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radiation lifestyle

Carlo Grandi, Massimo Borra, Andrea Militello, Alessandro Polichetti
Occupational exposure to solar radiation may induce both acute and long-term effects on skin and eyes. Personal exposure is very difficult to assess accurately, as it depends on environmental, organisational and individual factors. The ongoing climate change interacting with stratospheric ozone dynamics may affect occupational exposure to solar radiation. In addition, tropospheric levels of environmental pollutants interacting with solar radiation may be altered by climate dynamics, so introducing another variable affecting the overall exposure to solar radiation...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Rory P Wilson, Mark D Holton, James S Walker, Emily L C Shepard, D Mike Scantlebury, Vianney L Wilson, Gwendoline I Wilson, Brenda Tysse, Mike Gravenor, Javier Ciancio, Melitta A McNarry, Kelly A Mackintosh, Lama Qasem, Frank Rosell, Patricia M Graf, Flavio Quintana, Agustina Gomez-Laich, Juan-Emilio Sala, Christina C Mulvenna, Nicola J Marks, Mark W Jones
BACKGROUND: We are increasingly using recording devices with multiple sensors operating at high frequencies to produce large volumes of data which are problematic to interpret. A particularly challenging example comes from studies on animals and humans where researchers use animal-attached accelerometers on moving subjects to attempt to quantify behaviour, energy expenditure and condition. RESULTS: The approach taken effectively concatinated three complex lines of acceleration into one visualization that highlighted patterns that were otherwise not obvious...
2016: Movement Ecology
Sang-Hong Lee, Jae-Hwan Cho, Hee-Eun Kim, Sung-Chul Kim
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of coronary artery calcification score by lifestyle and correlation with coronary artery stenosis in persons who underwent coronary artery computed tomography (CT) angiography among health examinees for heart diseases in Korea. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study included 506 subjects (256 men and 250 women) who underwent coronary artery CT angiography among health examines for heart diseases at the Incheon Branch of the Korea Association of Health Promotion between January 2, 2014, and December 31, 2014...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Francis A Cucinotta, Nobuyuki Hamada, Mark P Little
Previous analysis has shown that astronauts have a significantly lower standardized mortality ratio for circulatory disease mortality compared to the U.S. population, which is consistent with the rigorous selection process and healthy lifestyles of astronauts, and modest space radiation exposures from past space missions. However, a recent report by Delp et al. estimated the proportional mortality ratio for ages of 55-64 y of Apollo lunar mission astronauts to claim a high risk of cardiovascular disease due to space radiation compared to the U...
August 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
Ding Xia, Weiwei Lou, Kar-Ming Fung, Cole L Wolley, Mahmoud M Suhail, Hsueh-Kung Lin
A 52-year-old Hispanic male presented with hematuria and was later diagnosed with a large invasive high-grade urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the urinary bladder, but with ambiguous pT1/pT2 staging regarding musclaris propria invasion by UCC. The conventional treatment including radical cystoprostatectomy followed by neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy was presented. The patient decided to delay the standard therapy until a later stage, but elected to go through transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) without Bacillus Calmette-Guérin instillation...
August 16, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Wen-Qing Li, Eunyoung Cho, Martin A Weinstock, Hasan Mashfiq, Abrar A Qureshi
OBJECTIVES: To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Studies (NHSs) to identifying epidemiological factors associated with multiple skin diseases, including skin cancer, psoriasis, and other inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. METHODS: We carried out a narrative review of NHS articles published between 1976 and 2016. RESULTS: The NHSs have identified environmental and lifestyle factors related to psoriasis, supporting obesity and smoking as psoriasis risk factors; associations between psoriasis and diabetes, myocardial infarction, and Crohn's disease, supporting psoriasis as a systemic disorder; and associations of pigmentary traits, ultraviolet radiation, and lifestyle factors such as citrus consumption with risk of skin cancer...
