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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913498/long-term-risk-of-second-malignancy-and-cardiovascular-disease-after-hodgkin-lymphoma-treatment
#1
Flora E van Leeuwen, Andrea K Ng
Long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience several late adverse effects of treatment, with second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) being the leading causes of death in these patients. Other late effects have also been identified, such as pulmonary dysfunction, endocrinopathies (thyroid dysfunction, infertility), neck muscle atrophy, and persistent fatigue. HL survivors have two- to fourfold increased risks to develop SMNs and CVD compared with the general population...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913448/targeting-inflammation-in-cancer-prevention-and-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Jelena Todoric, Laura Antonucci, Michael Karin
Inflammation is associated with the development and malignant progression of most cancers. As most of the cell types involved in cancer-associated inflammation are genetically stable and thus are not subjected to rapid emergence of drug resistance, the targeting of inflammation represents an attractive strategy both for cancer prevention and for cancer therapy. Tumor-extrinsic inflammation is caused by many factors, including bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, obesity, tobacco smoking, asbestos exposure, and excessive alcohol consumption, all of which increase cancer risk and stimulate malignant progression...
December 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864607/computed-tomography-versus-invasive-coronary-angiography-design-and-methods-of-the-pragmatic-randomised-multicentre-discharge-trial
#3
Adriane E Napp, Robert Haase, Michael Laule, Georg M Schuetz, Matthias Rief, Henryk Dreger, Gudrun Feuchtner, Guy Friedrich, Miloslav Špaček, Vojtěch Suchánek, Klaus Fuglsang Kofoed, Thomas Engstroem, Stephen Schroeder, Tanja Drosch, Matthias Gutberlet, Michael Woinke, Pál Maurovich-Horvat, Béla Merkely, Patrick Donnelly, Peter Ball, Jonathan D Dodd, Martin Quinn, Luca Saba, Maurizio Porcu, Marco Francone, Massimo Mancone, Andrejs Erglis, Ligita Zvaigzne, Antanas Jankauskas, Gintare Sakalyte, Tomasz Harań, Malgorzata Ilnicka-Suckiel, Nuno Bettencourt, Vasco Gama-Ribeiro, Sebastian Condrea, Imre Benedek, Nada Čemerlić Adjić, Oto Adjić, José Rodriguez-Palomares, Bruno Garcia Del Blanco, Giles Roditi, Colin Berry, Gershan Davis, Erica Thwaite, Juhani Knuuti, Mikko Pietilä, Cezary Kępka, Mariusz Kruk, Radosav Vidakovic, Aleksandar N Neskovic, Ignacio Díez, Iñigo Lecumberri, Jacob Geleijns, Christine Kubiak, Anke Strenge-Hesse, The-Hoang Do, Felix Frömel, Iñaki Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Gaizka Benguria-Arrate, Hans Keiding, Christoph Katzer, Jacqueline Müller-Nordhorn, Nina Rieckmann, Mario Walther, Peter Schlattmann, Marc Dewey
OBJECTIVES: More than 3.5 million invasive coronary angiographies (ICA) are performed in Europe annually. Approximately 2 million of these invasive procedures might be reduced by noninvasive tests because no coronary intervention is performed. Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate noninvasive test for detection and exclusion of coronary artery disease (CAD). To investigate the comparative effectiveness of CT and ICA, we designed the European pragmatic multicentre DISCHARGE trial funded by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union (EC-GA 603266)...
November 18, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860522/the-ambrosia-symbiosis-from-evolutionary-ecology-to-practical-management
#4
Jiri Hulcr, Lukasz L Stelinski
The ambrosia beetle-fungus farming symbiosis is more heterogeneous than previously thought. There is not one but many ambrosia symbioses. Beetlefungus specificity is clade-dependent and ranges from strict to promiscuous. Each new origin has evolved a new mycangium. The most common relationship with host trees is colonization of freshly dead tissues, but there are also parasites of living trees, vectors of pathogenic fungi, and beetles living in rotten trees with a wood-decay symbiont. Most of these strategies are driven by fungal metabolism whereas beetle ecology is evolutionarily more flexible...
