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Stjepan Krešimir Kračun, Jonatan Ulrik Fangel, Maja Gro Rydahl, Henriette Lodberg Pedersen, Silvia Vidal-Melgosa, William George Tycho Willats
Cell walls are an important feature of plant cells and a major component of the plant glycome. They have both structural and physiological functions and are critical for plant growth and development. The diversity and complexity of these structures demand advanced high-throughput techniques to answer questions about their structure, functions and roles in both fundamental and applied scientific fields. Microarray technology provides both the high-throughput and the feasibility aspects required to meet that demand...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sachio Yamamoto, Mitsuhiro Kinoshita, Shigeo Suzuki
This review covers the basics and some applications of methodologies for the analysis of glycoprotein glycans. Analytical techniques used for glycoprotein glycans, including liquid chromatography (LC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), mass spectrometry (MS), and high-throughput analytical methods based on microfluidics, were described to supply the essentials about biopharmaceutical and biomarker glycoproteins. We will also describe the MS analysis of glycoproteins and glycopeptides as well as the chemical and enzymatic releasing methods of glycans from glycoproteins and the chemical reactions used for the derivatization of glycans...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Marta Abellán Flos, M Isabel García Moreno, Carmen Ortiz Mellet, Jose Manuel García Fernández, Jean-Francois Nierengarten, Stéphane P Vincent
Glycosidases are key enzymes in metabolism, pathogenic/antipathogenic mechanisms and normal cellular functions. Recently, a novel approach for glycosidase inhibition that conveys multivalent glycomimetic conjugates has emerged. Many questions regarding the mechanism(s) of multivalent enzyme inhibition remain unanswered. Herein we report the synthesis of a collection of novel homo- and heterovalent glyco(mimetic)-fullerenes purposely conceived for probing the contribution of non-catalytic pockets in glysosidases to the multivalent inhibitory effect...
August 1, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Roman R Kapaev, Philip V Toukach
Glycan Optimized Dual Empirical Spectrum Simulation (GODESS) is a web service, which has been recently shown to be one of the most accurate tools for simulation of (1)H and (13)C 1D NMR spectra of natural carbohydrates and their derivatives. The new version of GODESS supports visualization of the simulated (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts in the form of most 2D spin correlation spectra commonly used in carbohydrate research, such as (1)H-(1)H TOCSY, COSY/COSY-DQF/COSY-RCT, and (1)H-(13)C edHSQC, HSQC-COSY, HSQC-TOCSY, and HMBC...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Larissa Krasnova, Chi-Huey Wong
Glycoscience research has been significantly impeded by the complex compositions of the glycans present in biological molecules and the lack of convenient tools suitable for studying the glycosylation process and its function. Polysaccharides and glycoconjugates are not encoded directly by genes; instead, their biosynthesis relies on the differential expression of carbohydrate enzymes, resulting in heterogeneous mixtures of glycoforms, each with a distinct physiological activity. Access to well-defined structures is required for functional study, and this has been provided by chemical and enzymatic synthesis and by the engineering of glycosylation pathways...
June 2, 2016: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Robert Sackstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Glycobiology
Ronald L Schnaar
Glycans and complementary glycan-binding proteins are essential components in the language of cell-cell interactions in immunity. The study of glycan function is the purview of glycobiology, which has often been presented as an unusually complex discipline. In fact, the human glycome, composed of all of its glycans, is built primarily from only 9 building blocks that are combined by enzymes (writers) with specific and limited biosynthetic capabilities into a tractable and increasingly accessible number of potential glycan patterns that are functionally read by several dozen human glycan-binding proteins (readers)...
June 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Tobias-Elias Gloe, Anne Müller, Anna Ciuk, Tanja M Wrodnigg, Thisbe K Lindhorst
Carbohydrate scaffolds, functionalised according to an AB4-type, were prepared on the basis of α-D-mannopyranosides with various ethyl aglycone moieties, functionalised with 'A'. Four functional groups 'B' were installed at positions 2, 3, 4, and 6 of the sugar ring. In particular, we were interested in preparing N3(NH2)4-functionalised mannosides as multifunctional branching units for further orthogonal derivatisation or immobilisation on surfaces. A detailed synthetic study was performed which revealed that an azido function 'A' had to be installed at an advanced stage of the synthesis for successful preparation of the desired AB4-type carbohydrate scaffolds...
