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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067254/unusual-respiratory-capacity-and-nitrogen-metabolism-in-a-parcubacterium-od1-of-the-candidate-phyla-radiation
#1
Cindy J Castelle, Christopher T Brown, Brian C Thomas, Kenneth H Williams, Jillian F Banfield
The Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) is a large group of bacteria, the scale of which approaches that of all other bacteria. CPR organisms are inferred to depend on other community members for many basic cellular building blocks and all appear to be obligate anaerobes. To date, there has been no evidence for any significant respiratory capacity in an organism from this radiation. Here we report a curated draft genome for 'Candidatus Parcunitrobacter nitroensis' a member of the Parcubacteria (OD1) superphylum of the CPR...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063168/phytochemicals-for-the-prevention-of-photocarcinogenesis
#2
Mary Katherine Montes de Oca, Ross L Pearlman, Sarah F McClees, Rebecca Strickland, Farrukh Afaq
Ultraviolet (UV) exposure has an array of damaging effects and is the main cause of skin cancer in humans. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, is the most common type of cancer. Incidence of NMSC has increased due to greater UV radiation, increased life expectancy, and other changes in lifestyle; the annual cost of skin cancer treatment in the United States has increased concurrently to around eight billion dollars. Because of these trends, novel approaches to skin cancer prevention have become an important area of research to decrease skin cancer morbidity and defray the costs associated with treatment...
January 7, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049538/risk-of-second-cancer-following-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancer-a-population-based-analysis
#3
Nina-Sophie Hegemann, Anne Schlesinger-Raab, Ute Ganswindt, Claudia Hörl, Stephanie E Combs, Dieter Hölzel, Jürgen E Gschwend, Christian Stief, Claus Belka, Jutta Engel
BACKGROUND: To investigate the risk of second cancer and radiation induced second cancer following prostate cancer radiotherapy. METHODS: We compared men with radiotherapy only with those treated with radical prostatectomy only and those with radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy. Cumulative incidences of second cancers were calculated. Cox analyses were performed to identify determinants influencing second cancer incidence. RESULTS: Nineteen thousand five hundred thirty eight patients were analyzed...
January 3, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045814/recalcitrant-invasive-skin-cancer-of-the-scalp-combined-extirpation-and-microsurgical-reconstruction-without-cranioplasty
#4
Gerald J Cho, Frederick Wang, Steven M Garcia, Jennifer Viner, William Y Hoffman, Michael W McDermott, Jason H Pomerantz
BACKGROUND: Recurrent invasive skin cancer of the scalp and calvarium is a difficult problem for which universally accepted treatment protocols have not been established. The authors present their 10-year experience with treatment of this specific subset of scalp reconstruction patients and present a successful treatment algorithm that is well suited to this patient population. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed all patients of microsurgical scalp reconstruction performed from 2005 to 2015 that involved invasive cutaneous malignancies of the scalp and calvarium...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012121/triathlon-training-for-women-breast-cancer-survivors-feasibility-and-initial-efficacy
#5
Alexander V Ng, Alyson N Cybulski, Ashley A Engel, Paula E Papanek, Megan A Sheffer, Leslie J Waltke, Judy A Tjoe
: ᅟ: Exercise can improve quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. In contrast to many group or home-based exercise programs, little is known about the effectiveness of goal-oriented recreational activities. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a clinically overseen team triathlon training program on improving physiological and psychosocial health-related measures in female breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Twenty-three participants (age = 48 (8), BMI = 25 (1), mean (SE)) were recruited from a 14-week sprint triathlon (800-m swim, 20-km bike, 5-km run) team training program for women breast cancer survivors (4 (3) years post-surgery, chemo-, or radiation-therapy)...
