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Zengling Yang, Jiaqi Mei, Zhiqiang Liu, Guangqun Huang, Guan Huang, Lujia Han
Understanding the biochemical heterogeneity of plant tissue linked to crop straw anatomy is attractive to plant researchers and researchers in the field of biomass-refinery. This study provides an in-situ analysis and semi-quantitative, visualization distributions of major composition distribution in internodal transverse sections of wheat straw based on FTIR microspec-troscopic imaging, with a fast Non-Negativity-Constrained Least Squares (fast NNLS) fitting. The paper investigates changes in biochemical components of tissue during stages of elongation, booting, heading, flowering, grain-filling, milk-ripening, dough, and full-ripening...
May 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jiahong Sun, Yajie Wen, Yanying Zhou, Yiming Jiang, Yixin Chen, Huizheng Zhang, Lihuan Guan, Xinpeng Yao, Min Huang, Huichang Bi
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most frequent cause of drug-induced acute liver failure. Inhibition of APAP metabolic activation and promotion in APAP disposition are important to protect against APAP-induced liver injury. Tumor suppressor p53 is traditionally recognized as a surveillance molecule to preserve genome integrity. Recent studies have emerged on discovering its functions in metabolic regulation. Our previous study reported that p53 promoted bile acid disposition and alleviated cholestastic syndrome...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Fei Shen, Hong-Mei Wen, Chen-Xiao Shan, An Kang, Bang Dong, Chuan Chai, Ji-Yun Zhang, Qi Zhang, Wei Li
Liguzinediol (2,5-dihydroxymethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine, LZDO) is a potential agent for the low-risk treatment of heart failure. 2-N-acetylcysteine-LZDO (2-NAC-LZDO) and 2-cysteine-LZDO (2-Cys-LZDO) are major LZDO metabolites found in the pharmacokinetic studies of rats and beagle dogs. To elucidate the biotransformation pathway and related enzymes, an incubation system with 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) as a cofactor and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a trapping agent was established using liver cytosol...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Sandrine Spriggs, Richard Cubberley, Paul Loadman, David Sheffield, Antonia Wierzbicki
Understanding skin metabolism is key to improve in vitro to in vivo extrapolations used to inform risk assessments of topically applied products. However, published literature is scarce and usually covers a limited and non-representative number of donors. We developed a protocol to handle and store ex vivo skin samples post-surgery and prepare skin S9 fractions to measure the metabolic activity of Phase II enzymes. Preincubation of an excess of cofactors at 37 °C for fifteen minutes in the S9 before introduction of the testing probe, greatly increased the stability of the enzymes...
April 27, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Fatemah A Alherz, Amal A El Daibani, Ahsan F Bairam, Maryam S Abunnaja, Mohammed I Rasool, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Yoichi Sakakibara, Masahito Suiko, Ming-Cheh Liu
Sulfated cholesterol, like its unsulfated counterpart, is known to be biologically active and serves a myriad of biochemical/physiological functions. Of the thirteen human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs), SULT2B1b has been reported as the main enzyme responsible for the sulfation of cholesterol. As such, SULT2B1b may play the role as a key regulator of cholesterol metabolism. Variations in the sulfating activity of SULT2B1b may affect the sulfation of cholesterol and, consequently, the related physiological events...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Takehiko Shimohira, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Ming-Cheh Liu, Masahito Suiko, Yoichi Sakakibara
Members of the cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) SULT2A subfamily are known to be critically involved in the homeostasis of steroids and bile acids. SULT2A8, a 7α-hydroxyl bile acid-preferring mouse SULT, has been identified as the major enzyme responsible for the mouse-specific 7-O-sulfation of bile acids. Interestingly, SULT2A8 lacks a conservative catalytic His residue at position 99th. The catalytic mechanism underlying the SULT2A8-mediated 7-O-sulfation of bile acids thus remained unclear. In this study, we performed a mutational analysis in order to gain insight into this yet-unresolved issue...
