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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144302/fouling-mitigation-in-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactors-using-fluidized-resin-beads
#1
B Düppenbecker, J Behnisch, M Engelhart, P Cornel
This study focuses on the use of fluidized resin beads to mitigate fouling during ultrafiltration (UF) of the effluent of an anaerobic bioreactor. Two different module configurations were tested: A fluidized bed of resin beads was generated in a tubular UF membrane, and a hollow fiber (HF) UF membrane was submerged into a fluidized bed, respectively. During filtration of anaerobically treated synthetic wastewater using the tubular module, fluidized resin beads with a diameter of 0.5-0.71 mm did not show any beneficial effect...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144122/the-ratio-of-polycation-and-serum-is-a-crucial-index-determining-the-rnai-efficiency-of-polyplex
#2
Weiqi Zhang, Xianghui Meng, Huike Liu, Lifei Xie, Jian Liu, Haiyan Xu
We report that the mass ratio of the polycation to serum in the medium determines the RNAi efficiency in vitro by using spermine-modified pullulan (Ps) and spermine-modified dextran (Ds) as polycation models. The high ratio of Ps to serum protein (Ps/Pr) mediated the formation of larger polyplex, which led to the promoted cellular uptake, enhanced lysosomal escape and elevated RNAi efficiency. In addition, the supplementary of free Ps also enhanced siRNA transfection due to the elevation of Ps/Pr. Similar results were obtained with Ds...
November 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142546/comparison-of-analgesic-effect-of-preoperative-topical-diclofenac-versus-ketorolac-on-postoperative-pain-after-corneal-collagen-cross-linkage
#3
Murtaza Sameen, Muhammad Saim Khan, Asad Habib, Muhammad Amer Yaqub, Mazhar Ishaq
Objective: To compare post-operative pain relieving effect of topical diclofenac 0.1% versus ketorolac 0.5% in Corneal Collagen Cross Linking (CXL) for patients diagnosed with keratoconus. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was carried out for six months from October 2016 to March 2017. We included young patients having keratoconus with k-readings greater than 47D and central corneal thickness more than 400 microns. All the patients received single dose one drop of topical diclofenac 0...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141406/rutinosylated-ferulic-acid-attenuates-food-allergic-response-and-colitis-by-up-regulating-regulatory-t-cells-in-mouse-models
#4
Shigeru Katayama, Fumiaki Ohno, Takakazu Mitani, Hiroshi Akiyama, Soichiro Nakamura
The purpose of this study was to screen the phytochemicals capable of inducing immune tolerance via enhanced TGF-β1 secretion and investigate their effects in a mouse model of food allergy and colitis. In a screening test using THP-1-derived dendritic cells, a significant increase in TGF-β1 levels was observed upon treatment with ferulic acid (FA) and its glycosides, of which FA rutinoside (FAR) induced the highest level of TGF-β1 secretion. Oral administration of FAR suppressed serum levels of IgE and histamine in ovalbumin-sensitized mice and triggered the differentiation of regulatory T (Treg) cells...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140925/mobilization-of-cd4-t-lymphocytes-in-inflamed-mucosa-reduces-pain-in-colitis-mice-towards-a-vaccinal-strategy-to-alleviate-inflammatory-visceral-pain
#5
Lilian Basso, Jérôme Boué, Céline Augé, Céline Deraison, Catherine Blanpied, Nicolas Cenac, Philippe Lluel, Nathalie Vergnolle, Gilles Dietrich
T lymphocytes play a pivotal role in endogenous regulation of inflammatory visceral pain. The analgesic activity of T lymphocytes is dependent on their production of opioids, a property acquired upon antigen activation. Accordingly, we investigated whether an active recruitment of T lymphocytes within inflamed colon mucosa via a local vaccinal strategy may counteract inflammation-induced visceral pain in mice. Mice were immunized against ovalbumin (OVA). One month after immunization, colitis was induced by adding 3% (w/v) Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) into drinking water containing either cognate antigen OVA or control antigen BSA for 5 days...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139477/a-dietary-flavone-confers-communicable-protection-against-colitis-through-nlrp6-signaling-independently-of-inflammasome-activation
#6
K Radulovic, S Normand, A Rehman, A Delanoye-Crespin, J Chatagnon, M Delacre, N Waldschmitt, L F Poulin, J Iovanna, B Ryffel, P Rosenstiel, M Chamaillard
Flavones represent a class of polyphenols that are found in many plant-derived food sources. Herein, we provide evidence that the anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effect of the flavone apigenin relies on the regulation of the gut microbiota by the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 6 (Nlrp6). When challenged by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water, mice were protected against colitis upon cohousing with apigenin-treated animals. In contrast, the protective effect was lost in the absence of Nlrp6...
