular loss...
October 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618821/low-intensity-ultrasound-activates-vestibular-otolith-organs-through-acoustic-radiation-force
#5
M M Iversen, D A Christensen, D L Parker, H A Holman, J Chen, M J Frerck, R D Rabbitt
The present study examined the efficacy of 5 MHz low-intensity focused ultrasound (LiFU) as a stimulus to remotely activate inner ear vestibular otolith organs. The otolith organs are the primary sensory apparati responsible for detecting orientation of the head relative to gravity and linear acceleration in three-dimensional space. These organs also respond to loud sounds and vibration of the temporal bone. The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was used to facilitate unobstructed acoustic access to the otolith organs in vivo...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496432/vestibular-loss-in-older-adults-is-associated-with-impaired-spatial-navigation-data-from-the-triangle-completion-task
#6
Yanjun Xie, Robin T Bigelow, Scott F Frankenthaler, Stephanie A Studenski, Scott D Moffat, Yuri Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Vestibular inputs have been shown to play a critical role in spatial navigation. In this study, we sought to evaluate whether vestibular loss due to aging contributes to impaired spatial navigation as measured by the triangle completion task (TCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited three types of participants: young controls <55 years of age, older controls ≥55 years of age, and older patients from a Neurotology Clinic with evidence of vestibular physiologic impairment but who did not have any known vestibular disorder...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424655/sustained-and-transient-vestibular-systems-a-physiological-basis-for-interpreting-vestibular-function
#7
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys, Hamish G MacDougall, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Catherine de Waele
Otolithic afferents with regular resting discharge respond to gravity or low-frequency linear accelerations, and we term these the static or sustained otolithic system. However, in the otolithic sense organs, there is anatomical differentiation across the maculae and corresponding physiological differentiation. A specialized band of receptors called the striola consists of mainly type I receptors whose hair bundles are weakly tethered to the overlying otolithic membrane. The afferent neurons, which form calyx synapses on type I striolar receptors, have irregular resting discharge and have low thresholds to high frequency (e...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130556/the-new-vestibular-stimuli-sound-and-vibration-anatomical-physiological-and-clinical-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys
The classical view of the otoliths-as flat plates of fairly uniform receptors activated by linear acceleration dragging on otoconia and so deflecting the receptor hair bundles-has been replaced by new anatomical and physiological evidence which shows that the maculae are much more complex. There is anatomical spatial differentiation across the macula in terms of receptor types, hair bundle heights, stiffness and attachment to the overlying otolithic membrane. This anatomical spatial differentiation corresponds to the neural spatial differentiation of response dynamics from the receptors and afferents from different regions of the otolithic maculae...
April 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127679/motion-illusion-evidence-towards-human-vestibulo-thalamic-projections
#9
Aasef G Shaikh, Dominik Straumann, Antonella Palla
Contemporary studies speculated that cerebellar network responsible for motion perception projects to the cerebral cortex via vestibulo-thalamus. Here, we sought for the physiological properties of vestibulo-thalamic pathway responsible for the motion perception. Healthy subjects and the patient with focal vestibulo-thalamic lacunar stroke spun a hand-held rheostat to approximate the value of perceived angular velocity during whole-body passive earth-vertical axis rotations in yaw plane. Vestibulo-ocular reflex was simultaneously measured with high-resolution search coils (paradigm 1)...
June 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091665/trace-element-protein-interactions-in-endolymph-from-the-inner-ear-of-fish-implications-for-environmental-reconstructions-using-fish-otolith-chemistry
#10
Oliver R B Thomas, Katherine Ganio, Blaine R Roberts, Stephen E Swearer
Otoliths, the biomineralised hearing "ear stones" from the inner ear of fish, grow throughout the lifespan of an individual, with deposition of alternating calciferous and proteinaceous bands occurring daily. Trace element : calcium ratios within daily increments measured by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are often used in fisheries science to reconstruct environmental histories. There is, however, considerable uncertainty as to which elements are interacting with either the proteinaceous or calciferous zones of the otolith, and thus their utility as indicators of environmental change...
January 16, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682216/is-exposure-to-macondo-oil-reflected-in-the-otolith-chemistry-of-marsh-resident-fish
#11
Paola C López-Duarte, F Joel Fodrie, Olaf P Jensen, Andrew Whitehead, Fernando Galvez, Benjamin Dubansky, Kenneth W Able
Genomic and physiological responses in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) in the northern Gulf of Mexico have confirmed oil exposure of resident marsh fish following the Macondo blowout in 2010. Using these same fish, we evaluated otolith microchemistry as a method for assessing oil exposure history. Laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry was used to analyze the chemical composition of sagittal otoliths to assess whether a trace metal signature could be detected in the otoliths of F. grandis collected from a Macondo-oil impacted site in 2010, post-spill relative to pre-spill, as well as versus fish from areas not impacted by the spill...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638059/anatomy-physiology-and-physics-of-the-peripheral-vestibular-system
#12
REVIEW
H Kingma, R van de Berg
Many medical doctors consider vertigo and dizziness as the major, almost obligatory complaints in patients with vestibular disorders. In this chapter, we will explain that vestibular disorders result in much more diverse and complex complaints. Many of these other complaints are unfortunately often misinterpreted and incorrectly classified as psychogenic. When we really understand the function of the vestibular system, it becomes quite obvious why patients with vestibular disorders complain about a loss of visual acuity, imbalance, fear of falling, cognitive and attentional problems, fatigue that persists even when the vertigo attacks and dizziness decreases or even disappears...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350589/the-impact-of-individual-and-combined-abiotic-factors-on-daily-otolith-growth-in-a-coral-reef-fish
#13
Amelia S Wenger, James Whinney, Brett Taylor, Frederieke Kroon
Coral reefs are increasingly subjected to both local and global stressors, however, there is limited information on how reef organisms respond to their combined effects under natural conditions. This field study examined the growth response of the damselfish Neopomacentrus bankieri to the individual and combined effects of multiple abiotic factors. Turbidity, temperature, tidal movement, and wave action were recorded every 10 minutes for four months, after which the daily otolith growth of N. bankieri was aligned with corresponding abiotic conditions...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328377/linking-physiology-and-biomineralization-processes-to-ecological-inferences-on-the-life-history-of-fishes
#14
REVIEW
T N Loewen, B Carriere, J D Reist, N M Halden, W G Anderson
Biomineral chemistry is frequently used to infer life history events and habitat use in fishes; however, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here we have taken a multidisciplinary approach to review the current understanding of element incorporation into biomineralized structures in fishes. Biominerals are primarily composed of calcium-based derivatives such as calcium carbonate found in otoliths and calcium phosphates found in scales, fins and bones. By focusing on non-essential life elements (strontium and barium) and essential life elements (calcium, zinc and magnesium), we attempt to connect several fields of study to synergise how physiology may influence biomineralization and subsequent inference of life history...
