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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449192/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-pegylated-human-adrenomedullin-in-a-mouse-dss-induced-colitis-model
#1
Sayaka Nagata, Motoo Yamasaki, Kazuo Kitamura
Preclinical Research Human adrenomedullin (hAM), a hypotensive peptide, also has anti-inflammatory effects. hAM can reduce the severity of the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in animal models. Furthermore, in a clinical study, hAM treatment reduced the Disease Activity Index in ulcerative colitis. However, these therapeutic effects required continuous administration of hAM as the half-life of native hAM is quite short in blood. To resolve this problem, hAM N-terminal was conjugated with two kinds of polyethylene glycol (PEG); 5 kDa PEG or 60 kDa PEG (5 kDa PEG-hAM and 60 kDa PEG-hAM respectively)...
April 27, 2017: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448580/sildenafil-normalizes-bowel-transit-in-preclinical-models-of-constipation
#2
Sarah K Sharman, Bianca N Islam, Yali Hou, Margaux Usry, Allison Bridges, Nagendra Singh, Subbaramiah Sridhar, Satish Rao, Darren D Browning
Guanylyl cyclase-C (GC-C) agonists increase cGMP levels in the intestinal epithelium to promote secretion. This process underlies the utility of exogenous GC-C agonists such as linaclotide for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Because GC-C agonists have limited use in pediatric patients, there is a need for alternative cGMP-elevating agents that are effective in the intestine. The present study aimed to determine whether the PDE-5 inhibitor sildenafil has similar effects as linaclotide on preclinical models of constipation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447376/reduced-fasting-periods-increase-intestinal-permeability-in-chickens
#3
S Gilani, G S Howarth, C D Tran, R Barekatain, S M Kitessa, R E A Forder, R J Hughes
Fasting of up to 24 hr has been shown to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. The aim of this study was to determine whether fasting duration of 4.5 and 9 hr increased IP and whether l-glutamine (a non-essential amino acid) supplementation before fasting provided some protection of barrier function as shown in other species. Ross 308 male broilers (n = 96) were fed either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% glutamine from d0 to d38 post-hatch. On d37, the birds were assigned to single-bird metabolism cages and were fasted for either 0, 4...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446427/airway-epithelial-anion-secretion-and-barrier-function-following-exposure-to-fungal-aeroallergens-role-of-oxidative-stress
#4
Nathan A Zaidman, Kelly E O'Grady, Nandadevi Patil, Francesca Milavetz, Peter J Maniak, Hirohito Kita, Scott M O'Grady
Aeroallergens produced by Alternaria alternata can elicit life-threatening exacerbations of asthma in patients sensitized to this fungus. In this study, the effect of Alternaria on ion transport mechanisms underlying mucociliary clearance and airway epithelial barrier function was investigated in human airway epithelial cells. Apical exposure to Alternaria induced an increase in anion secretion that was inhibited by blockers of CFTR and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels. Stimulation of anion secretion was dependent on Ca(2+) uptake from the apical solution...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445245/ectopic-expression-of-innate-immune-protein-lipocalin-2-in-lactococcus-lactis-protects-against-gut-and-environmental-stressors
#5
Piu Saha, Benoit Chassaing, Beng San Yeoh, Emilie Viennois, Xia Xiao, Mary J Kennett, Vishal Singh, Matam Vijay-Kumar
BACKGROUND: Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) is a multifunctional innate immune protein that exhibits antimicrobial activity by the sequestration of bacterial siderophores, regulates iron homeostasis, and augments cellular tolerance to oxidative stress. Studies in the murine model of colitis have demonstrated that Lcn2 deficiency exacerbates colitogenesis; however, the therapeutic potential of Lcn2 supplementation has yet to be elucidated. In light of its potential mucoprotective functions, we, herein, investigated whether expression of Lcn2 in the probiotic bacterium can be exploited to alleviate experimental colitis...
