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Kalender Arıkan, Zeynep Yaşar Arıkan, Salih Levent Turan
The residues of persistent organochlorinated pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (HCHs, CHLs, HCCPs, DDTs, and dicofol congeners) were investigated in the hair and muscle of road-killed Erinaceus roumanicus and E. concolor in Turkey. Mean residue levels were as follows: in hair, PCBs = 7.43 ± 4.88 ng/g and OCPs = 9.21 ± 1.27 ng/g; in muscle, PCBs = 30.73 ± 2.51 ng/g and OCPs = 145.04 ± 16.59 ng/g. There was no significant difference between species and sex, while there was significant difference between habitats and regions in terms of either total PCB and OCP levels, or POP levels (p < 0...
January 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Risa Kakimoto, Masayoshi Ichiba, Akiko Matsumoto, Kunihiko Nakai, Nozomi Tatsuta, Miyuki Iwai-Shimada, Momoko Ishiyama, Noriko Ryuda, Takashi Someya, Ieyasu Tokumoto, Daisuke Ueno
Risk assessment of infant using a realistic persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure through breast milk is essential to devise future regulation of POPs. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that POP levels in breast milk collected from the same mother showed a wide range of variation daily and monthly. To estimate the appropriate sample size of breast milk from the same mother to obtain reliable POP concentrations, breast milk samples were collected from five mothers living in Japan from 2006 to 2012...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Josiah E Hardesty, Laila Al-Eryani, Banrida Wahlang, K Cameron Falkner, Hongxue Shi, Jian Jin, Brad Vivace, Brian P Ceresa, Russell A Prough, Matthew C Cave
Background: The purpose of this study is to identify an environmentally relevant shared receptor target for endocrine and metabolism disrupting chemical pollutants. A feature of the tested chemicals was that they induced Cyp2b10 in vivo implicating activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Recent studies suggest that these compounds could be indirect CAR activators via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition. Methods: Assays included a CAR activity reporter assay, EGF endocytosis assay, and EGFR phosphorylation assay...
January 10, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Ying Han, Wenbin Liu, Wen Zhu, Kaifeng Rao, Ke Xiao, Lirong Gao, Guijin Su, Guorui Liu
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Chinese mitten crabs from several areas were determined. The toxic equivalents (TEQs) for the mean PCDD/F and total PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCBs were 2.9 ± 2.7 and 5.7 ± 4.0 pg TEQ g-1, respectively. The mean concentrations of PCBs and dl-PCBs were 282 and 59 times the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, respectively. PCDD/F and PCB sources in the crab food web were assessed. The total TEQ of PCDD/F and PCB supplied by crab compound feed was 2...
January 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Davor Želježić, Snježana Herceg Romanić, Darija Klinčić, Marijana Matek Sarić, Judita Grzunov Letinić
This study investigated the levels and distribution of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (HCB, α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDT) in placenta samples from women living in the coastal area of Croatia. During November 2012 to February 2013, 51 placenta samples were collected from healthy mothers. This study presents the first report about Croatian placenta samples. Each of the analysed compounds were found in all of the samples; all of the maximum values were < 1 ng g-1 w...
January 9, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Md Saydur Rahman, Peter Thomas
Although marine and coastal environments which are contaminated with xenobiotic organic compounds often become hypoxic during the summer, the interactive effects of hypoxia and xenobiotic exposure on marine species such as teleost fishes remain poorly understood. The expression and activity of monooxygenase enzyme cytochrome P450-1A (CYP1A) in fishes are upregulated by exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), whereas they are down-regulated during hypoxia exposure. We investigated the interactive effects of hypoxia and PCB co-exposure on hepatic CYP1A expression in Atlantic croaker and on potential regulators of CYP1A...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Fangjie Guo, Qiaozhi Tang, Jingqian Xie, Lu Zhao, Kai Liu, Weiping Liu
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are harmful and persistent organic pollutants that have long been used in industrial manufacturing. Their persistence leads to accumulation in the food chain causing potential toxic effects. As 19 out of 78 of the chiral congeners have stable atropisomers at ambient temperature, we studied some typical enantiomers: PCB45, PCB95, PCB136, and PCB149. The chiral stationary phases OD-H and OJ-H were used for separation in analytic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), as well as for collection in semi-preparative HPLC...