November 16, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859915/transcriptome-based-phylogeny-of-endemic-lake-baikal-amphipod-species-flock-fast-speciation-accompanied-by-frequent-episodes-of-positive-selection
#5
Sergey A Naumenko, Maria D Logacheva, Nina V Popova, Anna V Klepikova, Aleksey A Penin, Georgii A Bazykin, Anna E Etingova, Nikolai S Mugue, Alexey S Kondrashov, Lev Y Yampolsky
Endemic species flocks inhabiting ancient lakes, oceanic islands and other long-lived isolated habitats are often interpreted as adaptive radiations. Yet molecular evidence for directional selection during species flocks radiation is scarce. Using partial transcriptomes of 64 species of Lake Baikal (Siberia, Russia) endemic amphipods and two non-endemic outgroups, we report a revised phylogeny of this species flock, and analyze evidence for positive selection within the endemic lineages. We confirm two independent invasions of amphipods into Baikal and demonstrate that several morphological features of Baikal amphipods, such as body armor and reduction of appendages and sensory organs, evolved in several lineages in parallel...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852187/prevention-of-breast-cancer
#6
Ian N Olver
Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to running for up to 8 hours each week reduces the risk of breast cancer, both in its own right and through reducing obesity. Alcohol consumption may be responsible for 5.8% of breast cancers in Australia and it is recommended to reduce this to two standard drinks per day. Drinking alcohol and smoking increases the risk for breast cancer and, therefore, it is important to quit tobacco smoking...
November 21, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821755/sex-and-the-shifting-biodiversity-dynamics-of-marine-animals-in-deep-time
#7
Andrew M Bush, Gene Hunt, Richard K Bambach
The fossil record of marine animals suggests that diversity-dependent processes exerted strong control on biodiversification: after the Ordovician Radiation, genus richness did not trend for hundreds of millions of years. However, diversity subsequently rose dramatically in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic (145 million years ago-present), indicating that limits on diversification can be overcome by ecological or evolutionary change. Here, we show that the Cretaceous-Cenozoic radiation was driven by increased diversification in animals that transfer sperm between adults during fertilization, whereas animals that broadcast sperm into the water column have not changed significantly in richness since the Late Ordovician (∼450 million years ago)...
November 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816341/stroke-prevention
#8
Clothilde Isabel, David Calvet, Jean-Louis Mas
Patients who have had a stroke are at high risk for recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death. Prevention of these events should be initiated promptly after stroke, because many recurrent events occur early, and should be tailored to the precise cause of stroke, which may require specific treatment. Lifestyle advice including abstinence from smoking, regular exercise, Mediterranean-style diet, and reduction of salt intake and alcohol consumption are recommended for all patients with stroke...
November 3, 2016: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797706/men-s-health-supplement-use-and-outcomes-in-men-receiving-definitive-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-for-localized-prostate-cancer
#9
Nicholas G Zaorsky, Thomas M Churilla, Karen Ruth, Shelly B Hayes, Mark L Sobczak, Mark A Hallman, Marc C Smaldone, David Yt Chen, Eric M Horwitz
BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of newly diagnosed cancer patients start taking dietary supplements. Men's health supplements (MHSs), which we define as supplements that are specifically marketed with the terms men's health and prostate health (or similar permutations), are often mislabeled as having potential anticancer benefits. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of MHSs on patient outcomes and toxicities in patients who were undergoing definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for localized prostate cancer...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795230/talpid-mole-phylogeny-unites-shrew-moles-and-illuminates-overlooked-cryptic-species-diversity
#10
Kai He, Akio Shinohara, Kristofer M Helgen, Mark S Springer, Xue-Long Jiang, Kevin L Campbell
The mammalian family Talpidae (moles, shrew moles, desmans) is characterized by diverse ecomorphologies associated with terrestrial, semi-aquatic, semi-fossorial, fossorial, and aquatic-fossorial lifestyles. Prominent specializations involved with these different lifestyles, and the transitions between them pose outstanding questions regarding the evolutionary history within the family, not only for living but also for fossil taxa. Here we investigate the phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and biogeographic history of the family using 19 nuclear and two mitochondrial genes (~16 kb) from ~60% of described species representing all 17 genera...
