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Yuki Haga, Motoharu Suzuki, Chisato Matsumura, Toshihiro Okuno, Masahiro Tsurukawa, Kazuo Fujimori, Narayanan Kannan, Roland Weber, Takeshi Nakano
In this study, we analyzed hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in urine of both PCB transport workers and PCB researchers. A method to monitor OH-PCB in urine was developed. Urine was solid-phase extracted with 0.1% ammonia/ methanol (v/v) and glucuronic acid/sulfate conjugates and then decomposed using β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase. After alkaline digestion/derivatization, the concentration of OH-PCBs was determined by HRGC/HRMS-SIM. In the first sampling campaign, the worker's OH-PCB levels increased several fold after the PCB waste transportation work, indicating exposure to PCBs...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kateřina Pěnčíková, Lucie Svržková, Simona Strapáčová, Jiří Neča, Iveta Bartoňková, Zdeněk Dvořák, Martina Hýžďalová, Jakub Pivnička, Lenka Pálková, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Xueshu Li, Jan Vondráček, Miroslav Machala
The mechanisms contributing to toxic effects of airborne lower-chlorinated PCB congeners (LC-PCBs) remain poorly characterized. We evaluated in vitro toxicities of environmental LC-PCBs found in both indoor and outdoor air (PCB 4, 8, 11, 18, 28 and 31), and selected hydroxylated metabolites of PCB 8, 11 and 18, using reporter gene assays, as well as other functional cellular bioassays. We focused on processes linked with endocrine disruption, tumor promotion and/or regulation of transcription factors controlling metabolism of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jianteng Sun, Lili Pan, Lizhong Zhu
The detoxification and degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been studied. However, little information is available about the biological mechanisms involved in the metabolism of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) and methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (MeO-PCBs) by specific microorganism. In this study, the simultaneous formation of OH-PCB (major metabolite) and MeO-PCB (minor metabolite) was found in Bacillus subtilis after exposure to PCB. Interconversion between MeO-PCB and OH-PCB was also observed and the demethylation ratio of MeO-PCB was higher than the methylation ratio of OH-PCB...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Asahi Haijima, Ronny Lesmana, Noriaki Shimokawa, Izuki Amano, Yusuke Takatsuru, Noriyuki Koibuchi
We investigated whether in utero or lactational exposure to 4-hydroxy-2',3,3',4',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (OH-PCB 106) affects spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination in young adult male mice. For in utero exposure, pregnant C57BL/6J mice received 0.05 or 0.5 mg/kg body weight of OH-PCB 106 or corn oil vehicle via gavage every second day from gestational day 10 to 18. For lactational exposure, the different groups of dams received 0.05 or 0.5 mg/kg body weight of OH-PCB 106 or corn oil vehicle via gavage every second day from postpartum day 3 to 13...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Satomi Mizukami-Murata, Katsuhide Fujita, Takeshi Nakano
Hydroxylated polychlorobiphenyls (OH-PCBs) are major metabolites of PCBs that are widely distributed in the environment. While the effects of penta- to hepta-chlorinated OH-PCBs on neuronal differentiation have been widely reported, those of lower chlorinated OH-PCBs have not been extensively studied. To investigate the effects of lower chlorinated OH-PCBs on neuronal development, we studied the effects of mono- to hexa-chlorinated OH-PCBs on PC12 cells. Morphological changes were examined using an automatic system IN Cell Analyzer...
July 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Natalia Quinete, André Esser, Thomas Kraus, Thomas Schettgen
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are suspected of carcinogenic, neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects in animals and humans. Although background levels of PCBs have been slowly decreased after their ban, they are still among the most persistent and ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, remaining the subject of great concern. PCB 28 is a trichlorinated PCB found in high concentrations not only in human plasma but also in indoor air in Europe, yet little is known about its metabolic pathway and potential metabolites in humans...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Sunjay Sethi, Kimberly P Keil, Hao Chen, Keri Hayakawa, Xueshu Li, Yanping Lin, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Birgit Puschner, Pamela J Lein
3,3'-Dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11), a byproduct of pigment production, is increasingly detected in environmental samples. While more highly chlorinated PCB congeners are known developmental neurotoxicants, nothing is known about the potential developmental neurotoxicity of PCB 11. To address this critical data gap, we measured PCB 11 levels in human maternal plasma and quantified the effects of PCB 11 and its major metabolites on morphometric parameters of neuronal connectivity in cultured primary neurons. Mass spectrometry analyses of plasma from 241 pregnant women enrolled in the MARBLES study (University of California, Davis) detected PCB 11 in all samples at concentrations ranging from 0...
