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Sara J Lupton, Margaret O'Keefe, Jorge G Muñiz-Ortiz, Nelson Clinch, Pat Basu
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a statistically-based survey of the domestic meat supply (beef, pork, chicken, and turkey) to determine current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs) every five years. Fat samples for each slaughter class were collected from U.S. federally licensed slaughter facilities. The samples were processed and analyzed for 17 PCDD/Fs and 3 no-PCBs. The sum of PCDD, PCDF, and no-PCB toxic equivalencies (sum-TEQ) calculated using 2005 toxic equivalency factors for all slaughter classes, ranged from non-detect (nd) to 6...
June 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Xin-Lan Qu, Ming-Zhang, Yuan-Fang, Hui Wang, Yuan-Zhen Zhang
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the most common endocrine-disrupting chemicals and have obvious toxicity on human reproductive development. The aim of our study was to investigate the toxicity of chronic 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118) exposure on embryo implantation and endometrial receptivity, with the possible mechanism of DNA methylation involved. Virgin CD-1 female mice (3 weeks old) were housed and orally treated with PCB 118 (0, 1, 10, 100 μg/kg) for a month. After mating with fertile males, the pregnant mice were killed on gestation day 4...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Marie-Sophie García-Heras, Beatriz Arroyo, Robert E Simmons, Pablo R Camarero, Rafael Mateo, Jesús T García, Francois Mougeot
Carotenoid-based traits or ornaments, such as yellow-red integuments (feathers, beaks, legs or eye-rings) displayed by birds, play key roles in social communication by reliably advertising an individual's quality or health. In some species, these traits are displayed not only by adults but also by nestlings, and function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Pollutants such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits, thereby interfering with communication processes...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Kelly A Heys, Richard F Shore, M Glória Pereira, Francis L Martin
The use of cell-based assays is essential in reducing the number of vertebrates used in the investigation of chemical toxicities and in regulatory toxicology assessment. An important factor in obtaining meaningful results which can be accurately extrapolated is the use of biologically appropriate cell lines. In this preliminary study, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to assess the fundamental biomolecular differences between a commonly used cell line, MCF-7 cells, and an environmentally relevant cell line derived from Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) dermal fibroblasts...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Xiaochen Duan, Xiuyong Fu, Jing Song, Huixin Li, Mingming Sun, Feng Hu, Li Xu, Jiaguo Jiao
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of man-made organic compounds ubiquitously present in the biosphere. In this study, we evaluated the toxic effects of different concentrations of PCBs in two natural soils (i.e. red soil and fluvo-aquic soil) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The parameters investigated included anti-oxidative response, genotoxic potential, weight variation and biochemical responses of the earthworm exposed to two different types of soils spiked with PCBs after 7 or 14 days of exposure...
June 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Philippa Douglas, Anna Freni-Sterrantino, Maria Leal Sanchez, Danielle C Ashworth, Rebecca E Ghosh, Daniela Fecht, Anna Font, Marta Blangiardo, John Gulliver, Mireille B Toledano, Paul Elliott, Kees de Hoogh, Gary W Fuller, Anna L Hansell
Municipal Waste Incineration (MWI) is regulated through the European Union Directive on Industrial Emissions (IED), but there is ongoing public concern regarding potential hazards to health. Using dispersion modeling, we estimated spatial variability in PM10 concentrations arising from MWIs at postcodes (average 12 households) within 10 km of MWIs in Great Britain (GB) in 2003-2010. We also investigated change points in PM10 emissions in relation to introduction of EU Waste Incineration Directive (EU-WID) (subsequently transposed into IED) and correlations of PM10 with SO2, NOx, heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furan (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Luis A Henríquez-Hernández, Elena Carretón, María Camacho, José Alberto Montoya-Alonso, Luis D Boada, Verónica Bernal Martín, Yaiza Falcón Cordón, Soraya Falcón Cordón, Manuel Zumbado, Octavio P Luzardo
