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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719193/relationships-between-atmospheric-transport-regimes-and-pcb-concentrations-in-air-at-zeppelin-spitsbergen
#1
Sandy Ubl, Martin Scheringer, Konrad Hungerbühler
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent hazardous chemicals that are still detected in the atmosphere and other environmental media although their production has been banned for several decades. At the long-term monitoring site, Zeppelin at Spitsbergen, different PCB congeners have been continuously measured for more than a decade. However, it is not clear what factors determine the seasonal and inter-annual variability of different (lighter vs. heavier) PCB congeners. To investigate the influence of atmospheric transport patterns on PCB-28 and PCB-101 concentrations at Zeppelin, we applied the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART and calculated "footprints'' that indicate the potential source regions of air arriving at Zeppelin...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717099/differential-neurotoxic-effects-of-in-utero-and-lactational-exposure-to-hydroxylated-polychlorinated-biphenyl-oh-pcb-106-on-spontaneous-locomotor-activity-and-motor-coordination-in-young-adult-male-mice
#2
Asahi Haijima, Ronny Lesmana, Noriaki Shimokawa, Izuki Amano, Yusuke Takatsuru, Noriyuki Koibuchi
We investigated whether in utero or lactational exposure to 4-hydroxy-2',3,3',4',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (OH-PCB 106) affects spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination in young adult male mice. For in utero exposure, pregnant C57BL/6J mice received 0.05 or 0.5 mg/kg body weight of OH-PCB 106 or corn oil vehicle via gavage every second day from gestational day 10 to 18. For lactational exposure, the different groups of dams received 0.05 or 0.5 mg/kg body weight of OH-PCB 106 or corn oil vehicle via gavage every second day from postpartum day 3 to 13...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710665/physical-exercise-reduces-pyruvate-carboxylase-pcb-and-contributes-to-hyperglycemia-reduction-in-obese-mice
#3
Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, Rafael Calais Gaspar, Barbara Moreira Crisol, Guilherme Pedron Formigari, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, José Diego Botezelli, Rodrigo Stellzer Gaspar, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli
The present study evaluated the effects of exercise training on pyruvate carboxylase protein (PCB) levels in hepatic tissue and glucose homeostasis control in obese mice. Swiss mice were distributed into three groups: control mice (CTL), fed a standard rodent chow; diet-induced obesity (DIO), fed an obesity-inducing diet; and a third group, which also received an obesity-inducing diet, but was subjected to an exercise training protocol (DIO + EXE). Protocol training was carried out for 1 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 8 weeks, performed at an intensity of 60% of exhaustion velocity...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710428/the-use-of-a-hybrid-sequential-biofiltration-system-for-the-improvement-of-nutrient-removal-and-pcb-control-in-municipal-wastewater
#4
Edyta Kiedrzyńska, Magdalena Urbaniak, Marcin Kiedrzyński, Adam Jóźwik, Agnieszka Bednarek, Ilona Gągała, Maciej Zalewski
This article aims to evaluate the efficiency of an innovative hybrid Sequential Biofiltration System (SBS) for removing phosphorus and nitrogen and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from original municipal wastewater produced by a Wastewater Treatment Plant under authentic operating conditions. The hybrid SBS was constructed with two barriers, a geochemical (filtration beds with limestone, coal and sawdust) and a biological barrier (wetlands with Glyceria, Acorus, Typha, Phragmites), operating in parallel. Significant differences were found between inflow and outflow from the SBS with regard to wastewater contaminant concentrations, the efficiency of removal being 16% (max...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709981/relative-toxicity-for-indoor-semi-volatile-organic-compounds-based-on-neuronal-death
#5
Kevin Fournier, Emmanuel Baumont, Philippe Glorennec, Nathalie Bonvallot
BACKGROUND: Semi Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs) are contaminants commonly found in dwellings as a result of their use as plasticizers, flame retardants, or pesticides in building materials and consumer products. Many SVOCs are suspected of being neurotoxic, based on mammal experimentation (impairment of locomotor activity, spatial learning/memory or behavioral changes), raising the question of cumulative risk assessment. The aim of this work is to estimate the relative toxicity of such SVOCs, based on neuronal death...
July 11, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705580/relationship-between-serum-dioxin-like-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-post-testicular-maturation-in-human-sperm
#6
Raiza Paul, Julia Moltó, Nuria Ortuño, Alejandro Romero, Carlos Bezos, Jon Aizpurúa, Mª José Gómez-Torres
The relationship between dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (DL-PCB) levels in serum and semen parameters were investigated. Our case-control included two groups of patients. Total concentrations of PCBs were significantly higher in the low semen quality (n=24) than in the normal semen quality (n=26) group. A significant negative correlation was found between PCB 126 and viability in men with low semen quality, while PCBs 77 and 81 were positively correlated with morphology, and PCB 118, mono-ortho and total DL-PCBs were positively correlated with volume...
