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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458187/mri-techniques-to-measure-arterial-and-venous-cerebral-blood-volume
#1
Jun Hua, Peiying Liu, Tae Kim, Manus Donahue, Swati Rane, J Jean Chen, Qin Qin, Seong-Gi Kim
The measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) has been the topic of numerous neuroimaging studies. To date, however, most in vivo imaging approaches can only measure CBV summed over all types of blood vessels, including arterial, capillary and venous vessels in the microvasculature (i.e. total CBV or CBVtot). As different types of blood vessels have intrinsically different anatomy, function and physiology, the ability to quantify CBV in different segments of the microvascular tree may furnish information that is not obtainable from CBVtot, and may provide a more sensitive and specific measure for the underlying physiology...
February 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457643/performing-under-pressure-hypertension-and-the-regulation-of-cerebral-oxygen-delivery
#2
Ryan L Hoiland
Reductions in arterial oxygen content (CaO2 ) elicit increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) that are adequate to maintain convective delivery of oxygen to the brain in healthy humans (i.e. cerebral oxygen delivery, CDO2 ). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455423/assessment-of-cerebral-microbleeds-by-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-at-3t-in-patients-with-end-stage-organ-failure
#3
Gianvincenzo Sparacia, Roberto Cannella, Vincenzina Lo Re, Angelo Gambino, Giuseppe Mamone, Roberto Miraglia
PURPOSE: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are small rounded lesions representing cerebral hemosiderin deposits surrounded by macrophages that results from previous microhemorrhages. The aim of this study was to review the distribution of cerebral microbleeds in patients with end-stage organ failure and their association with specific end-stage organ failure risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 2015 and June 2017, we evaluated 15 patients, 9 males, and 6 females, (mean age 65...
February 17, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455215/stroke-and-seizure-continue-to-be-the-major-brunt-of-in-patient-neurology-care-an-observation-from-teaching-hospital
#4
Azra Zafar, Majed Alabdali, Rizwana Shahid, Danah Aljaafari, Fahd A Al-Khamis, Aishah I Albakr, Saima Nazish, Abdulla A Al-Sulaiman, Alon Abraham
OBJECTIVE: To assess the burden and describe the pattern of neurological disorders requiring admissions in a teaching hospital of Al Khobar. METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross sectional study, carried out in the Neurology Department of King Fahd Hospital of the University from January 2009 to December 2016. Neurological disorders were grouped as ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, seizure disorders, central nervous system infection, multiple sclerosis, neuropathies, myopathies, headache, dementia and miscellaneous group...
January 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454466/-dermoid-cysts-of-the-posterior-cerebral-fossa-in-children-revealed-by-recurrent-aseptic-meningitis-report-of-two-cases-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
R Kouadria, M Derkaoui
INTRODUCTION: Dermoid cysts of central nervous system are very rare. The usual clinical presentation is dominated by intracranial hypertension, epilepsy and cranial palsy. The revelation mode could be recurrent aseptic meningitis. AIM: The aim of this case report is to consider the dermoid cyst as regards the differential diagnosis in children treated for recurrent aseptic meningitis to avoid misdiagnosis and ice qui a orienté le diagnostic à une méningitnadequate treatment...
February 14, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451817/the-impact-of-pulse-pressure-on-cerebrovascular-events-leading-to-age-related-cognitive-decline
#6
Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Olivia de Montgolfier, Anthony Pinçon, Adeline Raignault, Laurie Caland, Pauline Labbé, Eric Thorin
Aging is a modern concept: human life expectancy has more than doubled in less than 150 years in Western countries. Longer lifespan, however, reveals age-related diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases. The vascular system is a prime target of aging: the "wear and tear" of large elastic arteries exposed to a life-long pulsatile pressure causes arterial stiffening by fragmentation of elastin fibers and replacement by stiffer collagen. This arterial stiffening increases in return the amplitude of the pulse pressure (PP), its wave penetrating deeper into the microcirculation of low resistance, high flow organs such as the brain...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444139/post-discharge-body-weight-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-among-very-low-birth-weight-infants-in-taiwan-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#7
Chung-Ting Hsu, Chao-Huei Chen, Ming-Chih Lin, Teh-Ming Wang, Ya-Chi Hsu
BACKGROUND: Premature infants are at high risk for developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction. Besides medical conditions, growth restriction is regarded as an important risk factor for cognitive and neurodevelopmental dysfunction throughout childhood and adolescence and even into adulthood. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between post-discharge body weight and psychomotor development using a nationwide dataset. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a nationwide cohort study conducted in Taiwan...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441170/management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#8
REVIEW
Hari Hara Dash, Siddharth Chavali
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called the 'silent epidemic' of modern times, and is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and young adults in both developed and developing nations worldwide. In recent years, the treatment of TBI has undergone a paradigm shift. The management of severe TBI is ideally based on protocol-based guidelines provided by the Brain Trauma Foundation. The aims and objectives of its management are prophylaxis and prompt management of intracranial hypertension and secondary brain injury, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure, and ensuring adequate oxygen delivery to injured brain tissue...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440474/neuroprotective-effects-of-magl-monoacylglycerol-lipase-inhibitors-in-experimental-ischemic-stroke
#9
Sang-Ho Choi, Allison L Arai, Yongshan Mou, Byeongteck Kang, Cecil Chern-Chyi Yen, John Hallenbeck, Afonso C Silva
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MAGL (monoacylglycerol lipase) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol and regulates the production of arachidonic acid and prostaglandins-substances that mediate tissue inflammatory response. Here, we have studied the effects of the selective MAGL inhibitors JZL184 and MJN110 and their underlying molecular mechanisms on 3 different experimental models of focal cerebral ischemia. METHODS: SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats) and normotensive WKY (Wistar Kyoto) rats were subject to an intracortical injection of the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1, permanent occlusion of a distal segment of the middle cerebral artery via craniectomy, or transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery by the intraluminal suture method...
