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snake and colombia

Alejandra Fonseca, Camila Renjifo-Ibáñez, Juan Manuel Renjifo, Rodrigo Cabrera
Snake venoms are a mixture of different molecules that can be used in the design of drugs for various diseases. The study of these venoms has relied on strategies that use complete venom extracted from animals in captivity or from venom glands that require the sacrifice of the animals. Colombia, a country with political and geographical conflicts has difficult access to certain regions. A strategy that can prevent the sacrifice of animals and could allow the study of samples collected in the field is necessary...
March 20, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Álvaro Segura, María Herrera, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Alfredo Uscanga-Reynell, Guillermo León, José María Gutiérrez
The assessment of the preclinical neutralizing ability of antivenoms in Latin America is necessary to determine their scope of efficacy. This study was aimed at analyzing the neutralizing efficacy of a polyspecific bothropic-crotalic antivenom manufactured by BIRMEX in Mexico against lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenating and in vitro coagulant activities of the venoms of Bothrops jararaca (Brazil), B. atrox (Perú and Colombia), B. diporus (Argentina), B. mattogrossensis (Bolivia), and B. asper (Costa Rica)...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
Paola Rey-Suárez, Vitelbina Núñez, Mónica Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Bruno Lomonte
Snake venom phospholipases A2 (PLA2) share high sequence identities and a conserved structural scaffold, but show important functional differences. Only a few PLA2s have been purified and characterized from coral snake (Micrurus spp.) venoms, and their role in envenomation remains largely unknown. In this report, we describe the isolation, sequencing and partial functional characterization of two Micrurus PLA2s: MmipPLA2 from Micrurus mipartitus and MdumPLA2 from Micrurus dumerilii, two species of clinical importance in Colombia...
March 14, 2017: Biochimie
Daneiva Caro, Yanet Ocampo, Jenny Castro, Lia Barrios, Rubén Salas, Luis A Franco
In Colombia, Bothrops asper is responsible for 70-90% of ophidians accidents reported annually. Envenoming occurs mainly in rural areas where both antivenom and health centers are scarce. Thus, patients are frequently treated by local healers that employ medicinal herbs; including several species belonging to Dracontium genus. In this work, we evaluated the neutralizing activity of Dracontium dubium Kunth against the lethal, inflammatory, coagulant and hemolytic effects produced by B. asper venom. Mice treated with D...
May 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kristian A Torres-Bonilla, Rafael S Floriano, Raphael Schezaro-Ramos, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
Colombian colubrid snake venoms have been poorly studied. They represent a great resource of biological, ecological, toxinological and pharmacological research. We assessed some enzymatic properties and neuromuscular effects of Erythrolamprus bizona and Pseudoboa neuwiedii venoms from Colombia. Proteolytic, amidolytic and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities were analyzed using colorimetric assays and the neuromuscular activity was analyzed in chick biventer cervicis (BC) preparations. The venom of both species showed very low PLA2 and amidolytic activities; however, both exhibited high proteolytic activity, which in E...
June 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Carlos A Cañas, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Santiago Castaño-Valencia
BACKGROUND: Although the red-tailed coral snake (Micrurus mipartitus) is widely distributed in Colombia and its venom is highly neurotoxic and life threatening, envenomation by this species is rare. Therefore, this report may shed some light on the clinical presentation of M. mipartitus bites. CASE PRESENTATIONS: Herein, we describe two cases of patients bitten by red-tailed coral snakes, illustrating the clinical presentation of the victims, the outcomes and treatment provided...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
José P Prezotto-Neto, Louise F Kimura, André F Alves, José María Gutiérrez, Rafael Otero, Ana M Suárez, Marcelo L Santoro, Katia C Barbaro
Snakebites inflicted by the arboreal viperid snake Bothriechis schlegelii in humans are characterized by pain, edema, and ecchymosis at the site of the bite, rarely with blisters, local necrosis, or defibrination. Herein, a comparative study of Bothriechis schlegelii snake venoms from Colombia (BsCo) and Costa Rica (BsCR) was carried out in order to compare their main activities and to verify the efficacy of Bothrops antivenom produced in Brazil to neutralize them. Biochemical (SDS-PAGE and zymography) and biological parameters (edematogenic, lethal, hemorrhagic, nociceptive, and phospholipase A2 activities) induced by BsCo and BsCR snake venoms were evaluated...
