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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614202/immune-and-inflammatory-responses-to-freediving-calculated-from-leukocyte-gene-expression-profiles
#1
Ingrid Eftedal, Arnar Flatberg, Ivan Drvis, Zeljko Dujic
Freedivers hold their breath while diving, causing blood oxygen levels to decrease (hypoxia) while carbon dioxide increases (hypercapnia). Whereas blood gas changes are presumably involved in the progression of respiratory diseases, less is known about their effect on healthy individuals. Here we have used gene expression profiling to analyze elite athletes' immune and inflammatory responses to freediving. Blood was collected before, 1 and 3 h after a series of maximal dynamic and static apneas in a pool, and peripheral blood gene expression was mapped on genome-wide microarrays...
September 9, 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26887906/the-effects-of-seasonal-training-on-heart-rate-and-oxygen-saturation-during-face-immersion-apnea-in-elite-breath-hold-diver-a-case-report
#2
Jernej Kapus, Anton Usaj, Samo Jeranko, Jure Daić
The purpose of the present study was to monitor a diver's ability to perform maximal face-immersion apnea throughout the competitive season. A male, world-class apnea diver was followed for 1 year (from March 2012 to March 2013). During this period he was tested six times. Each test session involved the measurements of the pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength. In addition, the ability to perform maximal face-immersion apnea was also explored. The results of face-immersion apnea durations showed a continuous improvement throughout the preparation period 1 with the peak in the main competition period and a decline during the competition period 2 and the transition period...
January 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26689859/long-term-effects-of-frequent-maximal-breath-holding-on-the-cardiac-health-of-elite-freedivers
#3
I Zelenkova, P Chomahidze
Cardiac arrhythmias are commonly reported in freedivers during maximal voluntary breath-holds, but their influence on the cardiological status and their long-term effects on the cardiac health of these athletes have not been investigated. Here we present the results of a study on 32 healthy young men (mean age 32.6 ± 1.3 years) who were divided into two groups of 16 subjects. One group included 16 continuously training freedivers at the "high achievers in sports" level (DIVERS group). The CONTROL group included 16 healthy young men not involved in sports...
December 22, 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26343284/the-effects-of-seasonal-training-on-heart-rate-and-oxygen-saturation-during-face-immersion-apnea-in-elite-breath-hold-diver-a-case-report
#4
J Kapus, A Ušaj, S Jeranko, J Daić
The purpose of the present study was to monitor a diver's ability to perform maximal face- immersion apnea throughout the competitive season. A male, world-class apnea diver was followed for 1 year (from March 2012 to March 2013). During this period he was tested six times. Each test session involved the measurements of the pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength. In addition, the ability to perform maximal face-immersion apnea was also explored. The results of face-immersion apnea durations showed a continuous improvement throughout the preparation period 1 with the peak in the main competition period and a decline during the competition period 2 and the transition period...
September 4, 2015: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25801485/an-insulin-based-model-to-explain-changes-and-interactions-in-human-breath-holding
#5
Rosita Dangmann
Until now oxygen was thought to be the leading factor of hypoxic conditions. Whereas now it appears that insulin is the key regulator of hypoxic conditions. Insulin seems to regulate the redox state of the organism and to determine the breakpoint of human breath-holding. This new hypoxia-insulin hypotheses might have major clinical relevance. Besides the clinical relevance, this hypothesis could explain, for the first time, why the training of the diaphragm, among other factors, results in an increase in breath-holding performance...
June 2015: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24851548/the-impact-of-freediving-on-psychomotor-performance-and-blood-catecholamine-concentration
#6
Jan Chmura, Adam Kawczyński, Marek Medraś, Paweł Jóźków, Bartosz Morawiec
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of breath-hold diving on divers' psychomotor performance and blood adrenaline, noradrenaline and lactate concentrations. Four male divers took part in the experiment. During the study the divers' choice reaction time as well as plasma concentration of adrenaline, noradrenaline and lactate were measured. The measurements were carried out before immersion (before a warm-up), three minutes after the dive, and 60 minutes after the dive. A reduction in the reaction time to audiovisual stimuli was found in three divers, three minutes after the dive...
