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snake and colombia

José P Prezotto-Neto, Louise F Kimura, André F Alves, José María Gutiérrez, Rafael Otero, Ana M Suárez, Marcelo L Santoro, Katia C Barbaro
Snakebites inflicted by the arboreal viperid snake Bothriechis schlegelii in humans are characterized by pain, edema, and ecchymosis at the site of the bite, rarely with blisters, local necrosis, or defibrination. Herein, a comparative study of Bothriechis schlegelii snake venoms from Colombia (BsCo) and Costa Rica (BsCR) was carried out in order to compare their main activities and to verify the efficacy of Bothrops antivenom produced in Brazil to neutralize them. Biochemical (SDS-PAGE and zymography) and biological parameters (edematogenic, lethal, hemorrhagic, nociceptive, and phospholipase A2 activities) induced by BsCo and BsCR snake venoms were evaluated...
July 19, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Kristian A Torres-Bonilla, Raphael Schezaro-Ramos, Rafael Stuani Floriano, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni, Manuel H Bernal-Bautista, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
The physiological properties of colubrid snake venoms are largely unknown and less frequently investigated. In this study, we assessed the enzymatic properties and biological activities of Leptodeira annulata (banded cat-eyed snake) venom, an opistoglyphous snake from Colombia. The proteolytic, phospholipase A2 and amidolytic activities are assessed using colorimetric assays and the biological activities were analyzed in avian and mammalian neuromuscular preparations. L. annulata venom caused neuromuscular blockade in chick biventer cervicis (BC) preparations (40± 15% and 50± 3% of twitch reduction for 30 and 100 μg/ml, respectively; p < 0...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Eliécer Jiménez-Charris, Leonel Montealegre-Sánchez, Luis Solano-Redondo, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Leonardo Fierro-Pérez, Bruno Lomonte
The Lansberg's hognose pitviper, Porthidium lansbergii lansbergii, inhabits northern Colombia. A recent proteomic characterization of its venom (J. Proteomics [2015] 114, 287-299) revealed the presence of phospholipases A2 (PLA2) accounting for 16.2% of its proteins. The two most abundant PLA2s were biochemically and functionally characterized. Pllans-I is a basic, dimeric enzyme with a monomer mass of 14,136 Da, while Pllans-II is an acidic, monomeric enzyme of 13,901 Da. Both have Asp49 in their partial amino acid sequences and, accordingly, are catalytically active upon natural or synthetic substrates...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Bruno Lomonte, Mahmood Sasa, Paola Rey-Suárez, Wendy Bryan, José María Gutiérrez
Micrurus clarki is an uncommon coral snake distributed from the Southeastern Pacific of Costa Rica to Western Colombia, for which no information on its venom could be found in the literature. Using a 'venomics' approach, proteins of at least nine families were identified, with a moderate predominance of three-finger toxins (3FTx; 48.2%) over phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂; 36.5%). Comparison of this venom profile with those of other Micrurus species suggests that it may represent a more balanced, 'intermediate' type within the dichotomy between 3FTx- and PLA₂-predominant venoms...
2016: Toxins
Paola Rey-Suárez, Vitelbina Núñez, Julián Fernández, Bruno Lomonte
UNLABELLED: In Colombia, nearly 2.8% of the 4200 snakebite accidents recorded annually are inflicted by coral snakes (genus Micrurus). Micrurus dumerilii has a broad distribution in this country, especially in densely populated areas. The proteomic profile of its venom was here studied by a bottom-up approach combining RP-HPLC, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Venom proteins were assigned to eleven families, the most abundant being phospholipases A2 (PLA2; 52.0%) and three-finger toxins (3FTx; 28...
March 16, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Darlan Tavares Feitosa, Nelson Jorge Jr Da Silva, Matheus Godoy Pires, Hussam Zaher, Ana Lúcia Da Costa Prudente
We described a new species of monadal coral snake of the genus Micrurus from the region of Tabatinga and Leticia, along the boundaries of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. The new species can be distinguished from the other congeners by the combination of the following characters: absence of a pale nuchal collar; black cephalic-cap extending from rostral to firstdorsal scale and enclosing white tipped prefrontal scales; upper half of first to four supralabials and postoculars black; tricolor body coloration, with 27-31 black rings bordered by narrower white rings and 27-31 red rings; tail coloration similar to body, with alternating black rings bordered by irregular narrow white rings, red rings of the same width as the black rings; ventral scales 205-225; subcaudal scales 39-47...