July 10, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702904/formation-of-brominated-and-chlorinated-dioxins-and-its-prevention-during-a-pilot-test-of-mechanochemical-treatment-of-pcb-and-pbde-contaminated-soil
#7
Mengnan Lu, Tianwu Lv, Ying Li, Zheng Peng, Giovanni Cagnetta, Shouxiang Sheng, Jun Huang, Gang Yu, Roland Weber
The destruction of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a large challenge in particular in developing and emerging economies. To date, a detailed assessment of non-combustion technologies with respect to formation of dioxins is lacking. In this study, an assessment of mechanochemical (MC) destruction technology for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in contaminated soil remediation was conducted. Actual applied conditions of pilot-scale MC POPs destruction process indicates that the temperature increase inside the ball mills has the potential to form high levels of toxic polybrominated and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs) when dioxin precursors are present...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699004/a-delayed-proinflammatory-response-of-human-preadipocytes-to-pcb126-is-dependent-on-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#8
Francoise A Gourronc, Larry W Robertson, Aloysius J Klingelhutz
Inflammation in adipose tissue is recognized as a causative factor in the development of type II diabetes. Adipocyte hypertrophy as well as bacterial and environmental factors have been implicated in causing inflammation in mature adipocytes. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with the development of type II diabetes. We show here that PCB126, a dioxin-like PCB, activates a robust proinflammatory state in fat cell precursors (preadipocytes)...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697428/temporal-and-spatial-variation-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-contamination-in-environmental-compartments-of-highly-polluted-area-in-central-russia
#9
Natalia Malina, Elena A Mazlova
This study highlights the fact that serious contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) still exists in Serpukhov City (Russia). The research help to determine the temporal (16- and 24-year periods) and spatial PCBs distribution in the environmental compartments of the studied region. Samples of soil, sediments, water and plants were analysed in order to establish their contamination levels. The most recent data on the Serpukhov City's soil contamination showed that the PCBs concentrations varies from 0...
July 2, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695493/effect-of-lower-chlorinated-hydroxylated-polychlorobiphenyls-on-development-of-pc12-cells
#10
Satomi Mizukami-Murata, Katsuhide Fujita, Takeshi Nakano
Hydroxylated polychlorobiphenyls (OH-PCBs) are major metabolites of PCBs that are widely distributed in the environment. While the effects of penta- to hepta-chlorinated OH-PCBs on neuronal differentiation have been widely reported, those of lower chlorinated OH-PCBs have not been extensively studied. To investigate the effects of lower chlorinated OH-PCBs on neuronal development, we studied the effects of mono- to hexa-chlorinated OH-PCBs on PC12 cells. Morphological changes were examined using an automatic system IN Cell Analyzer...
July 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693362/veterinary-utility-of-dried-blood-spots-for-analysis-of-toxic-chlorinated-hydrocarbons
#11
Andreas F Lehner, Margaret Johnson, John Buchweitz
Dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper provide a simple and convenient means of collecting, storing and shipping samples for veterinary diagnostics related to toxin exposures. This paper presents validation data on analysis of DBS for chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, specifically 4,4'-DDT and its breakdown product 4,4'-DDE, lindane and a representative polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener PCB-153. Analysis was by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The method required one 12...
July 11, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691872/organic-contamination-in-clams-venerupis-aurea-laeta-and-cerastoderma-edule-glaucum-from-sicily-italy
#12
Giuseppa Di Bella, Angela Giorgia Potortì, Patrizia Licata, Vito Pellizzeri, Hedi Ben Mansour, Giacomo Dugo, Vincenzo Lo Turco
Two species of edible clams Venerupis aurea laeta and Cerastoderma edule glaucum from Ganzirri Lake (Sicily, Italy) were investigated to determine OCP and PCB residues by GC-MS. Thirty-five samples were examined for two years in order to perform: a) their actual contamination; b) the daily dietary exposure of seafood consumers to the pollutants in question. In all the clams analysed in this study, PCB and OCP (4,4'-DDE) residues are always below the limits fixed by law. It seems that there is some seasonality of concentrations observed...
July 10, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689413/mesoscopic-structures-of-poly-carboxybetaine-block-copolymer-and-poly-ethylene-glycol-block-copolymer-in-solutions
#13
Mingrui Liao, Hongyan Liu, Hongyu Guo, Jian Zhou
The antifouling property of exogenous materials is vital for their in vivo applications. In this work, dissipative particle dynamics simulations are performed to study the self-assembled morphologies of two copolymer systems containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(carboxybetaine) (PCB) in aqueous solutions. Effects of polymer composition and polymer concentration on the self-assembled structures of the two copolymers (PLA-PEG and PLA-PCB) are investigated, respectively [PLA represents poly(lactic acid)]...
