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Devendra Kumar, Neerja Trivedi, Rakesh K Dixit
AIMS/BACKGROUND: This study was to investigated the synergistic effect of polyherbal formulations (PHF) of Allium sativum L., Eugenia jambolana Lam., Momordica charantia L., Ocimum sanctum Linn., and Psidium guajava L. in the inhibition/induction of hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYPs) and Phase-II conjugated drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). Consumption of these herbal remedy has been extensively documented for diabetes treatment in Ayurveda. METHODOLOGY: PHF of these five herbs was prepared, and different doses were orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats of different groups except control group...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Priyanka Srivastava, Himani Pandey, Divya Agarwal, Kausik Mandal, Shubha R Phadke
We describe three consanguineous Indian families with a distinct form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED Omani type). It is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutation in CHST3 gene. CHST3 gene encodes the enzyme chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferase-1 (C6ST-1) which mediates the sulfation of proteoglycans, (chondroitin sulfate), in the extracellular matrix of cartilage. CHST3 gene was sequenced in probands from three different families with SED. In two families missense mutations (c.904G>C predicting the substitution D302H) and c...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Satomi Nadanaka, Hiroki Kinouchi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans are abundant extracellular and cell surface molecules that consist of a protein core to which highly sulfated CS chains are covalently attached. The CS backbone is composed of repeating disaccharide units [-GlcA-GalNAc-]n, and during synthesis the CS chains acquire structural variability due to the action of sulfotransferases. Specific sulfation patterns are recognized by a large variety of proteins, including growth factors, morphogens, and extracellular matrix proteins, and these interactions regulate key events in development and normal physiology...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hitomi Hoshino, Makoto Ohta, Makoto Ito, Kenji Uchimura, Yasuhiro Sakai, Takeshi Uehara, Shulin Low, Mana Fukushima, Motohiro Kobayashi
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary liver neoplasm, followed by hepatocellular carcinoma. ICC can be further subclassified as (i) perihilar and (ii) peripheral types, the latter histologically resembling small-sized intrahepatic bile ducts, such as interlobular bile ducts, cholangioles/ductules and the canals of Hering. Cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC), now classified by the World Health Organization as a subtype of combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, is currently regarded as a subtype of peripheral-type ICC...
October 17, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Sebastian T Soukup, Dennis R Müller, Anne Kurrat, Patrick Diel, Sabine E Kulling
Genistein and daidzein are the main isoflavones in soy. Their potential beneficial or adverse effects in males like the prevention of prostate cancer or the impact on reproductive functions are controversially discussed. Major determinants of their bioactivity are the absorption and biotransformation of isoflavones. In this study, we focused on the influence of testosterone on plasma availability and phase II metabolism of isoflavones. Male Wistar rats, receiving an isoflavones rich diet, were randomized into three groups: Two groups were orchiectomized (ORX) at postnatal day (PND) 80 and treated for 11 days with testosterone propionate (TP) (ORX TP group) or a vehicle (ORX group) after a 7 days lasting hormonal decline...
October 14, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Thanh Van Nguyen, Daniel Wibberg, Kai Battenberg, Jochen Blom, Brian Vanden Heuvel, Alison M Berry, Jörn Kalinowski, Katharina Pawlowski
BACKGROUND: The ability to establish root nodule symbioses is restricted to four different plant orders. Soil actinobacteria of the genus Frankia can establish a symbiotic relationship with a diverse group of plants within eight different families from three different orders, the Cucurbitales, Fagales and Rosales. Phylogenetically, Frankia strains can be divided into four clusters, three of which (I, II, III) contain symbiotic strains. Members of Cluster II nodulate the broadest range of host plants with species from four families from two different orders, growing on six continents...
October 12, 2016: BMC Genomics
Min Jae Kang, Jeong Seon Lee, Hwa Young Kim, Hae Woon Jung, Young Ah Lee, Sun Hee Lee, Ji-Young Seo, Jae Hyun Kim, Hye Rim Chung, Se Young Kim, Choong Ho Shin, Sei Won Yang
The CAG repeat length of the androgen receptor (AR) gene, which exhibits an inverse relationship to AR sensitivity, might influence the development of the pubarche along with hyperandrogenemia. There are ethnic differences in the AR CAG repeat length, however, no Asian studies on premature pubarche (PP) have been reported, including Korea. Our objectives were to examine the hormone levels and AR CAG repeat length, and to assess their contributions to PP in Korean girls. Subjects with PP (n=16) and normal pubarche (NP, n=16), and normal controls (NC, n=16) were enrolled...