November 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136128/the-proton-activated-receptor-gpr4-modulates-intestinal-inflammation
#7
Yu Wang, Cheryl de Vallière, Pedro H Imenez Silva, Irina Leonardi, Sven Gruber, Alexandra Gerstgrasser, Hassan Melham, Achim Weber, Katharina Leucht, Lutz Wolfram, Martin Hausmann, Carsten Krieg, Koray Thomasson, Onur Boyman, Isabelle Frey-Wagner, Gerhard Rogler, Carsten A Wagner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During active inflammation tissue intraluminal intestinal pH is decreased in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Acidic pH may play a role in IBD pathophysiology. Recently, proton sensing G-protein coupled receptors were identified, including GPR4, OGR1 (GPR68), and TDAG8 (GPR65). We investigated whether GPR4 is involved in intestinal inflammation. METHODS: The role of GPR4 was assessed in murine colitis models: chronic dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) administration and by crossbreeding into an IL-10 deficient background for development of spontaneous colitis...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135969/hla-b27-correlates-with-the-intracellular-elimination-replication-and-trafficking-of-salmonella-enteritidis-collected-from-reactive-arthritis-patients
#8
Yi Zhao, Honghu Tang, Chunyu Tan, Hua Zhao, Yi Liu
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between HLA-B27 and the intracellular elimination, replication, and trafficking of Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) collected from patients with reactive arthritis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were employed in this study to evaluate the localization of proteins of interest, to assess the intracellular trafficking of S. enteritidis, and to measure the production of cytokines of interest...
November 14, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135875/cochlear-pericytes-are-capable-of-reversibly-decreasing-capillary-diameter-in-vivo-after-tumor-necrosis-factor-exposure
#9
Mattis Bertlich, Friedrich Ihler, Bernhard G Weiss, Saskia Freytag, Michael Strupp, Martin Canis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its neutralization with etanercept on the capability of cochlear pericytes to alter capillary diameter in the stria vascularis. METHODS: Twelve Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Each group was treated either with placebo and then placebo, TNF and then placebo, or TNF and then etanercept. Cochlear pericytes were visualized using diaminofluorescein-2-diacetate and intravasal blood flow by fluorescein-dextrane...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134859/an-injectable-and-self-healing-hydrogel-for-spatiotemporal-protein-release-via-fragmentation-after-passing-through-needles
#10
Ik Sung Cho, Tooru Ooya
A dynamic hydrogel formulated by mixing a glycol chitosan (GC) and an oxidized dextran (Odex) were studied for protein-controlled release in conjunction with the hydrogel fragmentation. A series of injectable dynamic hydrogels were derived from GC and Odex upon simple mixing without the addition of chemical crosslinking agents. The gelation readily took place at physiological pH and temperature. The influence of the concentration of GC and Odex on the gelation time, mechanical properties, water content, in vitro degradation were investigated...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133095/carboxymethyl-dextran-based-hypoxia-responsive-nanoparticles-for-doxorubicin-delivery
#11
Soyoung Son, Vijayakameswara Rao, Hyewon Ko, Sol Shin, Jueun Jeon, Hwa Seung Han, Van Quy Nguyen, Thavasyappan Thambi, Yung Doug Suh, Jae Hyung Park