June 24, 2015: Zootaxa
Julieta Vásquez, Juan C Alarcón, Silvia L Jiménez, Gloria I Jaramillo, Isabel C Gómez-Betancur, J Paola Rey-Suárez, Karen M Jaramillo, Diana C Muñoz, Daniela M Marín, Jefferson O Romero
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: In Colombia, more than 4.000 ophidian accidents occur per year and due to the scarce distribution and limited availability of antivenom, the use of traditional medicine has been perpetuated in some of its rural communities, in which initially, those affected are treated by healers and shamans using medicinal plants in different ways. METHODS: Research was conducted with renowned healers or connoisseurs of plants on the ethnobotany of ophidian accidents in five different areas and their municipalities of Antioquia: Magdalena Medio (Caracolí, Puerto Berrío); Bajo Cauca (Caucasia, Zaragoza); Nordeste (San Roque, Yalí); Norte (Gómez Plata, Valdivia); Suroeste (Ciudad Bolívar, Salgar); collecting information related to experience and time of use of plants in the treatment of these poisonings, amounts used, ways of use (beverage, bathing, ointment, chupaderas, vapors), preparation types (maceration or decoction) and treatment duration...
July 21, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
David Salazar-Valenzuela, Diana Mora-Obando, María Laura Fernández, Amaru Loaiza-Lange, H Lisle Gibbs, Bruno Lomonte
Detailed snake venom proteomes for nearly a hundred species in different pitviper genera have accumulated using 'venomics' methodologies. However, venom composition for some lineages remains poorly known. Bothrocophias (toad-headed pitvipers) is a genus restricted to the northwestern portion of South America for which information on venom composition is lacking. Here, we describe the protein composition, toxicological profiling, and antivenom neutralization of the venom of Bothrocophias campbelli, a species distributed in Colombia and Ecuador...
November 2014: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Ariadna L Rodríguez-Vargas
OBJECTIVE: This study was motivated as only partial knowledge is available (regarding national statistics) about accidents caused by poisonous animals in Colombia. The study was aimed at establishing a base-line concerning accidents reported by phone to the Toxicology Management and Research Information Centre (CIGITOX) from all over Colombia; such data was taken from the centre's data-base following its five years of being in operation(2006-2010). METHODS: This was a descriptive, retrospective study, taking information from the CIGITOX database over a five-year period (2006-2010); Excel 2011was used for statistical analysis...
October 2012: Revista de Salud Pública
Maritza Fernández Culma, Jaime Andrés Pereañez, Vitelbina Núñez Rangel, Bruno Lomonte
Bothrops punctatus is an endangered, semi-arboreal pitviper species distributed in Panamá, Colombia, and Ecuador, whose venom is poorly characterized. In the present work, the protein composition of this venom was profiled using the 'snake venomics' analytical strategy. Decomplexation of the crude venom by RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE, followed by tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic digests, showed that it consists of proteins assigned to at least nine snake toxin families. Metalloproteinases are predominant in this secretion (41...
2014: PeerJ
Adriana María Albino, Santiago Brizuela
The evolution of squamates in South America is the result of the complex geological and paleoclimatic history of this part of the world. The incomplete and episodic fossil record allows us to know only a small part of this evolution. Most Mesozoic squamate remains come from the Patagonian region, but remarkable specimens have also been recovered from Brazil. Both major squamate clades (Iguania and Scleroglossa) are present in the South American Mesozoic. Remains of Mesozoic snakes are common and diverse in Cretaceous deposits, including some of the most primitive terrestrial forms...
March 2014: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Arley Camilo Patiño, Dora María Benjumea, Jaime Andrés Pereañez
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The plant Renealmia alpinia has been used in folk medicine to treat snakebites in the northwest region of Colombia. In addition, it has been shown to neutralize edema-forming, hemorrhagic, lethal, and defibrin(ogen)ating activities of Bothrops asper venom. In this work, extracts of Renealmia alpinia obtained by micropropagation (in vitro) and from specimens collected in the wild were tested and compared in their capacity to inhibit enzymatic and toxic activities of a snake venom metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops atrox (Batx-I) venom and a serine proteinase (Cdc SII) from Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom...
September 16, 2013: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Davinia Pla, Libia Sanz, Pedro Molina-Sánchez, Virginia Zorita, Marvin Madrigal, Marietta Flores-Díaz, Alberto Alape-Girón, Vitelbina Núñez, Vicente Andrés, José María Gutiérrez, Juan J Calvete
UNLABELLED: We report the proteomic analysis of the Atlantic bushmaster, Lachesis muta rhombeata, from Brazil. Along with previous characterization of the venom proteomes of L. stenophrys (Costa Rica), L. melanocephala (Costa Rica), L. acrochorda (Colombia), and L. muta muta (Bolivia), the present study provides the first overview of the composition and distribution of venom proteins across this wide-ranging genus, and highlights the remarkable similar compositional and pharmacological profiles across Lachesis venoms...