April 29, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Robert Sackstein
Glycoscience-based research that is performed expressly to address medical necessity and improve patient outcomes is called "translational glycobiology". In the 19th century, Robert Koch proposed a set of postulates to rigorously establish causality in microbial pathogenesis, and these postulates can be reshaped to guide knowledge into how naturally-expressed glycoconjugates direct molecular processes critical to human well-being. Studies in the 1990s indicated that E-selectin, an endothelial lectin that binds sialofucosylated carbohydrate determinants, is constitutively expressed on marrow microvessels, and investigations in my laboratory indicated that human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) uniquely express high levels of a specialized glycoform of CD44 called "hematopoietic cell E-/L-selectin ligand" (HCELL) that functions as a highly potent E-selectin ligand...
June 2016: Glycobiology
Morten Thaysen-Andersen, Nicolle H Packer, Benjamin L Schulz
The glycoproteome remains severely understudied because of significant analytical challenges associated with glycoproteomics, the system-wide analysis of intact glycopeptides. This review introduces important structural aspects of protein N-glycosylation and summarizes the latest technological developments and applications in LC-MS/MS-based qualitative and quantitative N-glycoproteomics. These maturing technologies provide unique structural insights into the N-glycoproteome and its synthesis and regulation by complementing existing methods in glycoscience...
June 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Peter Agre, Carolyn Bertozzi, Mina Bissell, Kevin P Campbell, Richard D Cummings, Umesh R Desai, Mary Estes, Terence Flotte, Guy Fogleman, Fred Gage, David Ginsburg, Jeffrey I Gordon, Gerald Hart, Vincent Hascall, Laura Kiessling, Stuart Kornfeld, John Lowe, John Magnani, Lara K Mahal, Ruslan Medzhitov, Richard J Roberts, Robert Sackstein, Rita Sarkar, Ronald Schnaar, Nancy Schwartz, Ajit Varki, David Walt, Irving Weissman
This position statement originated from a working group meeting convened on April 15, 2015, by the NHLBI and incorporates follow-up contributions by the participants as well as other thought leaders subsequently consulted, who together represent research fields relevant to all branches of the NIH. The group was deliberately composed not only of individuals with a current research emphasis in the glycosciences, but also of many experts from other fields, who evinced a strong interest in being involved in the discussions...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Vinod K Tiwari, Bhuwan B Mishra, Kunj B Mishra, Nidhi Mishra, Anoop S Singh, Xi Chen
Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC), popularly known as the "click reaction", serves as the most potent and highly dependable tool for facile construction of simple to complex architectures at the molecular level. Click-knitted threads of two exclusively different molecular entities have created some really interesting structures for more than 15 years with a broad spectrum of applicability, including in the fascinating fields of synthetic chemistry, medicinal science, biochemistry, pharmacology, material science, and catalysis...
March 9, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Rachel Chen
In the first science review on the then nascent Metabolic Engineering field in 1991, Dr. James E. Bailey described how improving erythropoietin (EPO) glycosylation can be achieved via metabolic engineering of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In the intervening decades, metabolic engineering has brought sweet successes in glycoprotein engineering, including antibodies, vaccines, and other human therapeutics. Today, not only eukaryotes (CHO, plant, insect, yeast) are being used for manufacturing protein therapeutics with human-like glycosylation, newly elucidated bacterial glycosylation systems are enthusiastically embraced as potential breakthrough to revolutionize the biopharmaceutical industry...
2015: Microbial Cell Factories
Sheng-Kai Wang, Chao-Min Cheng
Diagnosis is an essential launching point for accurate medical treatment, and rapid and accurate diagnostic approaches have become the increasingly vital goal inspiring developments in a variety of analytical methods. With increasing attention in the area of glycosciences, the roles that carbohydrates play in many diseases have been elucidated, and the use of carbohydrates as disease biomarkers has become an emerging diagnostics strategy. This review article does not intend to comprehensively include all carbohydrate-related diagnostics studies...