October 6, 2016: Endocrine Journal
Tabea Dierker, Chun Shao, Tatjana Haitina, Joseph Zaia, Andrea Hinas, Lena Kjellén
Proteoglycans are proteins that carry sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). They help form and maintain morphogen gradients, guiding cell migration and differentiation during animal development. While no sulfated GAGs have been found in marine sponges, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) have been identified in Cnidarians, Lophotrocozoans and Ecdysozoans. The general view that nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans, which belong to Ecdysozoa, produce HS but only chondroitin without sulfation has therefore been puzzling...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lies Langouche, Ina Lehmphul, Sarah Vander Perre, Josef Koehrle, Greet Van den Berghe
BACKGROUND: Critical illness is hallmarked by low circulating T4 and T3 concentrations, in the presence of elevated rT3 and low-normal TSH, referred to as non-thyroidal illness (NTI). Thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism is substantially increased during NTI, in part explained by enhanced deiodinase 3 (D3) activity. T4- and T3-sulfate concentrations are elevated, due to suppressed D1 activity in the presence of unaltered sulfotransferase activity, and 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2) concentrations are normal...
September 27, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Masahito Suiko, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Takuyu Hashiguchi, Yoichi Sakakibara, Ming-Cheh Liu
The cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) are Phase II detoxifying enzymes that mediate the sulfate conjugation of numerous xenobiotic molecules. While the research on the SULTs has lagged behind the research on Phase I cytochrome P-450 enzymes and other Phase II conjugating enzymes, it has gained more momentum in recent years. This review aims to summarize information obtained in several fronts of the research on the SULTs, including the range of the SULTs in different life forms, concerted actions of the SULTs and other Phase II enzymes, insights into the structure-function relationships of the SULTs, regulation of SULT expression and activity, developmental expression of SULTs, as well as the use of a zebrafish model for studying the developmental pharmacology/toxicology...
September 21, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Tomomi Izumikawa, Katsufumi Dejima, Yukiko Watamoto, Kazuko H Nomura, Nanako Kanaki, Marika Rikitake, Mai Tou, Daisuke Murata, Eri Yanagita, Ai Kano, Shohei Mitani, Kazuya Nomura, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Chondroitin sulfate (CS)/chondroitin (Chn) chains are indispensable for embryonic cell division and cytokinesis in the early developmental stages in Caenorhabditis elegans and mice, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for axon guidance during nervous system development. These data indicate that the fundamental functions of CS and HS are conserved from worms to mammals and that the function of CS/Chn differs from that of HS. Although previous studies have shown that C. elegans produces HS and non-sulfated Chn, whether the organism produces CS remains unclear...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tyler Pollock, Lucas J Greville, Brandon Tang, Denys deCatanzaro
Triclosan, an antimicrobial agent added to personal care products, can modulate estrogenic actions. We investigated whether triclosan affects concentrations of exogenous and endogenous estradiol. Female mice were given injections of triclosan followed by 1μCi tritium-labeled estradiol. Mice given daily 2-mg triclosan doses (57.9mg/kg/dose) showed significantly elevated radioactivity in tissues and serum compared to controls. A single dose of 1 or 2mg triclosan increased radioactivity in the uterus in both cycling and peri-implantation females...
October 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Hansi Jia, Chiteng Zhang, Hansruedi Glatt, Yungang Liu
The standard procedure for the micronucleus test in cell lines requires a short exposure (≤0.5 cell cycle) to the test compounds followed by a long recovery (≥1.5 cell cycle), and in case of negative or equivocal results, a second test with extended exposure (≥2 cell cycles) without or with a recovery time. In general the two procedures are advantageous for detecting clastogens and aneugens, respectively. However, whether the recommended procedures apply to micronucleus tests with promutagens in cell lines genetically engineered for expressing biotransformation enzymes has not been identified...
