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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734966/development-of-new-ganglioside-probes-and-unraveling-of-raft-domain-structure-by-single-molecule-imaging
#1
REVIEW
Kenichi G N Suzuki, Hiromune Ando, Naoko Komura, Takahiro Fujiwara, Makoto Kiso, Akihiro Kusumi
Gangliosides are involved in a variety of biological roles and are a component of lipid rafts found in cell plasma membranes (PMs). Gangliosides are especially abundant in neuronal PMs and are essential to their physiological functions. However, the dynamic behaviors of gangliosides have not been investigated in living cells due to a lack of fluorescent probes that behave like their parental molecules. We have recently developed, using an entirely chemical method, four new ganglioside probes (GM1, GM2, GM3, and GD1b) that act similarly to their parental molecules in terms of raft partitioning and binding affinity...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723089/a-new-class-of-glycoside-hydrolase-mechanism-based-covalent-inhibitors-glycosylation-transition-state-conformations
#2
Saeideh Shamsi Kazem Abadi, Michael Tran, Anuj Yadav, Pal John Pal Adabala, Saswati Chakladar, Andrew J Bennet
The design of covalent inhibitors in glycoscience research is important for the development of chemical biology probes. Here we report the synthesis of a new carbocyclic mechanism-based covalent inhibitor of an α-glucosidase. The enzyme efficiently catalyzes its alkylation via either an allylic cation or a cationic transition state. We show that this allylic covalent inhibitor has very different catalytic proficiencies for pseudo-glycosylation and deglycosylation. Such inhibitors have the potential to be useful chemical biology tools...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711406/glycosylation-with-ribitol-phosphate-in-mammals-new-insights-into-the-o-mannosyl-glycan
#3
REVIEW
Hiroshi Manya, Tamao Endo
BACKGROUND: O-mannosyl glycans have been found in a limited number of glycoproteins of the brain, nerves, and skeletal muscles, particularly in α-dystroglycan (α-DG). Defects in O-mannosyl glycan on α-DG are the primary cause of a group of congenital muscular dystrophies, which are collectively termed α-dystroglycanopathy. Recent studies have revealed various O-mannosyl glycan structures, which can be classified as core M1, core M2, and core M3 glycans. Although many dystroglycanopathy genes are involved in core M3 processing, the structure and biosynthesis of core M3 glycan remains only partially understood...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711405/a-unique-glycan-isoform-of-transferrin-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-a-potential-diagnostic-marker-for-neurological-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Kyoka Hoshi, Hiromi Ito, Yuka Matsumoto, Kiyoshi Saito, Takashi Honda, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is sequestered from blood by the blood-brain barrier and directly communicates with brain parenchymal interstitial fluid, leading to contain specific biomarkers of neurological diseases. SCOPE OF REVIEW: CSF contains glycan isoforms of transferrin (Tf): one appears to be derived from the brain and the other from blood. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: CSF contains two glycan-isoforms; brain-type Tf and serum-type Tf...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691393/sequence-and-architectural-control-in-glycopolymer-synthesis
#5
REVIEW
Yamin Abdouni, Gokhan Yilmaz, C Remzi Becer
Glycopolymers are synthetic-carbohydrate-containing materials capable of interacting and binding to specific targeting lectins, which are crucially important in many biologically active processes. Over the last decade, advances in synthetic chemistry and polymerization techniques have enabled the development of sequence and architecturally controlled glycopolymers for different types of bioapplications, such as drug delivery and release purposes, gene therapy, lectin-based biosensors, and much more in the future...