March 2014: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23487544/the-role-of-training-in-the-development-of-adaptive-mechanisms-in-freedivers
#7
Andrzej Ostrowski, Marek Strzała, Arkadiusz Stanula, Mirosław Juszkiewicz, Wanda Pilch, Adam Maszczyk
Freediving is a sport in which athletes aim to achieve the longest or the deepest breath-hold dive. Divers are at risk of gradually increasing hypoxia and hypercapnia due to a long time spent underwater and additionally of increasing hyperoxia while depth diving. Exceeding the limits of hypoxia endurance leads to loss of consciousness or even to death whithout immediate first aid. Often enhanced world records indicate the ability to shape specific to the discipline adaptive mechanisms of cardio-pulmonary system which are individually conditioned...
May 2012: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23486564/altitude-training-and-its-influence-on-physical-endurance-in-swimmers
#8
Marek Strzała, Andrzej Ostrowski, Zbigniew Szyguła
It is possible to plan an altitude training (AT) period in such a way that the enhanced physical endurance obtained as a result of adaptation to hypoxia will appear and can be used to improve performance in competition. Yet finding rationales for usage of AT in highly trained swimmers is problematic. In practice AT, in its various forms, is still controversial, and an objective review of research concentrating on the advantages and disadvantages of AT has been presented in several scientific publications, including in no small part the observations of swimmers...
June 2011: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23115072/effect-of-breath-hold-diving-freediving-on-serum-androgen-levels-a-preliminary-report
#9
Paweł Jóźków, Marek Mędraś, Jan Chmura, Adam Kawczyński, Bartosz Morawiec
INTRODUCTION: Breath-hold diving (freediving) is a discipline that makes considerable demands on sportsmen, which can amount to extreme distress. It is also known that psychological and physical strain affects hormonal milieus. We wanted to assess the impact of a stressful event (such as breath-hold diving) on the androgen status of men. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated serum gonadotropins and androgen concentrations in four divers before diving, immediately post, and 60 minutes after diving...
2012: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22752744/scuba-divers-pulmonary-oedema-a-review
#10
Carl Edmonds
The literature on scuba divers' pulmonary oedema (SDPE) is reviewed, especially in its relationship to other immersioninduced pulmonary oedemas. It is concluded that although the three forms induced by swimming, freediving and scuba diving have some features in common, there are significant differences in their demographics, causation and clinical management. The swimming-induced cases tend to be young and fit, but exposed to excessive exertion. The freedivers experience extreme breath-holding and barotraumatic influences...
December 2009: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20933000/citrobacter-koseri-meningitis-another-freediving-risk
#11
Gabriele Pollara, Lloyd Savy, Ian Cropley, Susan Hopkins
We present a rare case of meningitis caused by Citrobacter koseri in an immunocompetent adult who had recently been freediving. Middle ear pressure changes from this recreational activity, and the subsequent inflammatory response, are likely to have provided this environmental organism access to the central nervous system, and thus the ability to cause clinically significant infection.
January 2011: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18346299/prevalence-and-severity-of-external-auditory-exostoses-in-breath-hold-divers
#12
P W Sheard, M Doherty
OBJECTIVE: To explore the prevalence and severity of external auditory exostoses in a population of experienced breath-hold divers, and to compare these to the same parameters within surfing and self-contained underwater breathing apparatus diving populations. DESIGN: A stepwise, multiple regression analysis of cross-sectional data examining the relative contributions of sea surface temperature, latitude of exposure and years of exposure to the prevalence and severity of stenosis due to external auditory exostoses...
November 2008: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16286855/arterial-oxygen-desaturation-kinetics-during-apnea
#13
Ian B Stewart, Andrew C Bulmer, James E Sharman, Lynne Ridgway
PURPOSE: To quantify the rate of arterial oxygen desaturation during apnea in freedivers. METHODS: Ten freedivers and ten controls undertook five maximal face immersion apneas in 10 degrees C water separated by 2 min of recovery. Electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, and pulse oximetry were recorded continuously. Peripheral blood flow was measured by calf plethysmography every 30 s, and venous blood samples were collected at rest and after apneas 1, 3, and 5...
November 2005: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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