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radiation lifestyle

Ashraf Z Al-Hamdan, Pooja P Preetha, Mohammad Z Al-Hamdan, William L Crosson, Reem N Albashaireh
This ecological study aimed to assess the association between long-term exposures to outdoor environmental factors and mortality rate from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a diverse and spatially distributed population from 3,094 counties within the U.S. (n > 3,780,000 CVD deaths) using satellite-derived data of PM2.5 concentrations, sunlight, and maximum heat index. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether PM2.5 , sunlight and maximum heat index were related to the odds of the total CVD death rate based on gender, race, and age taking into consideration the confounding risk factors of diabetes, obesity, leisure- time physical inactivity, smoking and socioeconomic status...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Jean-François Morère, Jérôme Viguier, Sébastien Couraud, Lysel Brignoli-Guibaudet, Christine Lhomel, Xavier B Pivot, François Eisinger
BACKGROUND: Primary prevention of cancer relies on awareness of and consequent identification of risk factors. We investigated knowledge of breast cancer risk factors not only among laywomen but also among female physicians. METHODS: The EDIFICE 4 nationwide observational survey was conducted by phone interviews of a representative female population (737 laywomen and 105 female physicians) aged 40-75 years, using the quota method. This analysis focuses on spontaneous replies to the question "In your opinion, what are the five main risk factors that increase the risk of breast cancer?"...
March 5, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Linda K McEvoy, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Jeremy A Elman, Lisa T Eyler, Carol E Franz, Donald J Hagler, Sean N Hatton, Michael J Lyons, Matthew S Panizzon, Anders M Dale, William S Kremen
Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with deleterious changes in the brain but associations of moderate alcohol intake are not well understood. We examined the association of alcohol consumption with brain white matter health in 377 middle-aged men (56-66 years old; mean 61.8 ± 2.6 years) who were participants in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). T1-, T2-, proton density-, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained. Diffusion measures were quantified from 12 major white matter tracts...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Rachna Seth, Amitabh Singh, Vijay Guru, Bhavna Chawla, Sushmita Pathy, Savita Sapra
Background: Retinoblastoma (Rb) is the most common primary intraocular tumor of infancy and childhood. Survivors' ocular and visual problems and increased risk for subsequent malignancy are well documented, but data on long-term health status of Rb survivors are limited, this being particularly true for India. Methodology: Children who had completed treatment for Rb at least 2 years ago before and were under follow-up at the after cancer treatment clinic were evaluated...
October 2017: South Asian Journal of Cancer
Laila F Nimri
Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a pandemic with implications for bone health and chronic diseases. The study investigated the vitamin D status and risk factors of subnormal serum vitamin D levels in female college students. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirate. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured for the participating female undergraduate college students using a radioimmunoassay kit...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Ji Hyun Park, Sungim Whang, Hyun Young Lee, Cheol-Min Lee, Dae Ryong Kang
Objectives: Radon, the primary constituent of natural radiation, is the second leading environmental cause of lung cancer after smoking. To confirm a relationship between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, estimating cumulative levels of exposure to indoor radon for an individual or population is necessary. This study sought to develop a model for estimate indoor radon concentrations in Korea. Especially, our model and method may have wider application to other residences, not to specific site, and can be used in situations where actual measurements for input variables are lacking...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Masatsugu Orui, Yuriko Suzuki, Aya Goto, Seiji Yasumura
After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima on 11 March 2011, some businesses were permitted to continue operating even though they were located in the evacuation area designated by the Japanese government. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the mental health status, workplace, living environment, and lifestyle of employees in the evacuation and non-evacuation areas. We also investigated factors related to their mental health status. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected from the questionnaire responses of 647 employees at three medium-sized manufacturing companies in the evacuation and non-evacuation areas...