July 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686496/polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-polychlorinated-dioxins-furans-in-lake-trout-and-whitefish-composite-samples-from-commercial-fisheries-in-lakes-erie-huron-and-superior
#14
Dorothea F K Rawn, Michael Dowd, Matthew J S Scuby, Peter P Pantazopoulos, Mark Feeley
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; sum of 36 congeners) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs; sum of 17 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners) were measured in 93 composite samples prepared from individual lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) samples collected from Lake Erie, Lake Huron, and Lake Superior. All samples had detectable concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs; maximum PCB concentrations in both trout (750 ng g(-1) whole weight [ww]) and whitefish (210 ng g(-1) ww) were found in composites from fish collected from Lake Huron...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682597/the-effect-of-microplastic-on-the-uptake-of-chemicals-by-the-lugworm-arenicola-marina-l-under-environmentally-relevant-exposure-conditions
#15
Ellen Besseling, Edwin M Foekema, Martine J Van Den Heuvel-Greve, Albert A Koelmans
It has been hypothesized that ingestion of microplastic increases exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic contaminants. To date, most laboratory studies investigated chemical transfer from ingested microplastic without taking other exposure pathways into account. Therefore we studied the effect of polyethylene (PE) microplastic in sediment on PCB uptake by Arenicola marina as a model species, quantifying uptake fluxes from all natural exposure pathways. PCB concentrations in sediment, biota lipids (Clip) and porewater measured with passive samplers were used to derive lipid-normalized bioaccumulation metrics Clip, Biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) and the Biota plastic accumulation factor (BPAF)...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681163/bioaccumulation-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-in-atlantic-sea-bream-archosargus-rhomboidalis-from-kingston-harbour-jamaica
#16
Ann-Tenneil O'Connor, Dwight Robinson, Tara P Dasgupta, Aaron T Fisk, Ken G Drouillard
Multiple sizes of Sea bream were collected from Kingston Harbour, Jamaica, to assess steady state bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a tropical fish. Sea beam fork lengths ranged from 7.3 to 21.5 cm (n = 36 fish) and tissue lipids decreased with body length. Larger fish had lower δ(13)C isotopes compared to smaller fish, suggesting a change in diet. Linear regressions showed no differences in lipid equivalent sum PCB concentrations with size. However, differences in individual congener bioaccumulation trajectories occurred...
July 5, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676433/the-neurotoxicant-pcb-95-by-increasing-the-neuronal-transcriptional-repressor-rest-down-regulates-caspase-8-and-increases-ripk1-ripk3-and-mlkl-expression-determining-necroptotic-neuronal-death
#17
Natascia Guida, Giusy Laudati, Angelo Serani, Luigi Mascolo, Pasquale Molinaro, Paolo Montuori, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lorella Mt Canzoniero, Luigi Formisano
Our previous study showed that the environmental neurotoxicant non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-95 increases RE1-Silencing Transcription Factor (REST) expression, which is related to necrosis, but not apoptosis, of neurons. Meanwhile, necroptosis is a type of a programmed necrosis that is positively regulated by receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) and negatively regulated by caspase-8. Here we evaluated whether necroptosis contributes to PCB-95-induced neuronal death through REST up-regulation...
July 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675863/polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-nepalese-surface-soils-spatial-distribution-air-soil-exchange-and-soil-air-partitioning
#18
Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
Regardless of the ban on the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) decade ago, significant measures of PCBs are still transmitted from essential sources in cities and are all inclusive ecological contaminants around the world. In this study, the concentrations of PCBs in soil, the air-soil exchange of PCBs, and the soil-air partitioning coefficient (KSA) of PCBs were investigated in four noteworthy urban areas in Nepal. Overall, the concentrations of ∑30PCBs ranged from 10 to 59.4ng/g dry weight; dw (mean 12.2ng/g ±11...
July 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672247/biomagnification-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-a-deep-sea-temperate-food-web
#19
Sonia Romero-Romero, Laura Herrero, Mario Fernández, Belén Gómara, José Luis Acuña
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in a temperate, deep-sea ecosystem, the Avilés submarine Canyon (AC; Cantabrian Sea, Southern Bay of Biscay). There was an increase of contaminant concentration with the trophic level of the organisms, as calculated from stable nitrogen isotope data (δ(15)N). Such biomagnification was only significant for the pelagic food web and its magnitude was highly dependent on the type of top predators included in the analysis...
June 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672238/reassessment-and-update-of-emission-factors-for-unintentional-dioxin-like-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#20
Wenwen Gong, Heidelore Fiedler, Xiaotu Liu, Bin Wang, Gang Yu
One of the major goals of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is to continuously reduce the releases of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from anthropogenic sources. Until now, most efforts have focused on the releases of PCDD/PCDF and to a lesser extent on unintentionally generated PCB, and therefore, release inventories reported as toxic equivalents (TEQ) do not include the twelve dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB)...
June 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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