Flame retardants are a wide group of chemicals used by the industry to avoid combustion of materials. These substances are commonly found in plastics, electronic equipment, fabrics, and in many other everyday articles. Subsequently, ubiquitous environmental contamination by these common chemical is frequently reported. In the present study, we have evaluated the level of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs), and organophosphorous flame retardants (OPFRs) in pet cats through the analysis of their serum...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Maria Wielsøe, Peder Kern, Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Environmental Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) can alter the hormone homeostasis by mimicking, interfering or blocking the function of hormones; moreover POPs are hypothesized to modify the risk of breast cancer. The association between POPs and breast cancer has been widely studied but the conclusions are inconsistent. The present study examined the associations between serum levels of POPs and breast cancer with focus on the highly exposed Greenlandic Inuit population...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Lenwood W Hall, Willian D Killen, Ronald D Anderson, Raymond W Alden
The objective of this 3-year study was to characterize benthic communities and physical habitat in an agricultural stream in the mid-west area of the United States (Big Bureau Creek, Illinois). Concurrent basic water quality parameters and seven nutrients were measured in the water column. Sediment measurements from depositional areas were conducted for bifenthrin, Total Organic Carbon, grain size, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and eight metals. All parameters were measured at 12 sites annually during the late summer for a 3-year period (2014, 2015 and 2016)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Satoshi Endo, Yoshinori Yabuki, Shuhei Tanaka
Two sediment passive samplers, polyethylene (PE) and polyoxymethylene (POM), were compared and mutually validated for measuring freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment porewater. PE and POM strips in commonly used dimensions (30 and 76 μm in thickness, respectively) were exposed to sediment slurries for 28 d. The Cfree values calculated using literature polymer-water partition coefficients were consistently higher for PE than for POM by a factor of 2 on average...
June 3, 2017: Chemosphere
Tong Lu, Eric Markvicka, Yichu Jin, Carmel Majidi
When encapsulated in elastomer, micropatterned traces of Ga-based liquid metal (LM) can function as elastically deformable circuit wiring that provides mechanically robust electrical connectivity between solid state elements (e.g. transistors, processors, sensor nodes). However, LM-microelectronics integration is currently limited by challenges in rapid fabrication of LM circuits and the creation of vias between circuit terminals and the I/O pins of packaged electronics. In this study we address both with a unique layup for soft-matter electronics in which traces of liquid-phase Ga-In eutectic (EGaIn) are patterned with UV laser micromachining (UVLM)...
June 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
T Portolés, B Garlito, Jaime Nácher-Mestre, M H G Berntssen, J Pérez-Sánchez
In this work, a method for the analysis of 24 PAHs in 19 different matrices, including fish tissues, feeds and feed ingredients, has been developed using gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (GC-APCI-MS/MS). The method is based on a modification of the unbuffered QuEChERS method, using freezing as an additional clean-up step and applying a 20-fold dilution factor to the final extract. The procedure was also tested for 15 pesticides and 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in order to widen the scope of the method...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
Megan C Archer, Amanda D Harwood, Samuel A Nutile, Kara E Huff Hartz, Marc A Mills, Jim E Garvey, Michael J Lydy
Current methods for evaluating exposure in ecosystems contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants typically focus on sediment exposure. However, a comprehensive environmental assessment requires a more holistic approach that not only estimates sediment concentrations, but also accounts for exposure by quantifying other pathways, such as bioavailability, bioaccumulation, trophic transfer potential, and transport of hydrophobic organic contaminants within and outside of the aquatic system. The current study evaluated the ability of multiple metrics to estimate exposure in an aquatic ecosystem...
