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S Jovtchev, S Alexandrov, N Hristova-Avakumova, S Miteva, L Traikov, D Gerasimova, S Stoeff
BACKGROUND: Different colloids are used as a part of solutions for fluid resuscitation and organ preservation: hydroxyethyl starches (HES), dextran (Dx), polyethylene glycols (PEG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Some of the problems associated with their application are addressed to alteration in erythrocyte (ERY) rheology. OBJECTIVE: We intended to estimate in vitro and compare the aggregation power (AP) of these molecules related to ERY interactions. METHODS: Washed human ERY are used during the study...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
J T Oberlerchner, P Vejdovszky, T Zweckmair, A Kindler, S Koch, T Rosenau, A Potthast
Degraded celluloses are becoming increasingly important as part of product streams coming from various biorefinery scenarios. Analysis of the molar mass distribution of such fractions is a challenge, since neither established methods for mono- or disaccharides nor common methods for polysaccharide characterization cover the intermediate oligomer range appropriately. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS), the standard approach for celluloses, suffers from decreased scattering intensities in the lower-molar mass range...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Younggeon Jin, Anthony T Blikslager
Intestinal anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) injury induces loss of barrier function followed by epithelial repair. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been shown to alter barrier function via regulation of interepithelial tight junctions (TJ), but has not been studied in intestinal A/R injury. We hypothesized that A/R injury would disrupt TJ barrier function via MLCK activation and MLC phosphorylation. Caco-2BBe1 monolayers were subjected to anoxia for 2 hours followed by reoxygenation in 21% O2, after which barrier function was determined by measuring transepithelial resistance (TER) and FITC-dextran flux...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Luciana F Costa, Juliana P S Mol, Ana Patricia C Silva, Auricélio A Macêdo, Teane M A Silva, Geraldo E S Alves, Sebastian Winter, Maria G Winter, Eric M Velazquez, Mariana X Byndloss, Andreas J Bäumler, Renée M Tsolis, Tatiane A Paixão, Renato L Santos
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is able to expand in the lumen of the inflamed intestine through mechanisms that have not been fully resolved. Here we utilized streptomycin-pretreated mice and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated mice to investigate how pathways for S. Typhimurium iron acquisition contribute to pathogen expansion in the inflamed intestine. Competitive infection with an iron uptake-proficient S. Typhimurium strain and mutant strains lacking tonB feoB, feoB, tonB or iroN in streptomycin pretreated mice demonstrated that ferric iron uptake requiring IroN and TonB conferred a fitness advantage during growth in the inflamed intestine...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Rocío López-Posadas, Cristina Mascaraque, Raquel González, María D Suárez, Antonio Zarzuelo, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Fermín Sánchez de Medina
BACKGROUND: Statins have antiinflammatory effects at the cardiovascular level because of inhibition of prenylation, which also probably underlies their therapeutic effects in preclinical models of inflammatory bowel disease. Another inhibitor of prenylation, namely alendronate, reduces colitis in rodents. In this study, we aim to explore the therapeutic potential of second-generation, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates in 3 preclinical models of colitis. METHODS: The trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid and dextran sulfate sodium models of rat colitis and the adoptive lymphocyte transfer model of colitis in mice were used...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Mi Hee Choi, Ha-Eun Shim, Seong-Jae Yun, Sang-Hyun Park, Dae Seong Choi, Beom-Su Jang, Yong Jun Choi, Jongho Jeon
There have been worldwide attentions on the efficient removal of radioactive iodine, because it is commonly released in nuclear plant accidents. Increasing concerns on environmental problems due to the radioactive iodine are leading us to develop stable and sustainable technology for remediation of radioelement contaminants. In this work, we report a highly efficient chromatographic method for specific and rapid capture of radioactive iodine. The gold nanoparticles immobilized dextran gel columns showed excellent removal capabilities of radioactive iodine in various conditions...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jon-Vidar Gaustad, Trude G Simonsen, Lise Mari K Andersen, Einar K Rofstad
In this study, the effect of properdistatin, a novel peptide derived from the thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) domain of properdin, was investigated in three melanoma xenograft models with different TSP-1 expression. The tumors were grown in dorsal window chambers and were treated with 80 mg/kg/day properdistatin or vehicle. Morphological parameters of the tumor vasculature were assessed from high resolution transillumination images. Blood supply time (i.e., the time required for arterial blood to flow from a supplying artery to downstream microvessels) and plasma velocities were assessed from first-pass imaging movies recorded after a bolus of fluorescence-labeled dextran had been administered intravenously...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Masatsune Ogura, Hisashi Makino, Chizuko Kamiya, Jun Yoshimatsu, Handrean Soran, Ruth Eatough, Giuseppina Perrone, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Claudia Stefanutti
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: For patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), atherogenic lipoprotein changes and increased stress on cardiovascular system during pregnancy may pose substantial risk for both the mother and her fetus. Although lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is reported as the most effective therapy to control LDL-C levels during pregnancy in HoFH patients, only case reports have been published, and there is no guidance for management. METHODS: We report twelve pregnancies and ten deliveries in seven patients with HoFH, and compare the clinical outcomes between patients who received LA during pregnancy and those who did not...