September 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Kyem Ju Lee, Sung Ok Chang, Kwang Yoon Jung
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe hormone interruption experiences related to not only physical problems, but also psychological, social, and spiritual problems, in patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy. METHODS: In-depth interviews were performed with five participants, four women and one man, aged between 28 and 58. The participants were subjected to high-dose radiation of 100-150 mCi and had experienced abrupt hormonal interruptions after undergoing total thyroidectomy...
August 2016: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
A V Parisi, N Downs, J Turner, A Amar
A set of online activities for children and the community that are based on an integrated real-time solar UV and cloud measurement system are described. These activities use the functionality of the internet to provide an educative tool for school children and the public on the influence of cloud and the angle of the sun above the horizon on the global erythemal UV or sunburning UV, the diffuse erythemal UV, the global UVA (320-400nm) and the vitamin D effective UV. Additionally, the units of UV exposure and UV irradiance are investigated, along with the meaning and calculation of the UV index (UVI)...
September 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Amy Berrington de González, Estelle Ntowe, Cari M Kitahara, Ethel Gilbert, Donald L Miller, Ruth A Kleinerman, Martha S Linet
Purpose To compare mortality rates from all causes, specific causes, total cancers, and specific cancers to assess whether differences between radiologists and psychiatrists are consistent with known risks of radiation exposure and the changes in radiation exposure to radiologists over time. Materials and Methods The authors used the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile to construct a cohort of 43 763 radiologists (20% women) and 64 990 psychiatrists (27% women) (comparison group) who graduated from medical school in 1916-2006...
July 19, 2016: Radiology
Jonathan N Pauli, M Zachariah Peery, Emily D Fountain, William H Karasov
By exploiting unutilized resources, organisms expand into novel niches, which can lead to adaptive radiation. However, some groups fail to diversify despite the apparent opportunity to do so. Although arising multiple times, arboreal folivores are rare and have not radiated, presumably because of energetic constraints. To explore this hypothesis, we quantified the field metabolic rate (FMR), movement, and body temperature for syntopic two- and three-toed sloths, extreme arboreal folivores that differ in their degree of specialization...
August 2016: American Naturalist
Yasuto Kunii, Yuriko Suzuki, Tetsuya Shiga, Hirooki Yabe, Seiji Yasumura, Masaharu Maeda, Shin-Ichi Niwa, Akira Otsuru, Hirobumi Mashiko, Masafumi Abe
BACKGROUND: Following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has continued to affect the mental health status of residents in the evacuation zone. To examine the mental health status of evacuee after the nuclear accident, we conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey as part of the ongoing Fukushima Health Management Survey. METHODS: We measured mental health status using the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6) in a total of 73,569 (response rate: 40...
2016: PloS One
Shusuke Tani, Benjamin John Blyth, Yi Shang, Takamitsu Morioka, Shizuko Kakinuma, Yoshiya Shimada
The risk of radiation-induced cancer adds to anxiety in low-dose exposed populations. Safe and effective lifestyle changes which can help mitigate excess cancer risk might provide exposed individuals the opportunity to pro-actively reduce their cancer risk, and improve mental health and well-being. Here, we applied a mathematical multi-stage carcinogenesis model to the mouse lifespan data using adult-onset caloric restriction following irradiation in early life. We re-evaluated autopsy records with a veterinary pathologist to determine which tumors were the probable causes of death in order to calculate age-specific mortality...
