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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156422/syndecan-1-in-mechanosensing-of-nanotopological-cues-in-engineered-materials
#1
Victoria Le, Jason Lee, Somali Chaterji, Adrianne Spencer, Yen-Liang Liu, Peter Kim, Hsin-Chih Yeh, Deok-Ho Kim, Aaron B Baker
The cells of the vascular system are highly sensitive to biophysical cues from their local cellular microenvironment. To engineer improved materials for vascular devices and delivery of cell therapies, a key challenge is to understand the mechanisms that cells use to sense biophysical cues from their environment. Syndecans are heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) that consist of a protein core modified with heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains. Due to their presence on the cell surface and their interaction with cytoskeletal and focal adhesion associated molecules, cell surface proteoglycans are well poised to serve as mechanosensors of the cellular microenvironment...
November 9, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156420/a-concise-synthesis-of-rhamnan-oligosaccharides-with-alternating-%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-2-1%C3%A2-3-linkages-and-repeating-%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-3-linkages-by-iterative-%C3%AE-glycosylation-using-disaccharide-building-blocks
#2
Hidenori Tanaka, Yu Hamaya, Nagatoshi Nishiwaki, Hideharu Ishida
A concise synthetic route to rhamnan oligosaccharides with alternating α-(1→2)/(1→3)-linkages and repeating α-(1→3)-linkages is reported. This synthesis was achieved by iterative α-glycosylation using disaccharide building blocks and through orthogonal coupling between thioglycosides of L-rhamnose. To investigate the detailed structure-activity relationship of rhamnan sulfate from Monostroma nitidum against herpes simplex virus type 2, the synthesized oligosaccharides, bearing different orthogonal protecting groups (i...
November 14, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156269/autotrophic-denitrification-supported-by-biotite-dissolution-in-crystalline-aquifers-2-transient-mixing-and-denitrification-dynamic-during-long-term-pumping
#3
Clément Roques, Luc Aquilina, Alexandre Boisson, Virginie Vergnaud-Ayraud, Thierry Labasque, Laurent Longuevergne, Marc Laurencelle, Alexis Dufresne, Jean-Raynald de Dreuzy, Hélène Pauwels, Olivier Bour
We investigated the mixing and dynamic of denitrification processes induced by long-term pumping in the crystalline aquifer of Ploemeur (Brittany, France). Hydrological and geochemical parameters have been continuously recorded over 15 boreholes in 5km(2) on a 25-year period. This extensive spatial and temporal monitoring of conservative as well as reactive compounds is a key opportunity to identify aquifer-scale transport and reactive processes in crystalline aquifers. Time series analysis of the conservative elements recorded at the pumped well were used to determine mixing fractions from different compartments of the aquifer on the basis of a Principal Component Analysis approach coupled with an end-member mixing analysis...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156259/biochar-and-nitrate-reduce-risk-of-methylmercury-in-soils-under-straw-amendment
#4
Yue Zhang, Yu-Rong Liu, Pei Lei, Yong-Jie Wang, Huan Zhong
There is growing evidence that incorporating crop straw into soils, which is being widely encouraged in many parts of the world, could increase net methylmercury (MeHg) production in soils and MeHg accumulation in crops. We explored the possibility of mitigating the risk of increased MeHg levels under straw amendment by transforming straw into biochar (BC). Greenhouse and batch experiments were conducted, in which soil MeHg concentrations, MeHg phytoavailability and accumulation in rice, dynamics of sulfate, nitrate and abundances of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were compared in 'Control' (Hg contaminated soil), 'Straw' (soil with 1% rice straw), 'Straw+BC' (soil with 1% straw and 1% biochar), and 'Straw+BC+N' (soil with 1% straw, 1% biochar and 0...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156122/preparation-of-lignin-sds-composite-nanoparticles-and-its-application-in-pickering-emulsion-template-based-microencapsulation