June 10, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Cornelius Rimayi, Luke Chimuka, David Odusanya, Jacob de Boer, Jana M Weiss
A study of the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) utilising 16 priority PAHs, benzo(e)pyrene, perylene, 19 alkylated PAHs and 31 ortho substituted PCBs in South Africa is presented. It was aimed to (a) deduce characteristic contamination patterns for both PCBs and PAHs and (b) provide the first comprehensive dataset for establishment of source characterisation of PCBs and PAHs. This is in line with new South African legislation on mandatory monitoring of PCB and PAH emissions...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jose L Roscales, Alba Vicente, Lourdes Ramos, Begoña Jiménez
A simplified, miniaturised matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD)-based method allowing the simultaneous extraction and purification of contaminants belonging to selected families of regulated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and penta- to octa-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and related contaminants of emerging concern, such as deca-BDE and Dechlorane Plus (DP), has been proposed. Wild bird eggs were used as biotic fat-containing model matrices...
June 7, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Yang Long, Can Huang, Jian Wu, Jin-Nan Cheng, Guan-Nan Liang, Chun-Xia Jiang, Qin Wan
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been reported to be associated with increased risk to hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, et al. 2,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl, known as PCB118, is a member of coplanar PCBs which renders their structure similar to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and has dioxin-like activity. In our current study, we investigated the effect of PCB118 exposure on nitric oxide (NO) production and the underlying mechanisms in vitro. Exposure of PCB 118 impaired insulin-induced NO production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with no significant effect on cell viability...
June 7, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Atsushi Funatsu, Shigeru Nakamura, Naoto Inoue, Shinsuke Nanto, Masato Nakamura, Masashi Iwabuchi, Kenji Ando, Ryuta Asano, Seiji Habara, Shigeru Saito, Ken Kozuma, Kazuaki Mitsudo
AIM: We investigated the efficacy and safety of using paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) to treat small vessel disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trial, one-hundred and thirty-five patients with native coronary lesions in small vessels were randomized into a PCB group and plain balloon angioplasty (POBA) group at a ratio of 2:1. There were no differences in target vessel failure (TVF) that was defined as cardiac death or target vessel-related myocardial infarction or target lesion revascularization (TLR), between the two groups (3...
June 6, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Dejan Krčmar, Miloš Dubovina, Nenad Grba, Vesna Pešić, Malcolm Watson, Jelena Tričković, Božo Dalmacija
The Great Bačka Canal in Serbia is one of the most polluted waterways in Europe. Surface sediments from the canal were subject to systematic annual monitoring between 2007 and 2014 at 33 representative sampling sites. Eight heavy metals (Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, As and Hg), mineral oils, 16 EPA PAHs and selected pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were monitored. This study aims to evaluate the quality of the sediments and determine the potential ecological risks in order to establish pollutants of interest...
June 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Serena Indelicato, Santino Orecchio, Giuseppe Avellone, Sergio Bellomo, Leopoldo Ceraulo, Rossella Di Leonardo, Vita Di Stefano, Rocco Favara, Esterina Gagliano Candela, Leonardo La Pica, Sabina Morici, Giovannella Pecoraino, Antonino Pisciotta, Claudio Scaletta, Fabio Vita, Salvatrice Vizzini, David Bongiorno
The aim of this study was to obtain information on the presence and levels of hazardous organic pollutants in groundwater located close to solid waste landfills. Eighty-two environmental contaminants, including 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 29 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 7 dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDDs) and 10 furans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDFs) were monitored in areas characterised by different geological environments surrounding three municipal solid waste landfills (Palermo, Siculiana and Ragusa) in Sicily (Italy) in three sampling campaigns...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kaisa Figueiredo, Kimmo Mäenpää, Merja Lyytikäinen, Jouni Taskinen, Matti T Leppänen
Passive samplers are promising surrogates for organisms, mimicking bioaccumulation. However, several biological characteristics disturb the passive partitioning process in organisms by accelerating or restraining bioaccumulation, resulting in species-specific body residues of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). In addition to site-specific characteristics and HOC concentrations, age, sex, diet, biotransformation capability and habitat-specific characteristics may affect body residues. Two passive sampler types, polyethylene (PE) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were deployed in a PCB-contaminated freshwater lake water and sediment, respectively, to assess their bioaccumulation prediction capacity...
May 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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