October 8, 2016: Atherosclerosis
M Seifi-Najmi, M Hajivalili, R Safaralizadeh, S Sadreddini, S Esmaeili, R Razavi, M Ahmadi, H Mikaeili, B Baradaran, K Shams-Asenjan, M Yousefi
High-mobility group AT-hook2 (HMGA2), involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, has a pivotal role in lung cancer metastasis. Lung cancer therapy with HMGA2 suppressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been introduced recently while doxorubicin (DOX) has been used as a frequent cancer chemotherapy agent. Both reagents have been faced with obstacles in clinic which make them ineffective. NanoParticles (NPs) provided a platform for efficient co delivery of the anticancer drugs. The aim of this study was production and in vitro characterization of different pharmacological groups (siRNA, DOX or siRNA-DOX) of carboxymethyl dextran thrimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (CMDTMChiNPs) on cytotoxicity, gene expression, apoptosis and migration of metastatic lung cancer cell line (A-549)...
September 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Khalil Bdeir, Kandace Gollomp, Marta Stasiak, Junjie Mei, Izabela Papiewska-Pajak, Guohua Zhao, G Scott Worthen, Douglas B Cines, Mortimer Poncz, M Anna Kowalska
RATIONALE: Platelets and neutrophils contribute to the development of acute lung injury (ALI). However, the mechanism by which platelets make this contribution is incompletely understood. We asked whether the two most abundant platelet chemokines, CXCL7, which induces neutrophil chemotaxis and activation, and CXCL4, which does neither, mediate ALI through complementary pathogenic pathways. OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of platelet-derived chemokines in the pathogenesis of ALI using Cxcl7-/- and Cxcl4-/- knockout mice and mice that express human CXCL7 or CXCL4...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Anna Keppner, Sumedha Malsure, Antoine Nobile, Muriel Auberson, Olivier Bonny, Edith Hummler
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are diseases with impaired epithelial barrier function. We aimed to investigate whether mutated prostasin and thus, reduced colonic epithelial sodium channel activity predisposes to develop an experimentally dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Wildtype, heterozygous (fr/+), and homozygous (fr/fr) prostasin-mutant rats were treated 7 days with DSS followed by 7 days of recovery and analyzed with respect to histology, clinicopathological parameters, inflammatory marker mRNA transcript expression, and sodium transporter protein expression...
October 12, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Hyun Sook Hong, Dae Yeon Hwang, Ju Hyeong Park, Suna Kim, Eun Jung Seo, Youngsook Son
Intestinal inflammation alters immune responses in the mucosa and destroys colon architecture, leading to serious diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thus, regulation of inflammation is regarded as the ultimate therapy for intestinal disease. Substance-P (SP) is known to mediate proliferation, migration, and cellular senescence in a variety of cells. SP was found to mobilize stem cells from bone marrow to the site of injury and to suppress inflammatory responses by inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs) and M2 macrophages...