December 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178852/vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-and-motion-sickness-medications
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Dror Tal, Shir Shemy, Gil Kaminski-Graif, Guy Wiener, Dov Hershkovitz
OBJECTIVE: Seasickness is a widespread problem among naval crew, and has a major impact on their performance at sea. The three pharmacological agents most commonly employed in the treatment of seasickness are dimenhydrinate, cinnarizine, and scopolamine. At present, the effectiveness of anti-seasickness drugs is tested by a process of "trial and error", while sailing and exposed to sea conditions. A physiological test to evaluate the action of a drug might save crew members long periods of suffering, as well as simplifying the procedure of selecting the appropriate treatment for each individual...
June 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083880/vestibular-animal-models-contributions-to-understanding-physiology-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Hans Straka, Andreas Zwergal, Kathleen E Cullen
Our knowledge of the vestibular sensory system, its functional significance for gaze and posture stabilization, and its capability to ensure accurate spatial orientation perception and spatial navigation has greatly benefitted from experimental approaches using a variety of vertebrate species. This review summarizes the attempts to establish the roles of semicircular canal and otolith endorgans in these functions followed by an overview of the most relevant fields of vestibular research including major findings that have advanced our understanding of how this system exerts its influence on reflexive and cognitive challenges encountered during daily life...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009158/decreased-otolith-mediated-vestibular-response-in-25-astronauts-induced-by-long-duration-spaceflight
#17
Emma Hallgren, Ludmila Kornilova, Erik Fransen, Dmitrii Glukhikh, Steven T Moore, Gilles Clément, Angelique Van Ombergen, Hamish MacDougall, Ivan Naumov, Floris L Wuyts
The information coming from the vestibular otolith organs is important for the brain when reflexively making appropriate visual and spinal corrections to maintain balance. Symptoms related to failed balance control and navigation are commonly observed in astronauts returning from space. To investigate the effect of microgravity exposure on the otoliths, we studied the otolith-mediated responses elicited by centrifugation in a group of 25 astronauts before and after 6 mo of spaceflight. Ocular counterrolling (OCR) is an otolith-driven reflex that is sensitive to head tilt with regard to gravity and tilts of the gravito-inertial acceleration vector during centrifugation...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934788/-vestibular-function-after-repeated-space-flights
#18
I A Naumov, L N Kornilova, D O Glukhikh, A S Pavlova, E V Khabarova, G A Ekimovsky, A V Vasin
Results of the vestibular function testing of 32 cosmonauts on return from repeated 125- to 215-day space flights (SF) on the International space station are presented. The cosmonauts were tested twice before flight (baseline data collection) and on days 1-2, 4-5 and 8-9 after landing. Electro- and video-oculography were used to register simultaneously eye and head movements. It was found that deadaptation following a repeated stay in long-duration SF takes statistically much shorter time. Most often, atypical vestibular disorders and changed patterns of the otolith-semicircular canal interaction are observed in cosmonauts who have made their maiden flights to microgravity...
2015: Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina, Aerospace and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900072/anatomical-and-physiological-development-of-the-human-inner-ear
#19
REVIEW
Rebecca Lim, Alan M Brichta
We describe the development of the human inner ear with the invagination of the otic vesicle at 4 weeks gestation (WG), the growth of the semicircular canals from 5 WG, and the elongation and coiling of the cochlea at 10 WG. As the membranous labyrinth takes shape, there is a concomitant development of the sensory neuroepithelia and their associated structures within. This review details the growth and differentiation of the vestibular and auditory neuroepithelia, including synaptogenesis, the expression of stereocilia and kinocilia, and innervation of hair cells by afferent and efferent nerve fibres...
August 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26806396/up-down-chair-a-novel-mechatronic-device-to-assess-otolith-function-in-patients-with-vestibular-disorders
#20
Lorenzo Bassi Luciani, Dario Martelli, Vito Monaco, Vincenzo Genovese, Silvestro Micera
This paper describes a novel mechatronic platform, named "Up-Down Chair" (UDC), aimed at investigating otolith function in patients with vestibular disorders. The UDC was designed to provide a wide range of repeatable and controllable vertical oscillations of the head whose kinematic features match those encountered during daily activities. The following parameters were assessed to characterize the performance of the UDC: accordance between expected and measured kinematics in both loaded and unloaded conditions; Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) of a group of 15 healthy subjects who were asked to identify a set of Snellen optotypes while being repeatedly moved at different perturbation intensities...
March 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
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