December 24, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004766/reduced-host-specificity-in-a-parasite-infecting-non-littoral-lake-tanganyika-cichlids-evidenced-by-intraspecific-morphological-and-genetic-diversity
#6
Nikol Kmentová, Milan Gelnar, Monika Mendlová, Maarten Van Steenberge, Stephan Koblmüller, Maarten P M Vanhove
Lake Tanganyika is well-known for its high species-richness and rapid radiation processes. Its assemblage of cichlid fishes recently gained momentum as a framework to study parasite ecology and evolution. It offers a rare chance to investigate the influence of a deepwater lifestyle in a freshwater fish-parasite system. Our study represents the first investigation of parasite intraspecific genetic structure related to host specificity in the lake. It focused on the monogenean flatworm Cichlidogyrus casuarinus infecting deepwater cichlids belonging to Bathybates and Hemibates...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997050/why-uv-and-red-vision-are-important-for-damselfish-pomacentridae-structural-and-expression-variation-in-opsin-genes
#7
Sara M Stieb, Fabio Cortesi, Lorenz Sueess, Karen L Carleton, Walter Salzburger, N Justin Marshall
Coral reefs belong to the most diverse ecosystems on our planet. The diversity in coloration and lifestyles of coral reef fishes makes them a particularly promising system to study the role of visual communication and adaptation. Here, we investigated the evolution of visual pigment genes (opsins) in damselfish (Pomacentridae), and examined whether structural and expression variation of opsins can be linked to ecology. Using DNA sequence data of a phylogenetically representative set of 31 damselfish species, we show that all but one visual opsin are evolving under positive selection...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919337/radiation-and-circulatory-disease
#8
Mark P Little
Exposure to therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation is associated with damage to the heart and coronary arteries. However, only recently have studies with high-quality individual dosimetry data allowed this risk to be quantified while also adjusting for concomitant chemotherapy, and medical and lifestyle risk factors. At lower levels of exposure the evidence is less clear. In this article I review radiation-associated risks of circulatory disease in groups treated with radiotherapy for malignant and non-malignant disease, and in occupationally- or environmentally-exposed groups receiving rather lower levels of radiation dose, also for medical diagnostic purposes...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913498/long-term-risk-of-second-malignancy-and-cardiovascular-disease-after-hodgkin-lymphoma-treatment
#9
Flora E van Leeuwen, Andrea K Ng
Long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience several late adverse effects of treatment, with second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) being the leading causes of death in these patients. Other late effects have also been identified, such as pulmonary dysfunction, endocrinopathies (thyroid dysfunction, infertility), neck muscle atrophy, and persistent fatigue. HL survivors have two- to fourfold increased risks to develop SMNs and CVD compared with the general population...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913448/targeting-inflammation-in-cancer-prevention-and-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Jelena Todoric, Laura Antonucci, Michael Karin
Inflammation is associated with the development and malignant progression of most cancers. As most of the cell types involved in cancer-associated inflammation are genetically stable and thus are not subjected to rapid emergence of drug resistance, the targeting of inflammation represents an attractive strategy both for cancer prevention and for cancer therapy. Tumor-extrinsic inflammation is caused by many factors, including bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, obesity, tobacco smoking, asbestos exposure, and excessive alcohol consumption, all of which increase cancer risk and stimulate malignant progression...