January 8, 2018: Chirality
Federico L Sinche, Sam A Nutile, Kara E Huff Hartz, Peter F Landrum, Michael J Lydy
Organic carbon (OC) principally controls sorption and desorption of hydrophobic organic compounds in sediments. We investigated the effects of OC type and quantity on compound bioaccessibility. The desorption of 21 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in spiked sediments amended with black carbon (BC), humic acid (HA) and sawdust (SD) at either 3 or 6% OC. Desorption parameters were determined using Tenax sequential extractions, and then modeled as operationally-defined rapid, slow, and very slow fractions and rate constants...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Xiaopeng Chen, Kyla M Walter, Galen W Miller, Pamela J Lein, Birgit Puschner
Environmental toxicants that interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) signaling can impact growth and development in animals and humans. Zebrafish represent a model to study chemically-induced TH disruption, prompting the need for sensitive detection of THs. Simultaneous quantification of 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), 3,3',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine (rT3), 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2), and 3,3'-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,3'-T2) in zebrafish larvae was achieved by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion mode...
January 3, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Aude Ratier, Julien Dron, Gautier Revenko, Annabelle Austruy, Charles-Enzo Dauphin, Florence Chaspoul, Emmanuel Wafo
Lichen samples from contrasted environments, influenced by various anthropic activities, were investigated focusing on the contaminant signatures according to the atmospheric exposure typologies. Most of the contaminant concentrations measured in the 27 lichen samples, collected around the industrial harbor of Fos-sur-Mer (France), were moderate in rural and urban environments, and reached extreme levels in industrial areas and neighboring cities (Al up to 6567 mg kg-1, Fe 42,398 mg kg-1, or ΣPAH 1417 μg kg-1 for example)...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michael J Adkesson, Jeffrey M Levengood, John W Scott, David J Schaeffer, Jennifer N Langan, Susana Cárdenas-Alayza, Santiago de la Puente, Patricia Majluf, Sandra Yi
Persistent organic pollutants were assessed in Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti) from the Punta San Juan Marine Protected Area, Peru, in the austral winter of 2009. Plasma samples from 29 penguins were evaluated for 31 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by using gas chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer and for 15 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The detection rate for PCBs in the samples was 69%, with congeners 105, 118, 180, and 153 most commonly detected...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
David Aragon-Jurado, Arturo Morgado-Estevez, Fernando Perez-Peña
Servomotors have already been around for some decades and they are extremely popular among roboticists due to their simple control technique, reliability and low-cost. They are usually controlled by using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and this paper aims to keep the idea of simplicity and low-cost, while introducing a new control technique: Pulse Frequency Modulation (PFM). The objective of this paper is to focus on our development of a low-cost servomotor controller which will allow the research community to use them with PFM...
December 31, 2017: Sensors
Phillip Kyriakakis, Marianne Catanho, Nicole Hoffner, Walter Thavarajah, Vincent Jian-Yu, Syh-Shiuan Chao, Athena Hsu, Vivian Pham, Ladan Naghavian, Lara E Dozier, Gentry Patrick, Todd Coleman
Transplanting metabolic reactions from one species into another has many uses as a research tool with applications ranging from optogenetics to crop production. Ferredoxin (Fd), the enzyme that most often supplies electrons to these reactions, is often overlooked when transplanting enzymes from one species to another because most cells already contain endogenous Fd. However, we have shown that the production of chromophores used in Phytochrome B (PhyB) optogenetics, is greatly enhanced in mammalian cells by expressing bacterial and plant Fds with ferredoxin-NADP+ reductases (FNR)...
January 4, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Sunjay Sethi, Kimberly P Keil, Pamela J Lein
PCB 11 is an emerging global pollutant that we recently showed promotes axonal and dendritic growth in primary rat neuronal cell cultures. Here, we address the influence of sex and species on neuronal responses to PCB 11. Neuronal morphology was quantified in sex-specific primary hippocampal and cortical neuron-glia co-cultures derived from neonatal C57BL/6J mice and Sprague Dawley rats exposed for 48 h to vehicle (0.1% DMSO) or PCB 11 at concentrations ranging from 1 fM to 1 nM. Total axonal length was quantified in tau-1 immunoreactive neurons at day in vitro (DIV) 2; dendritic arborization was assessed by Sholl analysis at DIV 9 in neurons transfected with MAP2B-FusRed...