April 25, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442951/renal-water-conservation-determines-the-increase-in-body-weight-after-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Robert G Hahn
BACKGROUND: The present study was undertaken to identify factors that correlate with the gain in body weight after surgery. METHODS: Twenty-one patients (median age of 49 years) were randomized to receive either Ringer × s acetate or 6% dextran 70 as their first infusion fluid during cholecystectomy or hysterectomy. Each patient's body weight was measured before the surgery and on the first postoperative morning. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for signs of stress, inflammation, and kidney injury...
April 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442357/dl-3-n-butylphthalide-promotes-neuroplasticity-and-motor-recovery-in-stroke-rats
#7
Yefei Sun, Xi Cheng, Huibin Wang, Xiaopeng Mu, Yifan Liang, YuJia Luo, Huiling Qu, Chuansheng Zhao
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Racemic l-3-n-butylphthalide (dl-NBP), is able to achieve a functional recovery in animal models of cerebral ischemia, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of dl-NBP on axonal growth, neurogenesis and behavioral performances in rats with cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia in rats was produced by intracerebral injection of endothelin-1. Starting from postoperative day 7, the experimental rats were administered 70mg/kg dl-NBP by oral gavage for two weeks...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440712/gelatin-albumin-hybrid-nanoparticles-as-matrix-metalloproteinases-degradable-delivery-systems-for-breast-cancer-therapy
#8
Vahid Heravi Shargh, Hubert Hondermarck, Mingtao Liang
AIM: To develop matrix metalloproteinase-responsive gelatin-albumin hybrid nanoparticles encapsulating a selective tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) inhibitor GNF-5837 (Gel-Alb-GNF HNPs) and to demonstrate their anticancer effects in breast cancer. METHODS: Gel-Alb-GNF HNPs were prepared using a pH-controlled complexation process from cationic gelatin, dextran sulfate and albumin-bound GNF-5837. The anticancer activities of Gel-Alb-GNF HNPs were tested in a panel of subtype-specific breast cancer cell lines...
April 25, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439986/coordinated-membrane-fusion-of-proteinosomes-by-contact-induced-hydrogel-self-healing
#9
Ping Wen, Xiaoman Liu, Lei Wang, Mei Li, Yudong Huang, Xin Huang, Stephen Mann
Controlled membrane fusion of proteinosome-based protocells is achieved via a hydrogel-mediated process involving dynamic covalent binding, self-healing, and membrane reconfiguration at the contact interface. The rate of proteinosome fusion is dependent on dynamic Schiff base covalent interchange, and is accelerated in the presence of encapsulated glucose oxidase and glucose, or inhibited with cinnamyl aldehyde due to enzyme-mediated decreases in pH or competitive covalent binding, respectively. The coordinated fusion of the proteinosomes leads to the concomitant transportation and redistribution of entrapped payloads such as DNA and dextran...
April 25, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438965/radiation-induces-proinflammatory-dysbiosis-transmission-of-inflammatory-susceptibility-by-host-cytokine-induction
#10
Shiran Gerassy-Vainberg, Alexandra Blatt, Yael Danin-Poleg, Katya Gershovich, Edmond Sabo, Alex Nevelsky, Shahar Daniel, Aviva Dahan, Oren Ziv, Rishu Dheer, Maria T Abreu, Omry Koren, Yechezkel Kashi, Yehuda Chowers
OBJECTIVE: Radiation proctitis (RP) is a complication of pelvic radiotherapy which affects both the host and microbiota. Herein we assessed the radiation effect on microbiota and its relationship to tissue damage using a rectal radiation mouse model. DESIGN: We evaluated luminal and mucosa-associated dysbiosis in irradiated and control mice at two postradiation time points and correlated it with clinical and immunological parameters. Epithelial cytokine response was evaluated using bacterial-epithelial co-cultures...