July 10, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684994/glycoscience-synchrotron-synchrotron-radiation-applied-to-structural-glycoscience
#6
REVIEW
Serge Pérez, Daniele de Sanctis
Synchrotron radiation is the most versatile way to explore biological materials in different states: monocrystalline, polycrystalline, solution, colloids and multiscale architectures. Steady improvements in instrumentation have made synchrotrons the most flexible intense X-ray source. The wide range of applications of synchrotron radiation is commensurate with the structural diversity and complexity of the molecules and macromolecules that form the collection of substrates investigated by glycoscience. The present review illustrates how synchrotron-based experiments have contributed to our understanding in the field of structural glycobiology...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661498/metabolism-sweeter-paths-in-glycoscience
#7
Vivien Marx
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643189/cryogenic-vibrational-spectroscopy-provides-unique-fingerprints-for-glycan-identification
#8
Chiara Masellis, Neelam Khanal, Michael Z Kamrath, David E Clemmer, Thomas R Rizzo
The structural characterization of glycans by mass spectrometry is particularly challenging. This is because of the high degree of isomerism in which glycans of the same mass can differ in their stereochemistry, attachment points, and degree of branching. Here we show that the addition of cryogenic vibrational spectroscopy to mass and mobility measurements allows one to uniquely identify and characterize these complex biopolymers. We investigate six disaccharide isomers that differ in their stereochemistry, attachment point of the glycosidic bond, and monosaccharide content, and demonstrate that we can identify each one unambiguously...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602513/glycolipids-essential-regulator-of-neuro-inflammation-metabolism-and-gliomagenesis
#9
REVIEW
Koichi Furukawa, Yuhsuke Ohmi, Shuting Ji, Pu Zhang, Robiul H Bhuiyan, Yuki Ohkawa, Orie Tajima, Noboru Hashimoto, Keiko Furukawa
Gene knockout mice of glycosyltransferases have clearly showed roles of their products in the bodies, while there are examples where phenotype of knockout was much less severe than expected probably due to functional redundancy. The most striking novel finding obtained from ganglioside-deficient mice was that progressive inflammatory reaction took place, leading to neurodegeneration. In particular, dysfunction of complement-regulatory proteins due to deteriorated architecture of lipid rafts seemed to be essential mechanisms for the inflammation...
June 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599711/new-investigators-in-glycoscience-2
#10
Rob Field
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596107/a-novel-function-for-glucocerebrosidase-as-a-regulator-of-sterylglucoside-metabolism
#11
REVIEW
Hisako Akiyama, Yoshio Hirabayashi
BACKGROUND: Sterols are major cell membrane lipids, and in many organisms they are modified with glucose to generate sterylglucosides. Glucosylation dramatically changes the functional properties of sterols. The formation of sterylglucosides from sterols in plants, fungi, and bacteria uses UDP-glucose as a glucose donor. By contrast, sterylglucoside biosynthesis in mammals is catalyzed by the transglucosylation activity of glucocerebrosidases, with glucosylceramide acting as the glucose donor...
June 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596106/mechanisms-of-axon-regeneration-the-significance-of-proteoglycans
#12
Kazuma Sakamoto, Kenji Kadomatsu
BACKGROUND: Therapeutics specific to neural injury have long been anticipated but remain unavailable. Axons in the central nervous system do not readily regenerate after injury, leading to dysfunction of the nervous system. This failure of regeneration is due to both the low intrinsic capacity of axons for regeneration and the various inhibitors emerging upon injury. After many years of concerted efforts, however, these hurdles to axon regeneration have been partially overcome. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the mechanisms regulating axon regeneration...
June 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396442/automated-glycan-assembly-using-the-glyconeer-2-1-synthesizer
#13
Heung Sik Hahm, Mark K Schlegel, Mattan Hurevich, Steffen Eller, Frank Schuhmacher, Johanna Hofmann, Kevin Pagel, Peter H Seeberger
Reliable and rapid access to defined biopolymers by automated DNA and peptide synthesis has fundamentally altered biological research and medical practice. Similarly, the procurement of defined glycans is key to establishing structure-activity relationships and thereby progress in the glycosciences. Here, we describe the rapid assembly of oligosaccharides using the commercially available Glyconeer 2.1 automated glycan synthesizer, monosaccharide building blocks, and a linker-functionalized polystyrene solid support...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350444/bottom-up-elucidation-of-glycosidic-bond-stereochemistry
#14
Christopher J Gray, Baptiste Schindler, Lukasz G Migas, Martina Pičmanová, Abdul R Allouche, Anthony P Green, Santanu Mandal, Mohammed S Motawia, Raquel Sánchez-Pérez, Nanna Bjarnholt, Birger L Møller, Anouk M Rijs, Perdita E Barran, Isabelle Compagnon, Claire E Eyers, Sabine L Flitsch
The lack of robust, high-throughput, and sensitive analytical strategies that can conclusively map the structure of glycans has significantly hampered progress in fundamental and applied aspects of glycoscience. Resolution of the anomeric α/β glycan linkage within oligosaccharides remains a particular challenge. Here, we show that "memory" of anomeric configuration is retained following gas-phase glycosidic bond fragmentation during tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)). These findings allow for integration of MS(2) with ion mobility spectrometry (IM-MS(2)) and lead to a strategy to distinguish α- and β-linkages within natural underivatized carbohydrates...