#5
Yuxia Pang, Shengwen Wang, Xueqing Qiu, Yanling Luo, Hongming Lou, Jinhao Huang
Lignin is a vastly underutilized biomass resource. The preparation of water dispersed lignin nanoparticles is an effective way to realize the high-value utilization of lignin. However, the currently reported preparation methods of lignin nanoparticles still have some drawbacks, such as the requirement for toxic organic solvent or chemical modification, complicated operation process and poor dispersibility. Here, lignin/SDS composite nanoparticles (LSNPs) with outstanding water dispersibility and a size range of 70-200 nm were facilely prepared via acidifying the mixed basic solution of alkaline lignin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155139/the-generation-and-characterisation-of-neutralising-antibodies-against-the-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus-tmev-gdvii-capsid-reveals-the-potential-binding-site-of-the-host-cell-co-receptor-heparan-sulfate
#6
Nicole Upfold, Caroline Ross, Özlem Tastan Bishop, Garry A Luke, Caroline Knox
The early stages of picornavirus capsid assembly and the host factors involved are poorly understood. Since the localisation of viral proteins in infected cells can provide information on their function, antibodies against purified Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) GDVII capsids were generated by immunisation of rabbits. The resultant anti-TMEV capsid antibodies recognised a C-terminal region of VP1 but not VP2 or VP3 by Western analysis. Examination of the sites of TMEV capsid assembly by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy showed that at 5hours post infection, capsid signal was diffusely cytoplasmic with strong perinuclear staining and moved into large punctate structures from 6 to 8hours post infection...
November 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155129/nervonoylceramide-c24-1cer-a-lipid-biomarker-for-ocular-irritants-released-from-the-3d-reconstructed-human-cornea-like-epithelium-mctt-hce%C3%A2
#7
Miri Lee, Kyung-Mi Joo, Seunghye Choi, Su-Hyon Lee, Seol Yeong Kim, Young-Jin Chun, Dalwoong Choi, Kyung-Min Lim
Due to invasive and painful procedures during in vivo rabbit eye irritation test, in vitro alternative methods have been widely investigated. Recently, 3D reconstructed human cornea-like epitheliums (RhCE) garner a huge attention. RhCEs employ the tissue viability as a primary endpoint to determine ocular irritancy but additional biomarkers may improve its predictive capacity. Here, we explored lipid biomarkers for ocular irritants in MCTT HCE™ RhCE model. Three irritants; sodium lauryl sulfate, benzalkonium chloride and triton X-100 were selected to represent anionic, cationic and non-ionic detergent respectively...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154941/in-vitro-percutaneous-absorption-and-metabolism-of-bisphenol-a-bpa-through-fresh-human-skin
#8
Frank Toner, Graham Allan, Stephen S Dimond, John M Waechter, Dieter Beyer
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume compound. It is mainly used as a monomer to make polymers for various applications including food-contact materials. The primary route of exposure to BPA in the general population is through oral intake (EFSA 2015) however, other potential sources of exposure have also been identified, such as dermal contact. In the present study, the percutaneous absorption through human skin has been investigated in an in vitro study according to OECD TG 428 (Skin Absorption: In Vitro Method)...
