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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525996/cancer-risks-in-a-population-based-study-of-70-570-agricultural-workers-results-from-the-canadian-census-health-and-environment-cohort-canchec
#1
Linda Kachuri, M Anne Harris, Jill S MacLeod, Michael Tjepkema, Paul A Peters, Paul A Demers
BACKGROUND: Agricultural workers may be exposed to potential carcinogens including pesticides, sensitizing agents and solar radiation. Previous studies indicate increased risks of hematopoietic cancers and decreased risks at other sites, possibly due to differences in lifestyle or risk behaviours. We present findings from CanCHEC (Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort), the largest national population-based cohort of agricultural workers. METHODS: Statistics Canada created the cohort using deterministic and probabilistic linkage of the 1991 Canadian Long Form Census to National Cancer Registry records for 1992-2010...
May 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525650/detection-of-damage-on-single-or-double-stranded-dna-in-a-population-exposed-to-arsenic-in-drinking-water
#2
J Jiménez-Villarreal, D I Rivas-Armendariz, C P Pineda-Belmontes, N D Betancourt-Martínez, M A Macías-Corral, A J Guerra-Alanis, M S Niño-Castañeda, J Morán-Martínez
Different studies have suggested an association between arsenic (As) exposure and damage to single-stranded DNA by reactive oxygen species derived from the biotransformation of arsenic. The single strand damages are converted to double strand damage upon interaction with ultraviolet radiation. Analysis of genomic integrity is important for assessing the genotoxicity caused by environmental pollutants. In this study, we compared the concentration of As in drinking water, nutritional status, lifestyle variables, and the level of genotoxicity in an exposed population and a control group...
May 18, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509910/convergence-of-gut-microbiotas-in-the-adaptive-radiations-of-african-cichlid-fishes
#3
Laura Baldo, Joan Lluís Pretus, Joan Lluís Riera, Zuzana Musilova, Arnold Roger Bitja Nyom, Walter Salzburger
Ecoevolutionary dynamics of the gut microbiota at the macroscale level, that is, in across-species comparisons, are largely driven by ecological variables and host genotype. The repeated explosive radiations of African cichlid fishes in distinct lakes, following a dietary diversification in a context of reduced genetic diversity, provide a natural setup to explore convergence, divergence and repeatability in patterns of microbiota dynamics as a function of the host diet, phylogeny and environment. Here we characterized by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing the gut microbiota of 29 cichlid species from two distinct lakes/radiations (Tanganyika and Barombi Mbo) and across a broad dietary and phylogenetic range...
May 16, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508832/disease-characteristics-and-treatment-attributes-of-patients-admitted-to-the-oncology-ward-of-a-tertiary-care-government-hospital
#4
Virender Suhag, B S Sunita, Pankaj Vats, Arti Sarin, A K Singh, Mayuri Jain
BACKGROUND: The burden of oncology patients in the most developing countries including India has witnessed a steady, progressive, and significant upward trend attributed mainly to increased life span, availability of better imaging modalities, increased awareness, and lifestyle and environmental changes. The management of such patients in government setup often presents lots of challenges such as advanced stage of presentation, existence of medical comorbid conditions, scarcity of beds, and long multimodal treatment often complicated with therapy-induced toxicities...
January 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467456/mosasauroid-phylogeny-under-multiple-phylogenetic-methods-provides-new-insights-on-the-evolution-of-aquatic-adaptations-in-the-group
#5
Tiago R Simões, Oksana Vernygora, Ilaria Paparella, Paulina Jimenez-Huidobro, Michael W Caldwell
Mosasauroids were a successful lineage of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) that radiated during the Late Cretaceous (95-66 million years ago). They can be considered one of the few lineages in the evolutionary history of tetrapods to have acquired a fully aquatic lifestyle, similarly to whales, ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. Despite a long history of research on this group, their phylogenetic relationships have only been tested so far using traditional (unweighted) maximum parsimony. However, hypotheses of mosasauroid relationships and the recently proposed multiple origins of aquatically adapted pelvic and pedal features in this group can be more thoroughly tested by methods that take into account variation in branch lengths and evolutionary rates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463858/physical-long-term-side-effects-in-young-adult-cancer-survivors-germ-cell-tumors-model
#6
Hampig Raphael Kourie, Jean Klastersky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After the important advances in the treatment of germ cell tumors (GCTs) leading to high cure rates, physical long-term side-effects represent an important cause of death in these young adult survivors. Highlighting these physical long-term side-effects, their monitoring and their prevention modalities is necessary for a better management of these cancer survivors. RECENT FINDINGS: Impaired fertility, increased risk of developing a second cancer, cardiac, pulmonary, renal and neural toxicity, hearing and vision impairment are the major physical side-effects in young adult cancer survivors...