April 24, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Maryam S Abunnaja, Fatemah A Alherz, Amal A El Daibani, Ahsan F Bairam, Mohammed Ibrahim Rasool, Saud A Gohal, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Yoichi Sakakibara, Masahito Suiko, Ming-Cheh Liu
The cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) SULT2A1 is known to mediate the sulfation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) as well as some other hydroxysteroids such as pregnenolone. The present study was designed to investigate how genetic polymorphisms of the human SULT2A1 gene may affect the sulfation of DHEA and pregnenolone. Online databases were systematically searched to identify human SULT2A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Of the 98 SULT2A1 non-synonymous coding SNPs identified, seven were selected for further investigation...
April 19, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Sina Rütschlin, Sandra Gunesch, Thomas Boettcher
Bacteria compete for ferric iron by producing siderophores and some microbes engage in piracy by scavenging sidero-phores of their competitors. The macrocyclic hydroxamate siderophore avaroferrin of Shewanella algae inhibits swarm-ing of Vibrio alginolyticus by evading this piracy. Avaroferrin as well as related putrebactin and bisucaberin are produced by the IucC-like synthetases AvbD, PubC, and BibCC. Here, we established that they are capable of synthesizing not only their native product but also other siderophores...
April 13, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Takuyu Hashiguchi, Sawako Shindo, Shih-Heng Chen, Jau-Shyong Hong, Masahiko Negishi
Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) catalyze sulfation and play essential roles in detoxification of xenobiotics as well as inactivation of endo-biotics. Sulfotransferase 4A1 (SULT4A1) which was originally isolated as a brain-specific sulfotransferase, is the most highly conserved isoform among SULTs in vertebrates. Here, expression of SULT4A1 was examined neuron enriched and neuron-glia mixed cells derived from mouse embryo brains at day 14 gestation and mixed glia from 2 days-old neonate brains. Western blots showed an increase of SULT4A1 expression as neurons maturated...
April 6, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Brandon T Gufford, Jason D Robarge, Michael T Eadon, Hongyu Gao, Hai Lin, Yunlong Liu, Zeruesenay Desta, Todd C Skaar
Rifampin is a pleiotropic inducer of multiple drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. This work utilized a global approach to evaluate rifampin effects on conjugating enzyme gene expression with relevance to human xeno- and endo-biotic metabolism. Primary human hepatocytes from 7 subjects were treated with rifampin (10 μmol/L, 24 hours). Standard methods for RNA-seq library construction, EZBead preparation, and NextGen sequencing were used to measure UDP-glucuronosyl transferase UGT, sulfonyltransferase SULT, N acetyltransferase NAT, and glutathione-S-transferase GST mRNA expression compared to vehicle control (0...
April 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Medjda Bellamri, Shun Xiao, Paari Murugan, Christopher J Weight, Robert J Turesky
2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), an heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) formed in cooked meat, is a rodent and possible human prostate carcinogen. Recently, we identified DNA adducts of PhIP in the genome of prostate cancer patients, but adducts of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), other prominent HAAs formed in cooked meats, were not detected. We have investigated the bioactivation of HAAs by Phase I and II enzymes in the human prostate (LNCaP) cell line using cytotoxicity and DNA adducts as endpoints...
March 27, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Angeliki Marietou, Hans Røy, Bo B Jørgensen, Kasper U Kjeldsen
The first step in the sulfate reduction pathway is the transport of sulfate across the cell membrane. This uptake has a major effect on sulfate reduction rates. Much of the information available on sulfate transport was obtained by studies on assimilatory sulfate reduction, where sulfate transporters were identified among several types of protein families. Despite our growing knowledge on the physiology of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) there are no studies identifying the proteins involved in sulfate uptake in members of this ecologically important group of anaerobes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yuichi Yokoyama, Yoshifumi Sasaki, Natsuko Terasaki, Taku Kawataki, Koji Takekawa, Yumiko Iwase, Toshinobu Shimizu, Seigo Sanoh, Shigeru Ohta
Differentiated HepaRG cells maintain liver-specific functions such as drug-metabolizing enzymes. In this study, the feasibility of HepaRG cells as a human hepatocyte model for in vitro toxicity assessment was examined using selected hepatotoxic compounds. First, basal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase [UGT], and sulfotransferases [SULT]) were measured in HepaRG, human hepatocytes, and HepG2 cells. Enzyme activities in differentiated HepaRG cells were comparable to those in human hepatocytes and much higher than those in HepG2 cells, except for SULT activity...