December 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864607/computed-tomography-versus-invasive-coronary-angiography-design-and-methods-of-the-pragmatic-randomised-multicentre-discharge-trial
#11
Adriane E Napp, Robert Haase, Michael Laule, Georg M Schuetz, Matthias Rief, Henryk Dreger, Gudrun Feuchtner, Guy Friedrich, Miloslav Špaček, Vojtěch Suchánek, Klaus Fuglsang Kofoed, Thomas Engstroem, Stephen Schroeder, Tanja Drosch, Matthias Gutberlet, Michael Woinke, Pál Maurovich-Horvat, Béla Merkely, Patrick Donnelly, Peter Ball, Jonathan D Dodd, Martin Quinn, Luca Saba, Maurizio Porcu, Marco Francone, Massimo Mancone, Andrejs Erglis, Ligita Zvaigzne, Antanas Jankauskas, Gintare Sakalyte, Tomasz Harań, Malgorzata Ilnicka-Suckiel, Nuno Bettencourt, Vasco Gama-Ribeiro, Sebastian Condrea, Imre Benedek, Nada Čemerlić Adjić, Oto Adjić, José Rodriguez-Palomares, Bruno Garcia Del Blanco, Giles Roditi, Colin Berry, Gershan Davis, Erica Thwaite, Juhani Knuuti, Mikko Pietilä, Cezary Kępka, Mariusz Kruk, Radosav Vidakovic, Aleksandar N Neskovic, Ignacio Díez, Iñigo Lecumberri, Jacob Geleijns, Christine Kubiak, Anke Strenge-Hesse, The-Hoang Do, Felix Frömel, Iñaki Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Gaizka Benguria-Arrate, Hans Keiding, Christoph Katzer, Jacqueline Müller-Nordhorn, Nina Rieckmann, Mario Walther, Peter Schlattmann, Marc Dewey
OBJECTIVES: More than 3.5 million invasive coronary angiographies (ICA) are performed in Europe annually. Approximately 2 million of these invasive procedures might be reduced by noninvasive tests because no coronary intervention is performed. Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate noninvasive test for detection and exclusion of coronary artery disease (CAD). To investigate the comparative effectiveness of CT and ICA, we designed the European pragmatic multicentre DISCHARGE trial funded by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union (EC-GA 603266)...
November 18, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860522/the-ambrosia-symbiosis-from-evolutionary-ecology-to-practical-management
#12
Jiri Hulcr, Lukasz L Stelinski
The ambrosia beetle-fungus farming symbiosis is more heterogeneous than previously thought. There is not one but many ambrosia symbioses. Beetlefungus specificity is clade-dependent and ranges from strict to promiscuous. Each new origin has evolved a new mycangium. The most common relationship with host trees is colonization of freshly dead tissues, but there are also parasites of living trees, vectors of pathogenic fungi, and beetles living in rotten trees with a wood-decay symbiont. Most of these strategies are driven by fungal metabolism whereas beetle ecology is evolutionarily more flexible...
November 16, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859915/transcriptome-based-phylogeny-of-endemic-lake-baikal-amphipod-species-flock-fast-speciation-accompanied-by-frequent-episodes-of-positive-selection
#13
Sergey A Naumenko, Maria D Logacheva, Nina V Popova, Anna V Klepikova, Aleksey A Penin, Georgii A Bazykin, Anna E Etingova, Nikolai S Mugue, Alexey S Kondrashov, Lev Y Yampolsky
Endemic species flocks inhabiting ancient lakes, oceanic islands and other long-lived isolated habitats are often interpreted as adaptive radiations. Yet molecular evidence for directional selection during species flocks radiation is scarce. Using partial transcriptomes of 64 species of Lake Baikal (Siberia, Russia) endemic amphipods and two nonendemic outgroups, we report a revised phylogeny of this species flock and analyse evidence for positive selection within the endemic lineages. We confirm two independent invasions of amphipods into Baikal and demonstrate that several morphological features of Baikal amphipods, such as body armour and reduction in appendages and sensory organs, evolved in several lineages in parallel...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852187/prevention-of-breast-cancer
#14
Ian N Olver
Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to running for up to 8 hours each week reduces the risk of breast cancer, both in its own right and through reducing obesity. Alcohol consumption may be responsible for 5.8% of breast cancers in Australia and it is recommended to reduce this to two standard drinks per day. Drinking alcohol and smoking increases the risk for breast cancer and, therefore, it is important to quit tobacco smoking...