December 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jonathan Leventhal, Melissa Rasar Young
Radiation therapy (RT) is a frequently used modality for cancer treatment. Acute and/or chronic skin changes may occur and carry risk of influencing quality of life during and after completion of RT. Radiation reactions may lead to delays in treatment, diminished cosmesis, and functional deficits. Lifestyle factors, treatment modalities, topical agents, and, in some cases, wound dressings may be utilized to help prevent or ameliorate radiation-induced skin reactions. While rigorous evidence supporting specific interventions may be lacking or contradictory, this article summarizes the current knowledge of the etiology, manifestations, and interventions available for prevention and management of radiation dermatitis...
December 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Emile Levy, Mariia Samoilenko, Sophia Morel, Jade England, Devendra Amre, Laurence Bertout, Simon Drouin, Caroline Laverdière, Maja Krajinovic, Daniel Sinnett, Geneviève Lefebvre, Valérie Marcil
Our objectives were to assess the prevalence of cardiometabolic complications in children, adolescents, and young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL), to identify their predictors and the risk compared to the Canadian population. We performed a cardiometabolic assessment of cALL survivors from the PETALE cohort (n = 247, median age at visit of 21.7 years). In our group, overweight and obesity affected over 70% of women. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were mostly common in men, both adults (20%) and children (19%)...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maya Sophia Fujimura, Yukako Komasa, Shinzo Kimura, Akira Shibanuma, Akiko Kitamura, Masamine Jimba
INTRODUCTION: On March 11, 2011, Japan experienced its largest recorded earthquake with a magnitude of 9.0. The resulting tsunami caused massive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant reactors, and the surrounding environment was contaminated with radioactive materials. During this period, some residents were exposed to high levels of radiation (up to 5 millisieverts [mSv]), but since then, many residents have been exposed to low levels of radiation (<1 mSv). This study was conducted to assess the effects of lifestyle and attitude factors on external radiation exposure among Fukushima residents...
2017: PloS One
Tess E Brewer, Noah Fierer
Although a broad diversity of eukaryotic and bacterial taxa reside on rock surfaces where they can influence the weathering of rocks and minerals, these communities and their contributions to mineral weathering remain poorly resolved. To build a more comprehensive understanding of the diversity, ecology, and potential functional attributes of microbial communities living on rock, we sampled 149 tombstones across three continents and analyzed their bacterial and eukaryotic communities via marker gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Goran Gajski, Marko Gerić, Višnja Oreščanin, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac
The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN Cyt) assay was used to evaluate the baseline frequency of cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the general population (average age, 38.28 ± 12.83 years) in relation to age, sex, body mass index, seasonal variations (season of sampling, period of sampling and different meteorological parameters) and lifestyle factors (smoking habit, alcohol consumption, exposure to medications and diagnostic radiation, physical activity, and family history of cancer)...
November 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
L N Rasina, E B Grigorkina, N A Orekhova
Differences in radioresistance and oxidative metabolism parameters in rodents of different ecological specialization in the East Ural radioactive trace (EURT) area are shown. Northern mole voles (radiosensitive species) exhibit a pronounced resistance to chronic exposure to radiation, living in a series of generations in a radioactive environment, whereas pigmy wood mice (radioresistant species) are less resistant in the EURT area due to their migration activity. Thus, under the EURT area conditions, northern mole voles realize the genotypic radioadaptation, whereas pigmy wood mice realize the physiological radioadaptation, the key role in which is played by the ecological and physiological characteristics and the lifestyle of animals...