November 14, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154876/chondroitin-sulfate-from-scophthalmus-maximus-for-treating-osteoarthritis
#9
Zhenkun Ren, Yuanyuan Ji, Yi Wang, Liyuan Dong
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation. Chondroitin sulfate from shark (CS-S) has a good effect on OA in clinical, but due to source limited of CS from shark. Therefore, it is important to find a novel CS source with similar efficacy to CS-S in the treatment of OA. Herein, we reported a therapeutic effect of CS from scophthalmus maximus (CS-SM) for treating OA in rats. The OA model was established. After intervention with CS-SM by intragastric administration. Our results showed that CS-SM could protect articular cartilage in OA, inhibit the degradation of cartilage, decrease the apoptosis of chondrocytes, decline the content of interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and Prostaglandins E2 in synovial fluid, down-regulate the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and up-regulate the protein expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154875/optimization-of-pegylation-reaction-time-and-molar-ratio-of-rhg-csf-toward-increasing-bioactive-potency-of-monopegylated-protein
#10
Jamila Behi, RymHassiki, Nadia Ben Said, Balkiss Bouhaouala-Zahar, Mohamed Lamine Benkhoud
PEGylation is one of the strategies used for enhancing in vivo residence time of recombinant human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (rhG-CSF) and therefore reducing in dose frequency to better fit with patient comfort treatment. In this study, three methoxy polyethylene glycol propionaldehydes (mPEG- ALD) of 10, 20 and 30kDa MW were utilized to produce biologically active monoPEGylated rhG-CSF with enhanced molecular weight. PEGylation reactions were carried out at room temperature and pH 5.0 in the presence of cyanoborohydride and two mPEG-ALD: protein molar ratios (3:1 and 5:1)...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154836/a-new-promising-simultaneous-approach-for-attenuating-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-rats-inos-inhibition-and-neuroregeneration
#11
Abhilasha Ahlawat, Saurabh Sharma
In view of the pathologic basis for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, it is important to enhance nerve regeneration as well as prevent nerve degeneration. So, in the present study, we have investigated the effect of S-Methylisothiourea Sulfate (selective iNOS inhibitor) and Citicoline, alone and in combination, on Type II Diabetes Mellitus induced neuropathic pain in wistar rats. Type II diabetes was induced by providing high fat diet and low dose of Streptozotocin for 35 days in rats. Type II Diabetes Mellitus was assessed in terms of increased glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL levels, glucose tolerance and decrease in HDL levels...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154715/virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-isolates-from-seafood-from-three-developing-countries-and-of-worldwide-environmental-seafood-and-clinical-isolates-from-2000-to-2017
#12
Mohammad M Obaidat, Alaa E Bani Salman, Amira A Roess
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-associated illness. This study investigated the prevalence, virulence, and antibiotic resistance of V. parahaemolyticus in three low- and middle-income countries. Freshly caught fish samples (n = 330) imported to Jordan from Yemen, India, and Egypt were tested. The overall prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was 15% (95% confidence interval: 11 to 19%). Three isolates (6%) were positive for the thermostable direct hemolysin-related (trh) gene, and all isolates was negative for the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) gene...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154707/objective-evaluation-of-the-systemic-effects-of-topical-application-of-1-atropine-sulfate-ophthalmic-solution-in-healthy-horses
#13
Rita F Wehrman, Anne J Gemensky-Metzler, Ashley E Zibura, Amelia B Nyhart, Heather L Chandler
OBJECTIVE To determine the safety of topical administration of 1% atropine ophthalmic solution in healthy horses by objectively measuring gastrointestinal transit time. DESIGN Randomized, masked, controlled crossover study. ANIMALS 6 adult geldings. PROCEDURES Horses were randomly assigned (3/group) to first receive topical treatment of the left eye with 1% atropine or artificial tears solution; the right eye was left untreated. After 24 hours of treatment every 6 hours, 200 nontoxic beads were administered to each horse via nasogastric intubation and treatment frequency was decreased to every 12 hours for 4 more days...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154539/electrokinetic-removal-of-dodecyl-sulfate-micelles-from-digested-protein-samples-prior-to-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#14
Ria Marni Tubaon, Paul Raymond Haddad, Joselito P Quirino
In proteomics, dodecyl sulfate (DS-) as sodium salt is commonly used in protein solubilization prior to tryptic digestion, but the presence of the DS- hampers the electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) analysis. The development of DS- depletion techniques is therefore important especially when dealing with small samples where there could be poor sensitivity due to sample loss or dilution during sample preparation. Here, we present a simple and fast electrokinetic removal method of DS- from small volumes of peptide and digested protein samples prior to ESI-MS...
November 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154400/a-chiral-enantioseparation-generic-strategy-for-anti-alzheimer-and-antifungal-drugs-by-short-end-injection-capillary-electrophoresis-using-an-experimental-design-approach
#15
Ahmed M Abdel-Megied, Rasha S Hanafi, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein
The present study describes a generic strategy using capillary electrophoretic (CE) method for chiral enantioseparation of anti-Alzheimer drugs, namely, donepezil (DON), rivastigmine (RIV), and antifungal drugs, namely, ketoconazole (KET), Itraconazole (ITR), fluconazole (FLU), and sertaconazole (SRT) in which these drugs have different basic and acidic properties. Several modified cyclodextrins (CDs) were applied for enantioseparation of racemates such as highly sulfated α, γ CDs, hydroxyl propyl-β-CD, and Sulfobutyl ether-β-CD...