October 14, 2016: Cytokine
Dandan Li, Feilong Sun, Meriem Bourajjaj, Yinan Chen, Ebel H Pieters, Jian Chen, Joep B van den Dikkenberg, Bo Lou, Marcel G M Camps, Ferry Ossendorp, Wim E Hennink, Tina Vermonden, Cornelus F van Nostrum
Cancer vaccines are at present mostly based on tumor associated protein antigens but fail to elicit strong cell-mediated immunity in their free form. For protein-based vaccines, the main challenges to overcome are the delivery of sufficient proteins into the cytosol of dendritic cells (DCs) and processing by, and presentation through, the MHC class I pathway. Recently, we developed a cationic dextran nanogel in which a model antigen (ovalbumin, OVA) is reversibly conjugated via disulfide bonds to the nanogel network to enable redox-sensitive intracellular release...
October 17, 2016: Nanoscale
D Reiss, R A Ceredig, T Secher, J Boué, F Barreau, G Dietrich, C Gavériaux-Ruff
BACKGROUND: Opiates act through opioid receptors to diminish pain. Here, we investigated whether mu (MOR) and delta (DOR) receptor endogenous activity assessed in the whole mouse body or in particular at peripheral receptors on primary nociceptive neurons, control colonic pain. METHODS: We compared global MOR and DOR receptor knockout (KO) mice, mice with a conditional deletion of MOR and DOR in Nav1.8-positive nociceptive primary afferent neurons (cKO), and control floxed mice of both genders for visceral sensitivity...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Limin Shi, Qinlu Lin, Tao Yang, Ying Nie, Xinhua Li, Bo Liu, Junjun Shen, Ying Liang, Yiping Tang, Feijun Luo
To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of β-glucans from Lentinus edodes, and its molecular mechanism, the dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) induced colitis model of mice and the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cell inflammation model were used in this study. 40 ICR male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: Control, DSS (DSS treated only), DSS + low-βGs (500 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) and DSS + high-βGs (1000 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). The body weight of the mice with Lentinus edodes β-glucan supplementation increased significantly compared to the DSS group and the disease activity index (DAI) was improved in both βG-treated groups...
October 17, 2016: Food & Function
Anton Chechushkov, Natalia Zaitseva, Elena Vorontsova, Petr Kozhin, Elena Menshchikova, Vyacheslav Shkurupiy
AIMS: Linear dextrans are often proposed as drug delivery systems with milder adverse effects and lower effective drug concentrations. Linear dextrans are polysaccharides that can potentially be used to load macrophages with drugs to transport them to a site of inflammation. Recently, it was reported that dextrans may exert a protective effect vis-à-vis drug cytotoxicity and during wound healing. The aim of the current work was to evaluate molecular mechanisms of action of dextrans that may be relevant to the cytoprotective effects...
October 13, 2016: Life Sciences
Yi Rang Na, Gyo Jung Gu, Daun Jung, Young Won Kim, Juri Na, Jin Sun Woo, Joo Youn Cho, Hyewon Youn, Seung Hyeok Seok
GM-CSF induces proinflammatory macrophages, but the underlying mechanisms have not been studied thus far. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of how GM-CSF induces inflammatory macrophages. First, we observed that GM-CSF increased the extent of LPS-induced acute glycolysis in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. This directly correlates with an inflammatory phenotype because glycolysis inhibition by 2-deoxyglucose abolished GM-CSF-mediated increase of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12p70 synthesis upon LPS stimulation...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Sam Maher, Mekki Medani, Nestor N Carballeira, Desmond C Winter, Alan W Baird, David J Brayden
Intestinal permeation enhancers (PEs) offer an attractive strategy to enable oral peptide administration. However, optimal presentation of peptide and PE from solid-dosage forms is offset by slow dissolution rates in the small intestine, which reduces the likelihood that the PE can reach the threshold concentration for sufficient permeability enhancement. The purpose of this study was to design a PE-based liquid dispersion that can improve intestinal permeation of macromolecules across Caco-2 monolayers and isolated rat/human intestinal mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers...
October 13, 2016: AAPS Journal
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