April 24, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438436/effects-of-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-experimental-colitis-on-cytochrome-p450-activity-in-rat-liver-kidney-and-intestine
#11
Nan Hu, Yanjuan Huang, Xuejiao Gao, Sai Li, Zhixiang Yan, Bin Wei, Ru Yan
Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced experimental colitis presents a histologic resemblance to human ulcerative colitis (UC). Altered cytochrome P450s (CYPs) have been reported in this model and patients with UC. In this study, six CYPs activities were quantitatively determined in microsomes of liver (RLMs), kidney (RRMs) and intestine (RIMs) from rats with colitis at acute (5% DSS for 7 days, UCA) and remission (7-day DSS treatment followed by 7-day cessation, UCR) phases and compared with normal rats. Generally, CYPs activities varied with isoform, organ, and disease status...
April 21, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438408/spray-dried-human-and-chimpanzee-adenoviral-vectored-vaccines-are-thermally-stable-and-immunogenic-in-vivo
#12
Sam Afkhami, Daniel A LeClair, Siamak Haddadi, Rocky Lai, Steven P Toniolo, Hildegund C Ertl, Emily D Cranston, Michael R Thompson, Zhou Xing
Cold chain-free vaccine technologies are needed to ensure effective vaccine delivery and coverage, particularly in resource-poor countries. However, the immunogenicity and thermostability of spray dried live viral vector-based vaccines such as recombinant adenoviral-vectored vaccines remain to be investigated. To address this issue, we have spray dried human adenoviral (AdHu5)- and chimpanzee adenoviral (AdCh68)-vectored tuberculosis vaccines in a mannitol and dextran matrix. Spray dried powders containing these two vaccines display the morphologic and chemical properties desired for long-term thermostability and vaccination...
April 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438077/molecular-dynamics-simulations-reveal-the-influence-of-dextran-sulfate-in-nanoparticle-formation-with-calcium-alginate-to-encapsulate-insulin
#13
Daniela Nadvorny, José Lamartine Soares-Sobrinho, Monica F de La Roca Soares, Antônio José Ribeiro, Francisco Veiga, Gustavo M Seabra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437455/effect-of-a-probiotic-beverage-consumption-enterococcus-faecium-crl-183-and-bifidobacterium-longum-atcc-15707-in-rats-with-chemically-induced-colitis
#14
Larissa Sbaglia Celiberto, Raquel Bedani, Naiara Naiana Dejani, Alexandra Ivo de Medeiros, José Antonio Sampaio Zuanon, Luis Carlos Spolidorio, Maria Angela Tallarico Adorno, Maria Bernadete Amâncio Varesche, Fábio Carrilho Galvão, Sandro Roberto Valentini, Graciela Font de Valdez, Elizeu Antonio Rossi, Daniela Cardoso Umbelino Cavallini
BACKGROUND: Some probiotic strains have the potential to assist in relieving the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. The impact of daily ingestion of a soy-based product fermented by Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 with the addition of Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707 on chemically induced colitis has been investigated thereof within a period of 30 days. METHODS: Colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium. The animals were randomly assigned into five groups: Group C: negative control; Group CL: positive control; Group CLF: DSS with the fermented product; Group CLP: DSS with the non-fermented product (placebo); Group CLS: DSS with sulfasalazine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436713/modified-dextran-heparin-based-triggered-release-microspheres-for-cardiovascular-delivery-of-therapeutic-drugs-using-protamine-as-a-stimulus
#15
Hoai X Nguyen, Edgar A O'Rear
In this study, we describe the synthesis of an amine-modified acetalated dextran polymer which is combined with heparin (HP) as the basis for a novel controlled release system. Dextran-amine (DEXAM) conjugates, synthesized using reductive amination, were incorporated into DEXAM/HP microspheres. HP binds to positively charged ammonium ions of the DEXAM conjugates, contributing to the structural integrity of the microspheres. Crystal violet (CV) was encapsulated inside DEXAM/HP microspheres as a model drug to test the system...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435976/-role-of-igg-plasma-cells-in-the-change-of-protein-c-system-in-ulcerative-colitis
#16
Xu-Hong Lin, Jun-Ling Guo, Yu-Qing Wen, Yu-Xia Li, Dan-Dan Wei, Rui-Lin Yang, Xiao-Yun Mu, Hui-Chao Wang