April 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427361/lifestyle-related-factors-that-explain-disaster-induced-changes-in-socioeconomic-status-and-poor-subjective-health-a-cross-sectional-study-from-the-fukushima-health-management-survey
#7
Masato Nagai, Tetsuya Ohira, Wen Zhang, Hironori Nakano, Masaharu Maeda, Seiji Yasumura, Masafumi Abe
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle-related factors are determinants of subjective health. However, changes in SES are inevitable in times of natural disaster, while lifestyle-related factors remain modifiable. The aim of this study was to use a cross-sectional approach to examine lifestyle-related factors that may attenuate the negative impact of disaster-induced changes in SES on poor subjective health. METHODS: We analyzed 33,350 men and women aged 20-64 years who were living in evacuation zones due to the radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412536/molecular-phylogenetics-and-dating-of-the-problematic-new-guinea-microhylid-frogs-amphibia-anura-reveals-elevated-speciation-rates-and-need-for-taxonomic-reclassification
#8
Julio A Rivera, Fred Kraus, Allen Allison, Marguerite A Butler
Asterophryinae is a large monophyletic subfamily of Anurans containing over 300 species distributed across one of the world's most geologically active areas - New Guinea and its satellite islands, Australia and the Philippines. The tremendous ecological and morphological diversity of this clade, with apparent specializations for burrowing, terrestrial, semi-aquatic, and arboreal lifestyle, suggests an evolutionary process of adaptive radiation. Despite this spectacular diversity, this and many other questions of evolutionary processes have received little formal study because until now the phylogeny of this spececies-rich clade has remained uncertain...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401378/protective-effect-of-juglans-regia-l-walnut-extract-against-oxidative-dna-damage
#9
Cinzia Calcabrini, Roberta De Bellis, Umberto Mancini, Luigi Cucchiarini, Vilberto Stocchi, Lucia Potenza
Walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are relevant components of the Mediterranean diet providing important macronutrients, micronutrients and other bioactive constituents including unsaturated fatty acids, proteins, fiber, vitamins, minerals, phytosterols and polyphenols. Although the walnut beneficial effects in human health are widely recognized by a lot of epidemiologic studies very little is known regarding its effect on damaged DNA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Juglans regia L. ethanolic extract from kernel on the induction of DNA strand breaks by thiol/Fe(3+)/O2 mixed function oxidase, tert-butyl hydroperoxide or UVC radiations in acellular and cellular models...
April 11, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374124/external-dose-reconstruction-for-the-former-village-of-metlino-techa-river-russia-based-on-environmental-surveys-luminescence-measurements-and-radiation-transport-modelling
#10
M M Hiller, C Woda, N G Bougrov, M O Degteva, O Ivanov, A Ulanovsky, S Romanov
In the first years of its operation, the Mayak Production Association, a facility part of the Soviet nuclear weapons program in the Southern Urals, Russia, discharged large amounts of radioactively contaminated effluent into the nearby Techa River, thus exposing the people living at this river to external and internal radiations. The Techa River Cohort is a cohort intensely studied in epidemiology to investigate the correlation between low-dose radiation and health effects on humans. For the individuals in the cohort, the Techa River Dosimetry System describes the accumulated dose in human organs and tissues...
May 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368387/retroelement-guided-protein-diversification-abounds-in-vast-lineages-of-bacteria-and-archaea
#11
Blair G Paul, David Burstein, Cindy J Castelle, Sumit Handa, Diego Arambula, Elizabeth Czornyj, Brian C Thomas, Partho Ghosh, Jeff F Miller, Jillian F Banfield, David L Valentine
Major radiations of enigmatic Bacteria and Archaea with large inventories of uncharacterized proteins are a striking feature of the Tree of Life(1-5). The processes that led to functional diversity in these lineages, which may contribute to a host-dependent lifestyle, are poorly understood. Here, we show that diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs), which guide site-specific protein hypervariability(6-8), are prominent features of genomically reduced organisms from the bacterial candidate phyla radiation (CPR) and as yet uncultivated phyla belonging to the DPANN (Diapherotrites, Parvarchaeota, Aenigmarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota and Nanohaloarchaea) archaeal superphylum...