December 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Kristian A Torres-Bonilla, Raphael Schezaro-Ramos, Rafael Stuani Floriano, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni, Manuel H Bernal-Bautista, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
The physiological properties of colubrid snake venoms are largely unknown and less frequently investigated. In this study, we assessed the enzymatic properties and biological activities of Leptodeira annulata (banded cat-eyed snake) venom, an opistoglyphous snake from Colombia. The proteolytic, phospholipase A2 and amidolytic activities are assessed using colorimetric assays and the biological activities were analyzed in avian and mammalian neuromuscular preparations. L. annulata venom caused neuromuscular blockade in chick biventer cervicis (BC) preparations (40± 15% and 50± 3% of twitch reduction for 30 and 100 μg/ml, respectively; p < 0...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Eliécer Jiménez-Charris, Leonel Montealegre-Sánchez, Luis Solano-Redondo, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Leonardo Fierro-Pérez, Bruno Lomonte
The Lansberg's hognose pitviper, Porthidium lansbergii lansbergii, inhabits northern Colombia. A recent proteomic characterization of its venom (J. Proteomics [2015] 114, 287-299) revealed the presence of phospholipases A2 (PLA2) accounting for 16.2% of its proteins. The two most abundant PLA2s were biochemically and functionally characterized. Pllans-I is a basic, dimeric enzyme with a monomer mass of 14,136 Da, while Pllans-II is an acidic, monomeric enzyme of 13,901 Da. Both have Asp49 in their partial amino acid sequences and, accordingly, are catalytically active upon natural or synthetic substrates...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Bruno Lomonte, Mahmood Sasa, Paola Rey-Suárez, Wendy Bryan, José María Gutiérrez
Micrurus clarki is an uncommon coral snake distributed from the Southeastern Pacific of Costa Rica to Western Colombia, for which no information on its venom could be found in the literature. Using a 'venomics' approach, proteins of at least nine families were identified, with a moderate predominance of three-finger toxins (3FTx; 48.2%) over phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂; 36.5%). Comparison of this venom profile with those of other Micrurus species suggests that it may represent a more balanced, 'intermediate' type within the dichotomy between 3FTx- and PLA₂-predominant venoms...
May 5, 2016: Toxins
Paola Rey-Suárez, Vitelbina Núñez, Julián Fernández, Bruno Lomonte
UNLABELLED: In Colombia, nearly 2.8% of the 4200 snakebite accidents recorded annually are inflicted by coral snakes (genus Micrurus). Micrurus dumerilii has a broad distribution in this country, especially in densely populated areas. The proteomic profile of its venom was here studied by a bottom-up approach combining RP-HPLC, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Venom proteins were assigned to eleven families, the most abundant being phospholipases A2 (PLA2; 52.0%) and three-finger toxins (3FTx; 28...
March 16, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Darlan Tavares Feitosa, Nelson Jorge Jr Da Silva, Matheus Godoy Pires, Hussam Zaher, Ana Lúcia Da Costa Prudente
We described a new species of monadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus from the region of Tabatinga and Leticia, along the boundaries of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. The new species can be distinguished from the other congeners by the combination of the following characters: absence of a pale nuchal collar; black cephalic-cap extending from rostral to firstdorsal scale and enclosing white tipped prefrontal scales; upper half of first to four supralabials and postoculars black; tricolor body coloration, with 27-31 black rings bordered by narrower white rings and 27-31 red rings; tail coloration similar to body, with alternating black rings bordered by irregular narrow white rings, red rings of the same width as the black rings; ventral scales 205-225; subcaudal scales 39-47...
June 24, 2015: Zootaxa
Julieta Vásquez, Juan C Alarcón, Silvia L Jiménez, Gloria I Jaramillo, Isabel C Gómez-Betancur, J Paola Rey-Suárez, Karen M Jaramillo, Diana C Muñoz, Daniela M Marín, Jefferson O Romero
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: In Colombia, more than 4.000 ophidian accidents occur per year and due to the scarce distribution and limited availability of antivenom, the use of traditional medicine has been perpetuated in some of its rural communities, in which initially, those affected are treated by healers and shamans using medicinal plants in different ways. METHODS: Research was conducted with renowned healers or connoisseurs of plants on the ethnobotany of ophidian accidents in five different areas and their municipalities of Antioquia: Magdalena Medio (Caracolí, Puerto Berrío); Bajo Cauca (Caucasia, Zaragoza); Nordeste (San Roque, Yalí); Norte (Gómez Plata, Valdivia); Suroeste (Ciudad Bolívar, Salgar); collecting information related to experience and time of use of plants in the treatment of these poisonings, amounts used, ways of use (beverage, bathing, ointment, chupaderas, vapors), preparation types (maceration or decoction) and treatment duration...