May 1, 2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
William Davies
Steroid hormones can exist in functionally-dissociable sulfated and non-sulfated (free) forms and can exert profound effects on numerous aspects of mammalian physiology; the ratio of free to sulfated steroids is governed by the antagonistic actions of steroid sulfatase (STS) and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes. Here, I examine evidence from human and animal model studies which suggests that STS and its major substrate (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, DHEAS) and product (DHEA) can influence brain function, behavior and mental health, before summarising how the activity of this axis varies throughout mammalian pregnancy and the postpartum period...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Husna Yetti, Hisao Naito, Yuan Yuan, Xiaofang Jia, Yumi Hayashi, Hazuki Tamada, Kazuya Kitamori, Katsumi Ikeda, Yukio Yamori, Tamie Nakajima
During middle age, women are less susceptible to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) than men. Thus, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these sexual differences using an established rat model of NASH. Mature female and male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats were fed control or high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diets for 2, 8, and 14 weeks. Although HFC-induced hepatic fibrosis was markedly less severe in females than in males, only minor gender differences were observed in expression levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP)7A1, CYP8B1 CYP27A1, and CYP7B1, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, and bile salt export pump, which are involved in fibrosis-related bile acid (BA) kinetics...
2018: PloS One
Caleb Keng Yan Yip, Sumit Bansal, Siew Ying Wong, Aik Jiang Lau
Galeterone and abiraterone acetate are antiandrogens developed for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effect of these drugs on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfonation catalyzed by human liver and intestinal cytosols and human recombinant sulfotransferase enzymes (SULT2A1, SULT2B1b, and SULT2E1) and compared their effects to those of other antiandrogens (cyproterone acetate, spironolactone, and danazol). Each of these chemicals (10 μ M) inhibited DHEA sulfonation catalyzed by human liver and intestinal cytosols...
April 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Gianluca Cuomo, Cinzia Puzzolante, Claudia Lazzaretti, Giovanni Guaraldi, Vanni Borghi, Cristina Mussini
BACKGROUND: New Direct Antiviral Agents (DAA) are now effective in HCV infection; persons living with HIV (PLWH) were undertreated. Aim of this study was to describe the management of HCV treatment in a HIV/HCV cohort during a 16 years period. METHODS: An electronic review of all HIV patients with > 1 clinic check from the year 2000 was made. De- mographic, virologic and treatment data were collected. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2015 a total of 2352 PLWH were enrolled; 776 (33%) resulted positive at HCV anti- bodies, and were mostly genotype 1 and 3...
January 31, 2018: Minerva Medica
Li-Hui Lin, Tzong-Jer Chen
Background: The lossy compression algorithm produces different results in various con-trasts areas. Low contrast area image quality declines greater than that of high contrast regions using equal compression ratio. These results were obtained in a subjective study. The objective image quali-ty metrics are more effective if the calculation method is more closely related to the human vision re-sults. Methods: This study first measured the PSNR and MI for discrimination between different contrast areas responding to lossy image compression in a SMPTE electronic pattern...
February 2018: Current Medical Imaging Reviews
Ethan Miller, Munaf H Zalzala, Maryam S Abunnaja, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Yoichi Sakakibara, Masahito Suiko, Ming-Cheh Liu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated the metabolism of tibolone through sulfation, with the cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) SULT2A1 as the major responsible enzyme. The current study aimed to investigate how SULT2A1 genetic polymorphisms may affect the dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)- and tibolone-sulfating activity of SULT2A1. METHODS: Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to generate cDNAs encoding ten different SULT2A1 allozymes. Recombinant SULT2A1 allozymes were expressed in BL21 E...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Yalong Lu, Wenfeng Li, Xingbin Yang
This study was designed to probe the promoting effects of soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS) on bioavailability of genistein in mice and the underlying molecular mechanism. Male Kunming mice (n=8) were administered intragastrically with either saline, SSPS (5mg/kgbw), genistein (100mg/kgbw), or SSPS (5 or 50mg/kgbw) together with genistein (100mg/kgbw) for consecutive 28days. UPLC-qTOF/MS analysis showed that co-administration of SSPS and genistein in mice caused significant elevation in the urinary levels of genistein and its metabolites (p<0...
January 2018: Food Research International
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