December 7, 2015: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Lei Li, Yunpeng Liu, Cheng Ma, Jingyao Qu, Angie D Calderon, Baolin Wu, Na Wei, Xuan Wang, Yuxi Guo, Zhongying Xiao, Jing Song, Go Sugiarto, Yanhong Li, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Peng George Wang
Quantification, characterization and biofunctional studies of N-glycans on proteins remain challenging tasks due to complexity, diversity and low abundance of these glycans. The availability of structurally defined N-glycans (especially isomers) libraries is essential to help on solving these tasks. We reported herein an efficient chemoenzymatic strategy, namely Core Synthesis/Enzymatic Extension (CSEE), for rapid production of diverse N-glycans. Starting with 5 chemically prepared building blocks, 8 N-glycan core structures containing one or two terminal N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) residue(s) were chemically synthesized via consistent use of oligosaccharyl thioethers as glycosylation donors in the convergent fragment coupling strategy...
October 1, 2015: Chemical Science
Hisashi Narimatsu
Many proteins in the living body are glycoproteins, which present glycans linked on their surface. Glycan structures reflect the degree of cell differentiation or canceration and are cell specific. These characteristics are advantageous in the development of various disease biomarkers. Glycoprotein-based biomarkers (glyco-biomarkers) are developed by utilizing the specific changes in the glycan structure on a glycoprotein secreted from the diseased cells of interest. Therefore, quantification of the altered glycan structures is the key to developing a new glyco-biomarker...
2015: Expert Review of Proteomics
K S Egorova, A N Kondakova, Ph V Toukach
Carbohydrates are biological blocks participating in diverse and crucial processes both at cellular and organism levels. They protect individual cells, establish intracellular interactions, take part in the immune reaction and participate in many other processes. Glycosylation is considered as one of the most important modifications of proteins and other biologically active molecules. Still, the data on the enzymatic machinery involved in the carbohydrate synthesis and processing are scattered, and the advance on its study is hindered by the vast bulk of accumulated genetic information not supported by any experimental evidences for functions of proteins that are encoded by these genes...
2015: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Philip V Toukach, Ksenia S Egorova
The Carbohydrate Structure Databases (CSDBs, store structural, bibliographic, taxonomic, NMR spectroscopic, and other data on natural carbohydrates and their derivatives published in the scientific literature. The CSDB project was launched in 2005 for bacterial saccharides (as BCSDB). Currently, it includes two parts, the Bacterial CSDB and the Plant&Fungal CSDB. In March 2015, these databases were merged to the single CSDB. The combined CSDB includes information on bacterial and archaeal glycans and derivatives (the coverage is close to complete), as well as on plant and fungal glycans and glycoconjugates (almost all structures published up to 1998)...
January 4, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Yuting Huang, Eric D Dodds
As the gravity of glycoscience continues to amass, a commensurate demand for rapid, sensitive, and structurally comprehensive glycoanalytical tools has arisen. Among the most elusive but desirable analytical capabilities is the ability to expeditiously and unambiguously detect, distinguish, and resolve carbohydrates that differ only in their constitutional isomerism and/or stereoisomerism. While ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has proven a highly promising tool for such analyses, the facility of this method to discriminate larger oligosaccharides is still somewhat limited...
October 21, 2015: Analyst
Roman R Kapaev, Philip V Toukach
The improved Carbohydrate Structure Generalization Scheme has been developed for the simulation of (13)C and (1)H NMR spectra of oligo- and polysaccharides and their derivatives, including those containing noncarbohydrate constituents found in natural glycans. Besides adding the (1)H NMR calculations, we improved the accuracy and performance of prediction and optimized the mathematical model of the precision estimation. This new approach outperformed other methods of chemical shift simulation, including database-driven, neural net-based, and purely empirical methods and quantum-mechanical calculations at high theory levels...
July 21, 2015: Analytical Chemistry
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