July 21, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
David Salazar-Valenzuela, Diana Mora-Obando, María Laura Fernández, Amaru Loaiza-Lange, H Lisle Gibbs, Bruno Lomonte
Detailed snake venom proteomes for nearly a hundred species in different pitviper genera have accumulated using 'venomics' methodologies. However, venom composition for some lineages remains poorly known. Bothrocophias (toad-headed pitvipers) is a genus restricted to the northwestern portion of South America for which information on venom composition is lacking. Here, we describe the protein composition, toxicological profiling, and antivenom neutralization of the venom of Bothrocophias campbelli, a species distributed in Colombia and Ecuador...
November 2014: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Ariadna L Rodríguez-Vargas
OBJECTIVE: This study was motivated as only partial knowledge is available (regarding national statistics) about accidents caused by poisonous animals in Colombia. The study was aimed at establishing a base-line concerning accidents reported by phone to the Toxicology Management and Research Information Centre (CIGITOX) from all over Colombia; such data was taken from the centre's data-base following its five years of being in operation(2006-2010). METHODS: This was a descriptive, retrospective study, taking information from the CIGITOX database over a five-year period (2006-2010); Excel 2011was used for statistical analysis...
October 2012: Revista de Salud Pública
Maritza Fernández Culma, Jaime Andrés Pereañez, Vitelbina Núñez Rangel, Bruno Lomonte
Bothrops punctatus is an endangered, semi-arboreal pitviper species distributed in Panamá, Colombia, and Ecuador, whose venom is poorly characterized. In the present work, the protein composition of this venom was profiled using the 'snake venomics' analytical strategy. Decomplexation of the crude venom by RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE, followed by tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic digests, showed that it consists of proteins assigned to at least nine snake toxin families. Metalloproteinases are predominant in this secretion (41...
2014: PeerJ
Adriana María Albino, Santiago Brizuela
The evolution of squamates in South America is the result of the complex geological and paleoclimatic history of this part of the world. The incomplete and episodic fossil record allows us to know only a small part of this evolution. Most Mesozoic squamate remains come from the Patagonian region, but remarkable specimens have also been recovered from Brazil. Both major squamate clades (Iguania and Scleroglossa) are present in the South American Mesozoic. Remains of Mesozoic snakes are common and diverse in Cretaceous deposits, including some of the most primitive terrestrial forms...
March 2014: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Arley Camilo Patiño, Dora María Benjumea, Jaime Andrés Pereañez
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The plant Renealmia alpinia has been used in folk medicine to treat snakebites in the northwest region of Colombia. In addition, it has been shown to neutralize edema-forming, hemorrhagic, lethal, and defibrin(ogen)ating activities of Bothrops asper venom. In this work, extracts of Renealmia alpinia obtained by micropropagation (in vitro) and from specimens collected in the wild were tested and compared in their capacity to inhibit enzymatic and toxic activities of a snake venom metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops atrox (Batx-I) venom and a serine proteinase (Cdc SII) from Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom...
September 16, 2013: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Davinia Pla, Libia Sanz, Pedro Molina-Sánchez, Virginia Zorita, Marvin Madrigal, Marietta Flores-Díaz, Alberto Alape-Girón, Vitelbina Núñez, Vicente Andrés, José María Gutiérrez, Juan J Calvete
UNLABELLED: We report the proteomic analysis of the Atlantic bushmaster, Lachesis muta rhombeata, from Brazil. Along with previous characterization of the venom proteomes of L. stenophrys (Costa Rica), L. melanocephala (Costa Rica), L. acrochorda (Colombia), and L. muta muta (Bolivia), the present study provides the first overview of the composition and distribution of venom proteins across this wide-ranging genus, and highlights the remarkable similar compositional and pharmacological profiles across Lachesis venoms...
August 26, 2013: Journal of Proteomics
Arley Camilo Patiño, Jéssica López, Mónica Aristizábal, Juan Carlos Quintana, Dora Benjumea
INTRODUCTION: Traditional medicine is an invaluable source of research into new medicines as a supplement for the treatment of snakebite, considered as a serious public health problem worldwide. The extracts of the medicinal plant, Renealmia alpina, have been used traditionally by indigenous people of Chocó (Colombia) against Bothrops asper snakebite, a snake responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents in Colombia. OBJECTIVE: The ability of extracts of R...
September 2012: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
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