February 13, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438731/neuroprotective-effect-of-the-group-iii-mglu-receptor-agonist-acpt-i-after-ischemic-stroke-in-rats-with-essential-hypertension
#10
Helena Domin, Łukasz Przykaza, Ewa Kozniewska, Paweł M Boguszewski, Maria Śmiałowska
Our previous studies have shown that ACPT-I [(1S, 3R,4S)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid], a blood-brain barrier permeable agonist of group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, was neuroprotective against middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) in normotensive rats. Preclinical studies are typically performed on healthy animals, whereas stroke patients predominately exhibit comorbidities, such as hypertension; therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of ACPT-I in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after MCAO/R...
February 10, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435957/oscillations-of-subarachnoid-space-width-as-a-potential-marker-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-pulsatility
#11
Marcin Gruszecki, Magdalena K Nuckowska, Arkadiusz Szarmach, Marek Radkowski, Dominika Szalewska, Monika Waskow, Edyta Szurowska, Andrzej F Frydrychowski, Urszula Demkow, Pawel J Winklewski
In the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation, two components can be distinguished: bulk flow (circulation) and pulsatile flow (back and forth motion). CSF pulsatile flow is generated by both cardiac and respiratory cycles. Recent years have seen increased interest in cardiac and respiratory-driven CSF pulsatility as an important component of cerebral homeostasis. CSF pulsatility is affected by cerebral arterial inflow and jugular outflow and potentially linked to white matter abnormalities in various diseases, such as multiple sclerosis or hypertension...
February 13, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432887/role-of-brain-neuroinflammatory-factors-on-hypertension-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#12
Ennio Avolio, Teresa Pasqua, Anna Di Vito, Gilda Fazzari, Gabriella Cardillo, Raffaella Alò, Maria Carmela Cerra, Tullio Barni, Tommaso Angelone, Marcello Canonaco
It is already widely known that the different brain areas involved in blood pressure control, are highly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of this condition. Of particular concern are hypertensive and neuroinflammatory-dependent injuries that by modifying blood flow account for artery structural and functional alterations. It was thus our intention to establish if expression changes of some key brain neuroinflammatory factors like caspase-1,3, NF-kB, IL-1β and NLRP3, which are known to control blood pressure, are actively involved with inflammation regulatoryevents in a highly valuable spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model...
February 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425982/intracranial-aneurysm-is-associated-with-high-intracranial-artery-tortuosity
#13
Bum Joon Kim, Sung Ho Lee, Byeong Duk Kwun, Hyun Goo Kang, Keun-Sik Hong, Dong-Wha Kang, Jong S Kim, Sun U Kwon
BACKGROUND: Although intracranial aneurysms (IA) are focal bulges of arterial walls, uncharacterized predisposing factor that affects cerebral arteries may increase the tortuosity of intracranial arteries in subjects with IA. METHODS: Subjects who received routine health examinations and magnetic resonance angiograph from a university hospital health promotion center were enrolled. Age- and sex matched controls were selected among those who did not have IA. The tortuosity of right and left middle cerebral arteries and basilar artery (BA) was measured...