November 20, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153729/ambient-air-pollution-and-the-risk-of%C3%A2-pregnancy-loss-a-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Sandie Ha, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Germaine M Buck Louis, Carrie Nobles, Indulaxmi Seeni, Seth Sherman, Pauline Mendola
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association of pregnancy loss with common air pollutant exposure. Ambient air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes, but few studies have investigated its relationship with pregnancy loss. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 343 singleton pregnancies in a multisite prospective cohort study with detailed protocols for ovulation and pregnancy testing...
November 14, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153472/inorganic-sulfur-and-mercury-speciation-in-the-water-level-fluctuation-zone-of-the-three-gorges-reservoir-china-the-role-of-inorganic-reduced-sulfur-on-mercury-methylation
#17
Jiang Liu, Tao Jiang, Feiyue Wang, Jinzhong Zhang, Dingyong Wang, Rong Huang, Deliang Yin, Zeyan Liu, Jinzhu Wang
The water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China is a unique geomorphological unit that undergoes annual flooding and drying alternation cycle. The alternating redox conditions within the WLFZ are expected to result in dynamic cycling of reduced sulfur species, which could affect mercury (Hg) methylation due to the high affinity of reduced sulfur species to both inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)i) and methylmercury (MeHg). Variations of inorganic sulfur species (measured as acid volatile sulfide, chromium reductive sulfur, elemental sulfur, and water-soluble sulfate), total mercury (THg) and MeHg were studied at two typical WLFZ sites in the TGR from July 2015 to June 2016...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153138/p-cresol-sulfate-and-indoxyl-sulfate-some-clouds-are-gathering-in-the-uremic-toxin%C3%A2-sky
#18
Pieter Evenepoel, Griet Glorieux, Bjorn Meijers
An increasing body of experimental and clinical evidence suggests that p-cresol sulfate and indoxyl sulfate contribute to the high cardiovascular burden in patients with chronic kidney disease. In a post hoc analysis on the HEMO trial, Shafi et al. failed to confirm an association between total p-cresol sulfate and indoxyl sulfate and cardiovascular outcomes in dialysis patients. Analytical issues and case-mix may explain the discrepant findings.
December 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152794/highly-sustainable-zinc-anodes-for-the-rechargeable-hybrid-aqueous-battery
#19
Kyung Eun Kate Sun, Tuan Hoang, The Nam Long Doan, Yan Yu, Pu Chen
The synthesis of novel zinc electrodes has been successfully implemented by the electroplating method with the aid of inorganic additives in the electroplating solution. The selected inorganic additives are indium sulfate, tin oxide, and boric acid. From X-ray diffraction results, the synthesized zinc electrodes prefer (002) and/or (103) crystallographic orientations, representing basal morphology and high resistance to dendrite growth. The corrosion rates of these electroplated zinc samples decrease as much as 11 times smaller than the rate of a zinc foil when the zinc materials are in contact with the aqueous electrolyte of a rechargeable hybrid aqueous battery (ReHAB)...
November 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152703/multiplex-pcr-to-detect-bacteriophages-from-natural-whey-cultures-of-buffalo-milk-and-characterisation-of-two-phages-active-against-lactococcus-lactis-%C3%AE-apr-1-and-%C3%AE-apr-2
#20
Giuseppe Aprea, William Michael Mullan, Nicoletta Murru, Gerald Fitzgerald, Marialuisa Buonanno, Maria Luisa Cortesi, Vincenza Annunziata Prencipe, Giacomo Migliorati
This work investigated bacteriophage induced starter failures in artisanal buffalo Mozzarella production plants in Southern Italy. Two hundred and ten samples of whey starter cultures were screened for bacteriophage infection. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed phage infection in 28.56% of samples, all showing acidification problems during cheese making. Based on DNA sequences, bacteriophages for Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis), Lactobacillus delbruekii (L. delbruekii) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S...
September 30, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
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