April 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347843/engineered-n-acetylhexosamine-active-enzymes-in-glycoscience
#15
REVIEW
Kristýna Slámová, Pavla Bojarová
BACKGROUND: In recent years, enzymes modifying N-acetylhexosamine substrates have emerged in numerous theoretical studies as well as practical applications from biology, biomedicine, and biotechnology. Advanced enzyme engineering techniques converted them into potent synthetic instruments affording a variety of valuable glycosides. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review presents the diversity of engineered enzymes active with N-acetylhexosamine carbohydrates: from popular glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases to less known oxidases, epimerases, kinases, sulfotransferases, and acetylases...
August 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177314/glycoblocks-a-schematic-three-dimensional-representation-for-glycans-and-their-interactions
#16
Stuart McNicholas, Jon Agirre
The close-range interactions provided by covalently linked glycans are essential for the correct folding of glycoproteins and also play a pivotal role in recognition processes. Being able to visualise protein-glycan and glycan-glycan contacts in a clear way is thus of great importance for the understanding of these biological processes. In structural terms, glycosylation sugars glue the protein together via hydrogen bonds, whereas non-covalently bound glycans frequently harness additional stacking interactions...
February 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027727/new-investigators-in-glycoscience
#17
Rob Field
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011601/csdb_gt-a-new-curated-database-on-glycosyltransferases
#18
EDITORIAL
Ksenia S Egorova, Philip V Toukach
Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) involved in the synthesis of natural glycan structures. The application of CAZy is highly demanded in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. However, it is being hindered by the lack of high-quality and comprehensive repositories of the research data accumulated so far. In this paper, we describe a new curated Carbohydrate Structure Glycosyltransferase Database (CSDB_GT). Currently, CSDB_GT provides ca. 780 activities exhibited by GTs, as well as several other CAZy, found in Arabidopsis thaliana and described in ca...
December 23, 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002670/chemoenzymatic-approach-for-the-preparation-of-asymmetric-bi-tri-and-tetra-antennary-n-glycans-from-a-common-precursor
#19
Ivan A Gagarinov, Tiehai Li, Javier Sastre Toraño, Tomislav Caval, Apoorva D Srivastava, John A W Kruijtzer, Albert J R Heck, Geert-Jan Boons
Progress in glycoscience is hampered by a lack of well-defined complex oligosaccharide standards that are needed to fabricate the next generation of microarrays, to develop analytical protocols to determine exact structures of isolated glycans, and to elucidate pathways of glycan biosynthesis. We describe here a chemoenzymatic methodology that makes it possible, for the first time, to prepare any bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary asymmetric N-glycan from a single precursor. It is based on the chemical synthesis of a tetra-antennary glycan that has N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc), and unnatural Galα(1,4)-GlcNAc and Manβ(1,4)-GlcNAc appendages...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960262/chemical-glycoproteomics
#20
REVIEW
Krishnan K Palaniappan, Carolyn R Bertozzi
Chemical tools have accelerated progress in glycoscience, reducing experimental barriers to studying protein glycosylation, the most widespread and complex form of posttranslational modification. For example, chemical glycoproteomics technologies have enabled the identification of specific glycosylation sites and glycan structures that modulate protein function in a number of biological processes. This field is now entering a stage of logarithmic growth, during which chemical innovations combined with mass spectrometry advances could make it possible to fully characterize the human glycoproteome...
December 14, 2016: Chemical Reviews
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