The present study is designed to explore the role of plasma cells in the change of protein C system (PCS) in ulcerative colitis (UC). Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 4% in concentration) was used to induce mouse UC model. The plasma cells and the type of immune complex in colon were observed by immunofluorescence. The amount and type of plasma cells separated from colonic mucosal lamina propria were detected by flow cytometry using anti-CD54(+)CD38(+) and IgA/M/G antibodies, respectively. After stimulation of macrophages by IgG type immune complex, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were evaluated by ELISA...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434818/expression-of-a-kinase-anchor-protein-13-and-rho-associated-coiled-coil-containing-protein-kinase-in-restituted-and-regenerated-mucosal-epithelial-cells-following-mucosal-injury-and-colorectal-cancer-cells-in-mouse-models
#17
Yumi Kangawa, Toshinori Yoshida, Takeshi Tanaka, Akira Kataoka, Naomi Koyama, Tomoka Ohsumi, Shim-Mo Hayashi, Makoto Shibutani
We demonstrate the expression patterns of A-kinase anchor protein 13 (AKAP13), a scaffold protein that acts upstream of Rho signaling, and Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) 1/2 in mouse colorectal cancer and during the healing stage of mouse colitis. BALB/c mice received an intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane at 10mg/kg, followed by two 7-day cycles of 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administered through their drinking water to induce colon cancer, or a 7-day administration of 4% DSS to induce colitis...
April 20, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434074/adipose-derived-stem-cells-ameliorate-experimental-murine-colitis-via-tsp-1-dependent-activation-of-latent-tgf-%C3%AE
#18
Hiroshi Takeyama, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Mamoru Uemura, Naotsugu Haraguchi, Junichi Nishimura, Taishi Hata, Chu Matsuda, Ichiro Takemasa, Masakazu Ikenaga, Kohei Murata, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been investigated as therapeutic tools for a variety of autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory properties of ASCs are not well understood. Here, we investigated the mechanism of regulatory T cell (Treg) induction in ASC therapy in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Acute colitis was induced in mice using dextran sulfate sodium and ASCs administered intraperitoneally...
April 22, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432936/the-immunosuppressive-characteristics-of-fb1-by-inhibition-of-maturation-and-function-of-bmdcs
#19
Yinhuan Li, Yanhong Fan, Bingbing Xia, Qiuping Xiao, Qingqing Wang, Weidong Sun, Haibin Zhang, Chenghua He
Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is one kind of mycotoxins that has the neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity, hepatotoxicity and immunotoxicity produced by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides, which commonly infects corn and other crops and is harmful to animal and human health upon consumption of FB1-contaminated feed or food. However, the mechanism of immunotoxicity, especially the immunosuppression induced by FB1 is still unclear. The most pivotal cells in the induction of immune responses are dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we used murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) as a model system to elucidate the effect of FB1 on the function of BMDCs through biological methods...
April 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432343/cox-1-pge2-ep4-alleviates-mucosal-injury-by-upregulating-%C3%AE-arr1-mediated-akt-signaling-in-colitis
#20
Xiaojie Peng, Jianzhong Li, Siwei Tan, Minyi Xu, Jin Tao, Jie Jiang, Huiling Liu, Bin Wu
COX-1/PGE2 is an important protective mediator in ulcerative colitis (UC). β-arrestin1 (β-arr1), which acts as a scaffold protein, is involved in PGE2-mediated signaling pathways. However, the interaction between PGE2 and β-arr1 in maintaining mucosal barrier integrity remains unexplored. In this study, we demonstrated that COX-1 and PGE2 were significantly decreased, and EP4 mRNA was downregulated in both UC patients and mice during the injury phase. PGE2 treatment was found to alleviate mucosal injury and induce EP4 expression during dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) mice...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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