October 30, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789181/prostate-cancer-patients-with-unmanaged-diabetes-or-receiving-insulin-experience-inferior-outcomes-and-toxicities-after-treatment-with-radiation-therapy
#11
Nicholas G Zaorsky, Talha Shaikh, Karen Ruth, Pankaj Sharda, Shelly B Hayes, Mark L Sobczak, Mark A Hallman, Marc C Smaldone, David Y T Chen, Eric M Horwitz
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on outcomes and toxicities among men with localized prostate cancer receiving definitive radiation therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 3217 patients, from 1998 to 2013, subdivided into 5 subgroups: (I) no T2DM; (II) T2DM receiving oral antihyperglycemic agent that contains metformin, no insulin; (III) T2DM receiving nonmetformin oral agent alone, no insulin; (IV) T2DM receiving any insulin; and (V) T2DM not receiving medication...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763570/vitamin-d-status-and-its-consequences-for-health-in-south-africa
#12
Mary Norval, Anna K Coussens, Robert J Wilkinson, Liza Bornman, Robyn M Lucas, Caradee Y Wright
In this review, reports were retrieved in which vitamin D status, as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, was measured in South African population groups with varied skin colours and ethnicities. Healthy children and adults were generally vitamin D-sufficient [25(OH)D level >50 nmol/L] but the majority of those aged above 65 years were deficient. A major role for exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in determining 25(OH)D levels was apparent, with the dietary contribution being minor...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756067/determinants-of-neonatal-vitamin-d-levels-as-measured-on-neonatal-dried-blood-spot-samples
#13
Chloe A Smith, Cong Sun, Angela Pezic, Christine Rodda, Fergus Cameron, Katie Allen, Maria E Craig, John Carlin, Terry Dwyer, Robyn M Lucas, Darryl W Eyles, Andrew S Kemp, Justine A Ellis, Anne-Louise Ponsonby
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is linked to adverse childhood health outcomes, yet data on the distribution and quantifiable determinants of neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) concentration, a vitamin D biomarker, are limited. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify determinants of neonatal 25OHD concentration, measured using neonatal dried blood spots (DBS). METHODS: A total of 259 ethnically diverse children aged 0-16 years born in Victoria, Australia, were recruited...
October 19, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698293/impact-of-climate-change-on-occupational-exposure-to-solar-radiation
#14
Carlo Grandi, Massimo Borra, Andrea Militello, Alessandro Polichetti
Occupational exposure to solar radiation may induce both acute and long-term effects on skin and eyes. Personal exposure is very difficult to assess accurately, as it depends on environmental, organisational and individual factors. The ongoing climate change interacting with stratospheric ozone dynamics may affect occupational exposure to solar radiation. In addition, tropospheric levels of environmental pollutants interacting with solar radiation may be altered by climate dynamics, so introducing another variable affecting the overall exposure to solar radiation...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688882/a-spherical-plot-solution-to-linking-acceleration-metrics-with-animal-performance-state-behaviour-and-lifestyle
#15
Rory P Wilson, Mark D Holton, James S Walker, Emily L C Shepard, D Mike Scantlebury, Vianney L Wilson, Gwendoline I Wilson, Brenda Tysse, Mike Gravenor, Javier Ciancio, Melitta A McNarry, Kelly A Mackintosh, Lama Qasem, Frank Rosell, Patricia M Graf, Flavio Quintana, Agustina Gomez-Laich, Juan-Emilio Sala, Christina C Mulvenna, Nicola J Marks, Mark W Jones
BACKGROUND: We are increasingly using recording devices with multiple sensors operating at high frequencies to produce large volumes of data which are problematic to interpret. A particularly challenging example comes from studies on animals and humans where researchers use animal-attached accelerometers on moving subjects to attempt to quantify behaviour, energy expenditure and condition. RESULTS: The approach taken effectively concatinated three complex lines of acceleration into one visualization that highlighted patterns that were otherwise not obvious...