August 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Shengtao Ma, Guofa Ren, Xiangying Zeng, Zhiqiang Yu, Guoying Sheng, Jiamo Fu
A number of studies have reported on the exposure of e-waste dismantling workers to significantly high concentrations of halogenated organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Such exposure can have adverse health effects. However, little information on the metabolites of these contaminants exists. In this study, we investigated PCBs levels and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCB) in the serum of e-waste workers in Taizhou in eastern China. Our results indicate elevated PCB and OH-PCB levels in the serum of the workers, with medians of 443...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Izabela Kania-Korwel, Tracy Lukasiewicz, Christopher D Barnhart, Marianna Stamou, Haeun Chung, Kevin M Kelly, Stelvio Bandiera, Pamela J Lein, Hans-Joachim Lehmler
Chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners have been implicated by laboratory and epidemiological studies in PCB developmental neurotoxicity. These congeners are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs). The present study explores the enantioselective disposition and toxicity of 2 environmentally relevant, neurotoxic PCB congeners and their OH-PCB metabolites in lactating mice and their offspring following dietary exposure of the dam. Female C57BL/6N mice (8-weeks old) were fed daily, beginning 2 weeks prior to conception and continuing throughout gestation and lactation, with 3...
July 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Eric Uwimana, Anna Maiers, Xueshu Li, Hans-Joachim Lehmler
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with multiple ortho chlorine substituents and their metabolites exist as stable rotational isomers, or atropisomers, that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other. Additionally, the oxidation of certain axially prochiral PCBs, such as 2,2',4,6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 51) and 2,2',4,5,6'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 102), in the meta position of the symmetrically substituted phenyl ring is expected to form axially chiral hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs); however, the formation of chiral OH-PCBs from prochiral PCBs has not been demonstrated experimentally...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Eric Uwimana, Xueshu Li, Hans-Joachim Lehmler
Exposure to neurotoxic, chiral PCBs has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, but their metabolism in humans remains unexplored. We investigated the enantioselective metabolism of PCB 95 by human liver microsomes (HLMs) to potentially neurotoxic, hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs). OH-PCB profiles formed in experiments with HLMs differed from metabolite profiles reported for rodent species. The second eluting atropisomer of 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl-4'-ol, the major metabolite, was preferentially formed by all HLM preparations investigated...
December 19, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Shalini D Soechitram, Sietske A Berghuis, Theo J Visser, Pieter J J Sauer
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on serum thyroid hormone levels in pregnant woman and their infants, while other studies did not find such effects. How PCBs might affect thyroid hormone metabolism, is still unclear. Potential mechanisms are direct influence on the thyroid gland, binding to thyroid binding proteins, increased excretion or metabolism of thyroid hormones by deiodinases or sulfatases. It is also not well known whether the effect on thyroid hormone levels is caused by PCBs themselves, or by their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs)...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Satomi Mizukami-Murata, Futa Sakakibara, Katsuhide Fujita, Makiko Fukuda, Masato Kuramata, Kazuhiro Takagi
To examine the biodegradation of hydroxylated polychlorobiphenyls (OH-PCBs), we isolated Sphingomonas sp. strain N-9 from forest soil using mineral salt medium containing 4-hydroxy-3-chlorobiphenyl (4OH-3CB) at the concentration of 10 mg/L. Following incubation with strain N-9, the concentration of 4OH-3CB decreased in inverse proportion to strain N-9 proliferation, and it was converted to 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4OH-3CBA) after 1 day. We observed that strain N-9 efficiently degraded lowly chlorinated OH-PCBs (1-4 Cl), while highly chlorinated OH-PCBs (5-6 Cl) were less efficiently transformed...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Natalia Quinete, André Esser, Thomas Kraus, Thomas Schettgen
The present study evaluates for the first time the determination of 20 hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl (OH-PCB) congeners and their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in urine as a biomarker of exposure to PCBs in humans. Thereby, a fast, sensitive and selective online solid phase extraction (SPE) method coupled to LC-MS/MS was validated for the determination of OH-PCBs in human urine, being previously successfully developed and applied for the separation and quantitation of OH-PCBs in human plasma. The lowest limit of quantification (LLOQ) ranged from 0...