November 21, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821755/sex-and-the-shifting-biodiversity-dynamics-of-marine-animals-in-deep-time
#15
Andrew M Bush, Gene Hunt, Richard K Bambach
The fossil record of marine animals suggests that diversity-dependent processes exerted strong control on biodiversification: after the Ordovician Radiation, genus richness did not trend for hundreds of millions of years. However, diversity subsequently rose dramatically in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic (145 million years ago-present), indicating that limits on diversification can be overcome by ecological or evolutionary change. Here, we show that the Cretaceous-Cenozoic radiation was driven by increased diversification in animals that transfer sperm between adults during fertilization, whereas animals that broadcast sperm into the water column have not changed significantly in richness since the Late Ordovician (∼450 million years ago)...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816341/stroke-prevention
#16
Clothilde Isabel, David Calvet, Jean-Louis Mas
Patients who have had a stroke are at high risk for recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death. Prevention of these events should be initiated promptly after stroke, because many recurrent events occur early, and should be tailored to the precise cause of stroke, which may require specific treatment. Lifestyle advice including abstinence from smoking, regular exercise, Mediterranean-style diet, and reduction of salt intake and alcohol consumption are recommended for all patients with stroke...
December 2016: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797706/men-s-health-supplement-use-and-outcomes-in-men-receiving-definitive-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-for-localized-prostate-cancer
#17
Nicholas G Zaorsky, Thomas M Churilla, Karen Ruth, Shelly B Hayes, Mark L Sobczak, Mark A Hallman, Marc C Smaldone, David Yt Chen, Eric M Horwitz
BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of newly diagnosed cancer patients start taking dietary supplements. Men's health supplements (MHSs), which we define as supplements that are specifically marketed with the terms men's health and prostate health (or similar permutations), are often mislabeled as having potential anticancer benefits. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of MHSs on patient outcomes and toxicities in patients who were undergoing definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for localized prostate cancer...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795230/talpid-mole-phylogeny-unites-shrew-moles-and-illuminates-overlooked-cryptic-species-diversity
#18
Kai He, Akio Shinohara, Kristofer M Helgen, Mark S Springer, Xue-Long Jiang, Kevin L Campbell
The mammalian family Talpidae (moles, shrew moles, desmans) is characterized by diverse ecomorphologies associated with terrestrial, semi-aquatic, semi-fossorial, fossorial, and aquatic-fossorial lifestyles. Prominent specializations involved with these different lifestyles, and the transitions between them, pose outstanding questions regarding the evolutionary history within the family, not only for living but also for fossil taxa. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and biogeographic history of the family using 19 nuclear and 2 mitochondrial genes (∼16 kb) from ∼60% of described species representing all 17 genera...
October 30, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789181/prostate-cancer-patients-with-unmanaged-diabetes-or-receiving-insulin-experience-inferior-outcomes-and-toxicities-after-treatment-with-radiation-therapy
#19
Nicholas G Zaorsky, Talha Shaikh, Karen Ruth, Pankaj Sharda, Shelly B Hayes, Mark L Sobczak, Mark A Hallman, Marc C Smaldone, David Y T Chen, Eric M Horwitz
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on outcomes and toxicities among men with localized prostate cancer receiving definitive radiation therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 3217 patients, from 1998 to 2013, subdivided into 5 subgroups: (I) no T2DM; (II) T2DM receiving oral antihyperglycemic agent that contains metformin, no insulin; (III) T2DM receiving nonmetformin oral agent alone, no insulin; (IV) T2DM receiving any insulin; and (V) T2DM not receiving medication...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763570/vitamin-d-status-and-its-consequences-for-health-in-south-africa
#20
REVIEW
Mary Norval, Anna K Coussens, Robert J Wilkinson, Liza Bornman, Robyn M Lucas, Caradee Y Wright
In this review, reports were retrieved in which vitamin D status, as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, was measured in South African population groups with varied skin colours and ethnicities. Healthy children and adults were generally vitamin D-sufficient [25(OH)D level >50 nmol/L] but the majority of those aged above 65 years were deficient. A major role for exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in determining 25(OH)D levels was apparent, with the dietary contribution being minor...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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