February 6, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425278/carotid-intima-media-thickness-and-silent-brain-infarctions-in-a-biracial-cohort-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#14
Melissa C Caughey, Ye Qiao, B Gwen Windham, Rebecca F Gottesman, Thomas H Mosley, Bruce A Wasserman
Background: Both hypertensive and atherosclerotic processes contribute to common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT). Elevated CCA-IMT may be indicative of subclinical cerebrovascular disease; however, its role in the absence of concomitant carotid artery plaque is uncertain, and few studies have examined associations in black populations. Materials and Methods: At cohort visit 3 (1993-1995) a subset of stroke-free participants (641 blacks and 702 whites, mean age 63) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study was imaged by brain MRI and carotid ultrasound...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424326/-risk-of-vitamin-k-antagonists-in-cases-of-cerebral-microbleeds
#15
B J H Verhaar, M W Vernooij, G J Biessels, M Muller
- Cerebral microbleeds are associated with a higher risk of intracerebral hemorrhage.- When microbleeds are detected, the possible underlying pathology should be considered; this includes cerebral amyloid angiopathy and other factors that increase the risk of haemorrhage, particularly hypertension. - No randomised trials have yet been conducted into haemorrhagic complications and cerebral infarctions in patients with microbleeds who take vitamin K antagonists. This means that it is not clear whether the intended prevention of cerebral infarctions outweighs the increased risk of haemorrhage associated with use of vitamin K antagonists by these patients...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422211/outcome-in-early-onset-fetal-growth-restriction-is-best-combining-computerized-fetal-heart-rate-analysis-with-ductus-venosus-doppler-insights-from-the-trial-of-umbilical-and-fetal-flow-in-europe
#16
REVIEW
Tiziana Frusca, Tullia Todros, Christoph Lees, Caterina M Bilardo
BACKGROUND: Early-onset fetal growth restriction represents a particular dilemma in clinical management balancing the risk of iatrogenic prematurity with waiting for the fetus to gain more maturity, while being exposed to the risk of intrauterine death or the sequelae of acidosis. OBJECTIVE: The Trial of Umbilical and Fetal Flow in Europe was a European, multicenter, randomized trial aimed to determine according to which criteria delivery should be triggered in early fetal growth restriction...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421451/intracranial-hypertension-and-cerebral-autoregulation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Marcelo de Lima Oliveira, Angela S M Salinet, Ricardo C Nogueira, Daniel S de Azevedo, Wellingson S Paiva, Manoel J Teixeira, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to present a systematic review and meta-analysis to establish the relation between cerebral autoregulation (CA) and intracranial hypertension. METHODS: An electronic search using the term "Cerebral autoregulation and intracranial hypertension" was designed to identify studies that analyzed cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation in patients undergoing intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. The data were used in meta-analyses and sensitivity analyses...
February 5, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415932/-management-of-cardiovascular-complications-in-cml-patients-treated-with-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#18
Itaru Matsumura
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have significantly improved the clinical outcomes of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, patients with CML need to receive TKI therapy for several years. Hence, the safety of long-term TKI treatment warrants utmost attention. Among various adverse events caused by TKI therapy, cardiovascular events (CVEs), such as acute myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, and pulmonary hypertension, are the most serious with high mortality. TKIs inhibit various off-target molecules involved in the occurrence of CVEs such as c-Kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), and Tie-2/Tec...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409679/peritoneal-dialysis-a-factor-of-risk-or-protection-for-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-review-of-the-literature
#19
Mercedes Moreiras-Plaza, Francisco Fernández-Fleming, Naiara Azkárate-Ramírez, Walfred Nájera-de la Garza, Isabel Martín-Baez, Maria Hernansanz-Pérez
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a clinical and radiological entity with acute or subacute neurological presentation associated with brain lesions that primarily affect the white matter of the posterior regions. It is often associated with the rapid onset of severe hypertension and/or with kidney failure (acute and chronic), but it has also been reported as a neurological complication in several medical conditions. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of cases and related publications due to the advance of diagnostic imaging techniques...
February 3, 2018: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406252/osteoarthritis-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-and-the-common-denominator-of-inflammation-a-narrative-review
#20
REVIEW
B K Al-Khazraji, C T Appleton, F Beier, T B Birmingham, J K Shoemaker
OBJECTIVE: Population-based cohort studies suggest an association between osteoarthritis (OA) and cerebrovascular disease, yet the mechanisms underlying vascular comorbidities in OA remain unclear. The purpose of this narrative review is to discuss the literature examining inflammation in OA with a focus on physiological mechanisms, and whether overlapping mechanisms exist in cerebrovascular dysfunction. METHOD: A literature search was conducted in PubMed using combinations of search terms: osteoarthritis, cerebrovascular (disease/dysfunction/risk), cardiovascular (disease/dysfunction/risk), aging/ageing, inflammation, inflammatory mediators, cytokine, c-reactive protein, interleukin, advanced glycation end-products, metabolic syndrome, reactive oxidative species, cognitive impairment, (vascular-related) dementia, small cerebral vessel disease, endothelial function, blood-brain barrier, gender/sex, hypertension, peripheral vascular health, and physical activity...
January 31, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
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