December 2016: Environment International
Wen Xin Koh, Keri C Hornbuckle, Kai Wang, Peter S Thorne
Factors contributing to the inter-individual variation in body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) have not been fully elucidated. We examined associations between total serum concentrations of 209 PCBs, 64 OH-PCBs, and frequently detected individual congeners with demographic characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity and community of residence), body mass index (BMI or BMI percentile), and breastfeeding history in children and their mothers from 83 U.S. households...
September 2016: Environment International
Heli Routti, Martin S Andersen, Eva Fuglei, Anuschka Polder, Nigel G Yoccoz
Concentrations and patterns of hydroxylated (OH) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in liver from arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) sampled from Svalbard 1997-2011 (n = 100). The most important OH-PBDE in the arctic foxes was 6-OH-BDE47 detected in 24% of the samples. Relationships between 6-OH-BDE47, δ(13)C and BDE47 suggest that 6-OH-BDE47 residues in arctic foxes are related to marine dietary input, while the relative importance of the metabolic/natural origin of this compound remains unclear...
September 2016: Environmental Pollution
Eric A Rodriguez, Xueshu Li, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Larry W Robertson, Michael W Duffel
The disposition of toxicants is often affected by their binding to serum proteins, of which the most abundant in humans is serum albumin (HSA). There is increasing interest in the toxicities of environmentally persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with lower numbers of chlorine atoms (LC-PCBs) due to their presence in both indoor and outdoor air. PCB sulfates derived from metabolic hydroxylation and sulfation of LC-PCBs have been implicated in endocrine disruption due to high affinity-binding to the thyroxine-carrying protein, transthyretin...
May 17, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Wen Xin Koh, Keri C Hornbuckle, Rachel F Marek, Kai Wang, Peter S Thorne
Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) have been detected in human specimens and some are suspected as being more toxic than their parent compounds. We compared 58 OH-PCB congeners (in 51 chromatographic peaks) in serum samples from participants in the AESOP Study, a longitudinal cohort study of adolescents and their mothers living in urban and rural areas in the United States. We hypothesized that adolescents would have lower levels of OH-PCBs than their mothers and that serum concentration of OH-PCBs would be stable over a 3-year period...
March 2016: Chemosphere
Hazuki Mizukawa, Kei Nomiyama, Susumu Nakatsu, Hisato Iwata, Jean Yoo, Akira Kubota, Miyuki Yamamoto, Mayumi Ishizuka, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Shouta M M Nakayama, Tatsuya Kunisue, Shinsuke Tanabe
There are growing concerns about the increase in hyperthyroidism in pet cats due to exposure to organohalogen contaminants and their hydroxylated metabolites. This study investigated the blood contaminants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated and methoxylated derivatives (OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs, and MeO-PBDEs), in pet dogs and cats. We also measured the residue levels of these compounds in commercially available pet foods. Chemical analyses of PCBs and OH-PCBs showed that the OH-PCB levels were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower in cat and dog food products than in their blood, suggesting that the origin of OH-PCBs in pet dogs and cats is PCBs ingested with their food...
January 5, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Patricia Ruiz, Kundan Ingale, John S Wheeler, Moiz Mumtaz
Mono-hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are found in human biological samples and lack of data on their potential estrogenic activity has been a source of concern. We have extended our previous in silico 2D QSAR study through the application of advance techniques such as docking and 3D QSAR to gain insights into their estrogen receptor (ERα) binding. The results support our earlier findings that the hydroxyl group is the most important feature on the compounds; its position, orientation and surroundings in the structure are influential for the binding of OH-PCBs to ERα...
February 2016: Chemosphere
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