September 15, 2016: Mutation Research. Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Ruiming Guo, Luqing Pan, Pengfei Lin, Lei Zheng
This study aimed to investigate the detoxification responses, damage effects and biotransformation in scallop Chlamys farreri exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0.1, 1μg/L), chrysene (CHR) (0.1, 1μg/L) and BaP+CHR (0.1+0.1, 1+1μg/L) for 15days. Results demonstrated that BaP and CHR concentration (BaP<CHR) in tissues increased rapidly in a time and dose effect. The mRNA expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1B1, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) were induced especially in the mixtures of BaP and CHR...
September 11, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Juilee Rege, Shigehiro Karashima, Antonio M Lerario, Joshua M Smith, Richard J Auchus, Josephine Z Kasa-Vubu, Hironobu Sasano, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Perrin C White, William E Rainey
CONTEXT: Adrenal production of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) increases throughout childhood owing to expansion of the zona reticularis (ZR). ZR features cells with a steroidogenic phenotype distinct from that of the adjacent zona fasciculata (ZF), with higher expression of cytochrome b5 type A (CYB5A) and steroid sulfotransferase type 2A1 (SULT2A1) but decreased 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD3B2). In addition to DHEA-S, three adrenal Δ5-steroid sulfates could provide additional tools to define adrenal maturation...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yoshimitsu Oda
During the past 30 years there has been considerable progress in the development of bacterial test systems for use in genotoxicity testing by the stable introduction of expression vectors (cDNAs) coding for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes into bacterial cells. The development not only provides insights into the mechanisms of bioactivation of xenobiotic compounds but also evaluates the roles of enzymes involved in metabolic activation or inactivation in chemical carcinogenesis. This review describes recent advances in bacterial genotoxicity assays and their future prospects, with a focus on the development and application of genetically engineering bacterial cells to incorporate some of the enzymatic activities involved in the bio-activation process of xenobiotics...
September 13, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
S X Hu
The hepatic activities of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) of male Ross 708 broiler chickens at the age of 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days and male Camborough-29 pigs at the age of 1 day and 2, 5, 10, and 20 weeks were investigated. Glucuronidation and sulfation of 4-nitrophenol were used to evaluate the activities. Porcine hepatic UGT and SULT activities were low at birth, peaked at around 5-10 weeks, and then declined. Both hepatic UGT and SULT activities of chickens were high at hatch and declined...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Akihiro Yamamoto, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Isaac Thomas Schiefer, Ming-Yih Liu, Yoichi Sakakibara, Masahito Suiko, Ming-Cheh Liu
Dextrorphan, an active metabolite of the antitussive dextromethorphan, has been shown to be subjected to sulfation by several zebrafish cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs). We were interested in finding out which of the human SULT(s) is(are) capable of catalyzing the sulfation of dextrorphan, and to verify whether sulfation of dextrorphan may occur in cultured human cells and human organ cytosols. Data from the enzymatic assays showed that, of all thirteen known human SULTs, SULT1A3 displayed the strongest dextrorphan-sulfating activity...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Jorge R Pasqualini, Gérard S Chetrite
The fetal endocrine system constitutes the earliest system developing in fetal life and operates during all the steps of gestation. Its regulation is in part dependent on the secretion of placental and/or maternal precursors emanating across the feto-maternal interface. Human fetal and placental compartments possess all the enzymatic systems necessary to produce steroid hormones. However, their activities are different and complementary: the fetus is very active in converting acetate into cholesterol, in transforming pregnanes to androstanes, various hydroxylases, sulfotransferases, while all these transformations are absent or very limited in the placenta...
July 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Sarah Dubaisi, Hailin Fang, Thomas A Kocarek, Melissa Runge-Morris
Cytosolic sulfotransferase 1C3 (SULT1C3) is the least characterized of the three human SULT1C subfamily members. Originally identified as an orphan SULT by computational analysis of the human genome, we recently reported that SULT1C3 is expressed in human intestine and LS180 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and is upregulated by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and γ To determine the mechanism responsible for PPAR-mediated upregulation, we prepared reporter plasmids containing fragments of the SULT1C3 5'-flanking region...
November 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
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