September 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Vittorio Perduca, Hanane Omichessan, Laura Baglietto, Gianluca Severi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we describe how recent advances in the study of mutational and epigenetic signatures in tumours provide new opportunities to understand the role of the environment and lifestyle in cancer development. RECENT FINDINGS: Cancer-related mutational events have been investigated for decades but only recently the wide availability of genomic sequences and epigenomic data from thousands of cancer genomes has made it possible to identify numerous distinct mutational and epigenetic signatures through the application of advanced mathematical models...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Nathan V Whelan, Kevin M Kocot, Tatiana P Moroz, Krishanu Mukherjee, Peter Williams, Gustav Paulay, Leonid L Moroz, Kenneth M Halanych
Ctenophora, comprising approximately 200 described species, is an important lineage for understanding metazoan evolution and is of great ecological and economic importance. Ctenophore diversity includes species with unique colloblasts used for prey capture, smooth and striated muscles, benthic and pelagic lifestyles, and locomotion with ciliated paddles or muscular propulsion. However, the ancestral states of traits are debated and relationships among many lineages are unresolved. Here, using 27 newly sequenced ctenophore transcriptomes, publicly available data and methods to control systematic error, we establish the placement of Ctenophora as the sister group to all other animals and refine the phylogenetic relationships within ctenophores...
November 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Daisuke Koyabu, Misato Hosojima, Hideki Endo
Evolution of the middle ear ossicles was a key innovation for mammals, enhancing the transmission of airborne sound. Radiation into various habitats from a terrestrial environment resulted in diversification of the auditory mechanisms among mammals. However, due to the paucity of phylogenetically controlled investigations, how middle ear traits have diversified with functional specialization remains unclear. In order to identify the respective patterns for various lifestyles and to gain insights into fossil forms, we employed a high-resolution tomography technique and compared the middle ear morphology of eulipotyphlan species (moles, shrews and hedgehogs), a group that has radiated into various environments, such as terrestrial, aquatic and subterranean habitats...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Louise F Wilson, Annika Antonsson, Adele C Green, Susan J Jordan, Bradley J Kendall, Christina M Nagle, Rachel E Neale, Catherine M Olsen, Penelope M Webb, David C Whiteman
Cancer is a leading cause of disease burden in Australia, particularly fatal burden, accounting for an estimated thirty percent of deaths. Many cancers develop because of exposure to lifestyle and environmental factors that are potentially modifiable. We aimed to quantify the proportions and numbers of cancer deaths and cases in Australia in 2013 attributable to 20 modifiable factors in eight broad groupings that are established causes of cancer, namely: tobacco smoke (smoking and second-hand), dietary factors (low intake of fruit, non-starchy vegetables and dietary fibre; and high intake of red and processed meat), overweight/obesity, alcohol, physical inactivity, solar ultraviolet radiation, infections (seven agents), and reproductive factors (lack of breastfeeding, menopausal hormone therapy use, combined oral contraceptive use)...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Hajar Sadeghi, Mohammad Rafei, Masoud Bahrami, AliAkbar Haghdoost, Yazdan Shabani
Background: Lifestyle risk factors such as obesity, overweight, smoking and radiation exposure related to thyroid cancer. This study estimated the amount of excess risk that attributed to risk factors. Methods: Major electronic databases were searched until February 2016. Epidemiological studies addressing the association between lifestyle risk factors and thyroid cancer were enrolled. The results were expressed as ARF with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects-model...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Public Health
Loretta S Loftus, Gerald H Sokol, Christine Laronga
The number of breast cancer survivors has increased and this increase is expected to continue, likely as a result of population and age growth, the implementation of earlier detection strategies, and the development of more effective therapies. Breast cancer treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach with surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and hormonal therapy. Breast cancer survivors may develop various long-term adverse effects from these therapies. Care of the survivor may transition eventually to the primary care physician...
October 2017: Southern Medical Journal
Michio Murakami, Masaharu Tsubokura, Kyoko Ono, Shuhei Nomura, Tomoyoshi Oikawa
The 2011 Fukushima disaster led to increases in multiple risks (e.g., lifestyle diseases and radiation exposure) and fear among the public. Here, we assessed the additional risks of cancer caused by radiation and diabetes related to the disaster and the cost-effectiveness of countermeasures against these conditions. Our study included residents of the cities of Minamisoma and Soma (10-40 km and 35-50 km north of the Fukushima Daiichi (N° 1) Nuclear Power Station, respectively). We used the loss of life expectancy (LLE) as an indicator to compare risks between radiation exposure and diabetes...
2017: PloS One
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