August 26, 2013: Journal of Proteomics
Arley Camilo Patiño, Jéssica López, Mónica Aristizábal, Juan Carlos Quintana, Dora Benjumea
INTRODUCTION: Traditional medicine is an invaluable source of research into new medicines as a supplement for the treatment of snakebite, considered as a serious public health problem worldwide. The extracts of the medicinal plant, Renealmia alpina, have been used traditionally by indigenous people of Chocó (Colombia) against Bothrops asper snakebite, a snake responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents in Colombia. OBJECTIVE: The ability of extracts of R...
September 2012: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Julieta Vásquez, Silvia L Jiménez, Isabel C Gómez, Jessica P Rey, Ana M Henao, Daniela M Marín, Jefferson O Romero, Juan C Alarcón
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Every year, over 4000 ophidian accidents take place in Colombia. The poor distribution and limited availability of antivenom have perpetuated the use of traditional medicine especially in rural communities. The medical care starts with the affected people receiving treatment by healers or shamans who use medicinal plants prepared in different ways. METHODS: This investigation was undertaken by conducting enquiries to the renowned healers or plants connoisseurs about the ethnobotany of the ophidian accident...
March 27, 2013: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Arley Camilo Patiño, Jaime Andrés Pereañez, José María Gutiérrez, Alexandra Rucavado
Two clotting serine proteinases, named Cdc SI and Cdc SII, were isolated and characterized for the first time from Colombian Crotalus durissus cumanensis snake venom. The enzymes were purified using two chromatographic steps: molecular exclusion on Sephacryl S-200 and RP-HPLC on C8 Column. The molecular masses of the proteins, determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, were 28,561.4 and 28,799.2 Da for Cdc SI and Cdc SII, respectively. The aim of the present study was to evaluate enzymatic, coagulant and toxic properties of the two enzymes...
March 1, 2013: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Paola Rey-Suárez, Rafael Stuani Floriano, Sandro Rostelato-Ferreira, Mónica Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Vitelbina Núñez, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni, Bruno Lomonte
The major venom component of Micrurus mipartitus, a coral snake distributed from Nicaragua to northern South America, was characterized biochemically and functionally. This protein, named mipartoxin-I, is a novel member of the three-finger toxin superfamily, presenting the characteristic cysteine signature and amino acid sequence length of the short-chain, type-I, α-neurotoxins. Nevertheless, it varies considerably from related toxins, with a sequence identity not higher than 70% in a multiple alignment of 67 proteins within this family...
October 2012: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Rafael Otero-Patiño, Alvaro Segura, María Herrera, Yamileth Angulo, Guillermo León, José María Gutiérrez, Jacqueline Barona, Sebastián Estrada, Andrés Pereañez, Juan Carlos Quintana, Leidy J Vargas, Juan Pablo Gómez, Abel Díaz, Ana María Suárez, Jorge Fernández, Patricia Ramírez, Patricia Fabra, Monica Perea, Diego Fernández, Yobana Arroyo, Dalila Betancur, Lady Pupo, Elkin A Córdoba, C Eugenio Ramírez, Ana Berta Arrieta, Alcides Rivero, Diana Carolina Mosquera, Nectty Lorena Conrado, Rosina Ortiz
The efficacy and safety of two polyvalent horse-derived antivenoms in Bothrops asper envenomings were tested in a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial performed in Colombia. Both antivenoms were manufactured from the same pool of hyperimmune plasma. Antivenom A was made of F(ab')2 fragments, generated by pepsin digestion and caprylic acid precipitation, whereas antivenom B consisted of whole IgG molecules produced by caprylic acid precipitation followed by ion-exchange chromatography. Besides the different nature of the active substance, antivenom B had higher protein concentration, slightly higher turbidity and aggregate content...
February 2012: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Camila Renjifo, Eric N Smith, Wayne C Hodgson, Juan M Renjifo, Armando Sanchez, Rodrigo Acosta, Jairo H Maldonado, Alain Riveros
The venoms of coral snakes (genus Micrurus) are known to induce a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. While some studies have investigated their potential human effects, little is known about their mechanism of action in terms of the ecological diversity and evolutionary relationships among the group. In the current study we investigated the neuromuscular blockade of the venom of two sister species Micrurus mipartitus and Micrurus dissoleucus, which exhibit divergent ecological characteristics in Colombia, by using the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation...
January 2012: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Paola Rey-Suárez, Vitelbina Núñez, José María Gutiérrez, Bruno Lomonte
Venoms of the redtail coral snake Micrurus mipartitus from Colombia and Costa Rica were analyzed by "venomics", a proteomic strategy to determine their composition. Proteins were separated by RP-HPLC, followed by SDS-PAGE, in-gel tryptic digestion, identification by MALDI or ESI tandem mass spectrometry, and assignment to known protein families by similarity. These analyses were complemented with a characterization of venom activities in vitro and in vivo. Proteins belonging to seven families were found in Colombian M...
December 21, 2011: Journal of Proteomics
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