2016: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680420/effect-of-coronary-artery-calcification-score-by-lifestyle-and-correlation-with-coronary-artery-stenosis-by-multidetector-computed-tomography
#16
Sang-Hong Lee, Jae-Hwan Cho, Hee-Eun Kim, Sung-Chul Kim
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of coronary artery calcification score by lifestyle and correlation with coronary artery stenosis in persons who underwent coronary artery computed tomography (CT) angiography among health examinees for heart diseases in Korea. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study included 506 subjects (256 men and 250 women) who underwent coronary artery CT angiography among health examines for heart diseases at the Incheon Branch of the Korea Association of Health Promotion between January 2, 2014, and December 31, 2014...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662788/no-evidence-for-an-increase-in-circulatory-disease-mortality-in-astronauts-following-space-radiation-exposures
#17
Francis A Cucinotta, Nobuyuki Hamada, Mark P Little
Previous analysis has shown that astronauts have a significantly lower standardized mortality ratio for circulatory disease mortality compared to the U.S. population, which is consistent with the rigorous selection process and healthy lifestyles of astronauts, and modest space radiation exposures from past space missions. However, a recent report by Delp et al. estimated the proportional mortality ratio for ages of 55-64 y of Apollo lunar mission astronauts to claim a high risk of cardiovascular disease due to space radiation compared to the U...
August 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531547/cancer-chemopreventive-effects-of-boswellia-sacra-gum-resin-hydrodistillates-on-invasive-urothelial-cell-carcinoma-report-of-a-case
#18
Ding Xia, Weiwei Lou, Kar-Ming Fung, Cole L Wolley, Mahmoud M Suhail, Hsueh-Kung Lin
A 52-year-old Hispanic male presented with hematuria and was later diagnosed with a large invasive high-grade urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the urinary bladder, but with ambiguous pT1/pT2 staging regarding musclaris propria invasion by UCC. The conventional treatment including radical cystoprostatectomy followed by neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy was presented. The patient decided to delay the standard therapy until a later stage, but elected to go through transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) without Bacillus Calmette-Guérin instillation...
August 16, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459457/epidemiological-assessments-of-skin-outcomes-in-the-nurses-health-studies
#19
Wen-Qing Li, Eunyoung Cho, Martin A Weinstock, Hasan Mashfiq, Abrar A Qureshi
OBJECTIVES: To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Studies (NHSs) to identifying epidemiological factors associated with multiple skin diseases, including skin cancer, psoriasis, and other inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. METHODS: We carried out a narrative review of NHS articles published between 1976 and 2016. RESULTS: The NHSs have identified environmental and lifestyle factors related to psoriasis, supporting obesity and smoking as psoriasis risk factors; associations between psoriasis and diabetes, myocardial infarction, and Crohn's disease, supporting psoriasis as a systemic disorder; and associations of pigmentary traits, ultraviolet radiation, and lifestyle factors such as citrus consumption with risk of skin cancer...
September 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456374/experiences-with-a-low-iodine-diet-a-qualitative-study-of-patients-with-thyroid-cancer-receiving-radioactive-iodine-therapy
#20
Kyem Ju Lee, Sung Ok Chang, Kwang Yoon Jung
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe hormone interruption experiences related to not only physical problems, but also psychological, social, and spiritual problems, in patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy. METHODS: In-depth interviews were performed with five participants, four women and one man, aged between 28 and 58. The participants were subjected to high-dose radiation of 100-150 mCi and had experienced abrupt hormonal interruptions after undergoing total thyroidectomy...
August 2016: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
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