April 3, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329638/developing-a-continuous-quality-improvement-assessment-using-a-patient-centered-approach-in-optimizing-sle-disease-control
#12
Katelyn Updyke, Brittany Urso, James A Solomon
Systemic lupus erythematous is a multi-organ autoimmune disease in which the patient has "lost" self- tolerance and developed immune-complexes containing self-antigen that cause disease through tissue inflammation and multi-organ damage. Patients often have unpredictable flares in symptoms with poorly identified triggers. However, it has been suggested in other literature that exogenous exposures, including ingested beef, cigarette smoke, UV radiation, metal-complexing agents, and infections can contribute to exacerbations and improvements in SLE symptoms...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298964/magnetic-resonance-enterography-in-crohn-s-disease-how-we-do-it-and-common-imaging-findings
#13
REVIEW
Annalisa Mantarro, Paola Scalise, Elisa Guidi, Emanuele Neri
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, with unpredictable clinical course by phases of relapses alternating with other of quiescence. The etiology is multifactorial and is still not completely known; globally the westernization of lifestyle is causing an increasing incidence of CD, with peak age of 20-30 years. The diagnostic workup begins with the evaluation of the clinical history, physical examination and laboratory tests. However, the clinical assessment is subjected interobserver variability and, occasionally, the symptoms of acute and chronic inflammation may be indistinguishable...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287147/radiation-associated-circulatory-disease-mortality-in-a-pooled-analysis-of-77-275-patients-from-the-massachusetts-and-canadian-tuberculosis-fluoroscopy-cohorts
#14
Van Tran, Lydia B Zablotska, Alina V Brenner, Mark P Little
High-dose ionising radiation is associated with circulatory disease. Risks associated with lower-dose (<0.5 Gy) exposures remain unclear, with little information on risk modification by age at exposure, years since exposure or dose-rate. Tuberculosis patients in Canada and Massachusetts received multiple diagnostic x-ray fluoroscopic exposures, over a wide range of ages, many at doses <0.5 Gy. We evaluated risks of circulatory-disease mortality associated with <0.5 Gy radiation exposure in a pooled cohort of 63,707 patients in Canada and 13,568 patients in Massachusetts...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261568/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lifestyle-a-paradigm-for-adaptation-survival-and-persistence
#15
REVIEW
M Fata Moradali, Shirin Ghods, Bernd H A Rehm
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen affecting immunocompromised patients. It is known as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Due to a range of mechanisms for adaptation, survival and resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, infections by P. aeruginosa strains can be life-threatening and it is emerging worldwide as public health threat. This review highlights the diversity of mechanisms by which P...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241029/squamation-and-ecology-of-thelodonts
#16
Humberto G Ferrón, Héctor Botella
Thelodonts are an enigmatic group of Paleozoic jawless vertebrates that have been well studied from taxonomical, biostratigraphic and paleogeographic points of view, although our knowledge of their ecology and mode of life is still scant. Their bodies were covered by micrometric scales whose morphology, histology and the developmental process are extremely similar to those of extant sharks. Based on these similarities and on the well-recognized relationship between squamation and ecology in sharks, here we explore the ecological diversity and lifestyles of thelodonts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218773/risk-factors-for-birth-defects
#17
REVIEW
Benjamin S Harris, Katherine C Bishop, Hanna R Kemeny, Jennifer S Walker, Eleanor Rhee, Jeffrey A Kuller
Importance: Major congenital abnormalities, or birth defects, carry significant medical, surgical, cosmetic, or lifestyle consequences. Such abnormalities may be syndromic, involving multiple organ systems, or can be isolated. Overall, 2% to 4% of live births involve congenital abnormalities. Risk factors for birth defects are categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Modifiable risk factors require thorough patient education/counseling. The strongest risk factors, such as age, family history, and a previously affected child, are usually nonmodifiable...
February 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208834/in%C3%A2-pursuit%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-vitamin%C3%A2-d%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-plants
#18
Lucinda J Black, Robyn M Lucas, Jill L Sherriff, Lars Olof Björn, Janet F Bornman
Vitamin D deficiency is a global concern. Much research has concentrated on the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D in human skin following exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-315 nm). In many regions of the world there is insufficient UV-B radiation during winter months for adequate vitamin D production, and even when there is sufficient UV-B radiation, lifestyles and concerns about the risks of sun exposure may lead to insufficient exposure and to vitamin D deficiency. In these situations, dietary intake of vitamin D from foods or supplements is important for maintaining optimal vitamin D status...
February 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178283/behavioral-risk-factors-of-breast-cancer-in-bangui-of-central-african-republic-a-retrospective-case-control-study
#19
Augustin Balekouzou, Ping Yin, Henok Kessete Afewerky, Cavin Bekolo, Christian Maucler Pamatika, Sylvain Wilfrid Nambei, Marceline Djeintote, Antoine Doui Doumgba, Christian Diamont Mossoro-Kpinde, Chang Shu, Minghui Yin, Zhen Fu, Tingting Qing, Mingming Yan, Jianyuan Zhang, Shaojun Chen, Hongyu Li, Zhongyu Xu, Boniface Koffi
Breast cancer is recognized as a major public health problem in developing countries; however, there is very little evidence of behavioral factors associated with breast cancer risk. This study was conducted to identify lifestyles as risk factors for breast cancer among Central African women. A case-control study was conducted with 174 cases confirmed histologically by the pathology unit of the National Laboratory and 348 age-matched controls. Data collection tools included a questionnaire with interviews and medical records of patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151038/cardiovascular-disease-among-atomic-bomb-survivors
#20
Kotaro Ozasa, Ikuno Takahashi, Eric J Grant, Kazunori Kodama
PURPOSE: The profile of cardiovascular disease in Japan has been different from that in Western countries. Hypertension was the major cause not only for hemorrhagic stroke but also for ischemic stroke and heart disease in the past, and the influence of hypertension has decreased with calendar years because of reduced salt intake and westernization of lifestyle, and also improved medical care. The health status of atomic bomb survivors has reflected this profile as well as radiation effects...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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