June 2016: Journal of Cancer Prevention
Glyn G Caldwell, Matthew M Zack, Michael T Mumma, Henry Falk, Clark W Heath, John E Till, Heidi Chen, John D Boice
Health effects following low doses of ionizing radiation are uncertain. Military veterans at the Nevada test site (NTS) during the SMOKY atmospheric nuclear weapons test in 1957 were reported to be at increased risk for leukemia in 1979, but this increase was not evaluated with respect to radiation dose. The SMOKY test was one of 30 tests in 1957 within the PLUMBBOB test series. These early studies led to public laws where atomic veterans could qualify for compensation for presumptive radiogenic diseases. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 12219 veterans at the PLUMBBOB test series, including 3020 at the SMOKY nuclear test...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Harry Scherthan, Natalia Sotnik, Michel Peper, Gerrit Schrock, Tamara Azizova, Michael Abend
Telomeres consist of GC-rich DNA repeats and the "shelterin" protein complex that together protect chromosome ends from fusion and degradation. Telomeres shorten with age due to incomplete end replication and upon exposure to environmental and intrinsic stressors. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to modulate telomere length. However, the response of telomere length in humans chronically exposed to radiation is poorly understood. Here, we studied relative telomere length (RTL) by IQ-FISH to leukocyte nuclei in a group of 100 workers from the plutonium production facility at the Mayak Production Association (PA) who were chronically exposed to alpha-emitting ((239)Pu) radiation and/or gamma (photon) radiation, and 51 local residents serving as controls, with a similar mean age of about 80 years...
June 2016: Radiation Research
M Wijnen, M M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M Medici, R P Peeters, A J van der Lely, S J C M M Neggers
Long-term adverse health conditions, including secondary malignant neoplasms, are common in childhood cancer survivors. Although mortality attributable to secondary malignancies declined over the past decades, the risk for developing a solid secondary malignant neoplasm did not. Endocrine-related malignancies are among the most common secondary malignant neoplasms observed in childhood cancer survivors. In this systematic review, we describe risk factors for secondary malignant neoplasms of the breast and thyroid, since these are the most common secondary endocrine-related malignancies in childhood cancer survivors...
June 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Erika M Noonan, Timothy W Farrell
This summary of the American Cancer Society Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guidelines targets primary care physicians who coordinate care of prostate cancer survivors with subspecialists. Prostate cancer survivors should undergo prostate-specific antigen screening every six to 12 months and digital rectal examination annually. Surveillance of patients who choose watchful waiting for their prostate cancer should be conducted by a subspecialist. Any hematuria or rectal bleeding must be thoroughly evaluated...
May 1, 2016: American Family Physician
G K B Halkett, J McKay, D G Hegney, Lauren J Breen, M Berg, M A Ebert, M Davis, R Kearvell
Workforce recruitment and retention are issues in radiation oncology. The working environment is likely to have an impact on retention; however, there is a lack of research in this area. The objectives of this study were to: investigate radiation therapists' (RTs) and radiation oncology medical physicists' (ROMPs) perceptions of work and the working environment; and determine the factors that influence the ability of RTs and ROMPs to undertake their work and how these factors affect recruitment and retention...
May 5, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
Marika Turek, Magdalena Krzyczmonik, Piotr Bałczewski
Cancer may be classified as a dangerous lifestyle disease. The main types of cancer treatment include: surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy and hormone therapy. Complementary and combination treatments, including almost always chemotherapy increase the effectiveness of treatment and are widely used. Therefore, a development of new anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy constitutes a rapidly expanding area. This review covers the most important achievements in this area, published during the last two years...
May 2, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
Nina P Bobowski, Laurence H Baker
The Children's Cancer Survivorship Study reports more chronic illnesses in sarcoma survivors than other pediatric cancers. Chemotherapy and radiation put survivors at risk for developing chronic illnesses, including heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and kidney failure. Sarcoma survivors may have a reduced life expectancy and signs of heart disease in their 30s and 40s. Since these medical problems occur much later in the general population, they often go undetected or misdiagnosed in sarcoma survivors, creating delays in intervention and treatment...
September 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
R Fu, Y J Yang, K F Dou, J G Yang, X J Gao, H Y Xu, Y Wu, W Li, Y Wang, Y L Jia, C Jin
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the age-related differences in the clinical symptoms and triggering factors among Chinese patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: Acute myocardial infarction Patients (n=14 854) registered in the China Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry from January 2013 to March 2014 were included in this study. Patients were divided into 4 groups: <55 years old group (3 950 patients), 55-64 years old group (4 361 patients), 65-74 years old group ( 3 759 patients), and ≥75 years old group (2 784 patients)...
April 24, 2016: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
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