December 23, 2017: Toxics
Kaushik Bhattacharjee, Narasinga Rao Palepu, Kollipara Mohan Rao, Santa Ram Joshi
Natural products or their derivatives provide a reliable resource for new drugs. The multi-step chemical reaction to produce new drug is not only expensive but also release pollutants. The precursor-based combinatorial biosynthesis (PCB) is, however, a better option to produce novel natural products with potential pharmaceutical applications. The present work is an attempt to synthesize an antibacterial compound by transforming thiophene precursor using endolithic Streptomyces sp. AL51. The Streptomyces sp...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
M Kraft, S Sievering, L Grün, K Rauchfuss
Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from indoor air can lead to a significant increase in lower chlorinated congeners in human blood. Lower chlorinated congeners with short biological half-lives can exhibit an indirect genotoxic potential via their highly reactive metabolites. However, little is known about their occurrence in indoor air and, therefore, about the effects of possible exposure to these congeners. We analyzed all mono-, di- and trichlorinated biphenyls in the indoor air of 35 contaminated offices, as well as in the blood of the 35 individuals worked in these offices for a minimum of 2 years...
December 29, 2017: Indoor Air
Roland Weber, Stefan Gonser, Jutta Köhler, Wolfgang Körner, Christine Herold, Roland Haag, Margit Krapp, Ludwig Peichl
In the 1980s, it was demonstrated that semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate in plant leaves. Plants are at the base of the food chain, and therefore a starting point for transfer of PCBs to animals and related human exposure. For two decades, the Environment Agency of the German federal state of Bavaria (LfU) has been operating long-term monitoring stations to measure the impact of organic air pollutants. Standardized ryegrass, curly kale, and spruce needles are used as bioindicators for the atmospheric entries of PCBs into vegetation...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Majel Cervantes-Llanos, Nielsen Lagumersindez-Denis, Javier Marín-Prida, Nancy Pavón-Fuentes, Viviana Falcon-Cama, Beatriz Piniella-Matamoros, Hanlet Camacho-Rodríguez, Julio Raúl Fernández-Massó, Carmen Valenzuela-Silva, Ivette Raíces-Cruz, Eduardo Pentón-Arias, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Giselle Pentón-Rol
The only three oral treatments currently available for multiple sclerosis (MS) target the relapsing forms of the disease and concerns regarding efficacy, safety and tolerability limit their use. Identifying novel oral disease-modifying therapies for MS, targeting both its inflammatory and neurodegenerative components is still a major goal. AIM: The scope of this study was to provide evidence that the oral administration of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), the main biliprotein of the Spirulina platensis cyanobacteria and its tetrapyrrolic prosthetic group, Phycocyanobilin (PCB), exert ameliorating actions on rodent models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
December 26, 2017: Life Sciences
Vincent Vaccher, Philippe Marchand, Mélanie Picherot, Gaud Dervilly-Pinel, Elodie Lesquin, Aline Brosseaud, Anaïs Venisseau, Bruno Le Bizec
During a national monitoring plan, a pork fat sample was declared non-compliant for the sum of dioxins and PCB-DL (EU regulation). The National Reference Laboratory together with competent authorities conducted extended investigations to determine rapidly the contamination source at the farm level. A range of samples (n = 129), representative of potential contamination sources, was selected for further characterization (fat, feed, materials, dust, soil) and was analyzed for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs by GC-HRMS...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Milady Renata Apolinário da Silva, Eduardo de Oliveira Rodrigues, Melina Espanhol Soares, Flavio Soares Silva, Márcia Matiko Kondo, Rossano Gimenes
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are carcinogenic to humans and can be found in fuller's earth used for the treatment of used transformer oil. This work describes an optimization of the Fenton process for the removal of contaminants from fuller's earth. The effects of pH (2.5 and 4.0), [H2O2] (1.47 and 2.07 mol L-1), and [Fe2+] (1.7 and 40 mmol L-1) were studied. The Fenton process efficiency was monitored using the decreases of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the concentrations of oil and grease, total carbon (TC), PCBs, and H2O2...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Technology
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