In an attempt to develop the hypoxia-responsive nanoparticles for cancer therapy, a polymer conjugate, consisting of carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) and black hole quencher 3 (BHQ3), was prepared. The polymer conjugate can self-assemble into nanoparticles (CMD-BHQ3 NPs) under aqueous conditions. The anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), was loaded in CMD-BHQ3 NPs to prepare DOX@CMD-BHQ3 NPs. The CMD-BHQ3 NPs released DOX in a sustained manner under physiological conditions, whereas the release rate of DOX remarkably increased under hypoxic conditions throughout the cleavage of the azo bond in BHQ3...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133078/enteric-delivery-of-regenerating-family-member-3-alpha-alters-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-controls-inflammation-in-mice-with-colitis
#12
Marion Darnaud, Alexandre Dos Santos, Patrick Gonzalez, Sandrine Augui, Claire Lacoste, Christophe Desterke, Gert De Hertogh, Emma Valentino, Emilie Braun, Jinzi Zheng, Raphael Boisgard, Christel Neut, Laurent Dubuquoy, Franck Chiappini, Didier Samuel, Patricia Lepage, Francesca Guerrieri, Joel Doré, Christian Bréchot, Nicolas Moniaux, Jamila Faivre
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Paneth cell dysfunction causes deficiencies in intestinal C-type lectins and antimicrobial peptides, which leads to dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, alters the mucosal barrier, and promotes development of inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated whether transgenic expression of the human regenerating family member 3 alpha gene (REG3A) alters the fecal microbiota and affects development of colitis in mice. METHODS: We performed studies with C57BL/6 mice that express human regenerating family member 3 alpha (hREG3A) in hepatocytes, via the albumin gene promoter...
November 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130961/endothelial-cell-derived-microparticles-from-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypoxia-syndrome-and-coronary-artery-disease-increase-aortic-endothelial-cell-dysfunction
#13
Lixin Jia, Jingyao Fan, Wei Cui, Sa Liu, Na Li, Wayne Bond Lau, Xinliang Ma, Jie Du, Shaoping Nie, Yongxiang Wei
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnea hypoxia syndrome (OSAHS) is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Treatment of OSAHS improves clinical outcome in some CAD patients, but the relationship between OSAHS and CAD is complex. Microparticles (MPs) are shed by the plasma membrane by either physiologic or pathologic stimulation. In the current study, we investigated the role of MPs in the context of OSAHS. METHODS AND RESULTS: 54 patients with both suspected coronary artery stenosis and OSAHS were recruited and underwent both coronary arteriography and polysomnography...
November 1, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130833/changes-in-the-pharmacokinetics-of-phenytoin-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-ulcerative-colitis-in-mice
#14
Yoshiki Kusunoki, Yurika Kido, Yuichi Naito, Risako Kon, Nanaho Mizukami, Miho Kaneko, Nobuyuki Wakui, Yoshiaki Machida, Nobutomo Ikarashi
We previously demonstrated that the expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, in the liver are significantly decreased in a murine model of ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, we investigated changes in the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin, a CYP2C substrate drug, in the presence of UC. Colitis was induced by feeding male mice 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) dissolved in drinking water for 10 days. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of CYP2C29 and CYP2C37 and the protein expression of CYP2C in the liver were evaluated via real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130176/assessing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-autoinducer-effects-on-mammalian-epithelial-cells
#15
Jake Everett, Rebecca Gabrilska, Kendra P Rumbaugh, Elena Vikström
The human mucosal environment in the gut is rich with interactions between microbiota and mammalian epithelia. Microbes such as the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa may use quorum sensing to communicate with other microorganisms and mammalian cells to alter gene expression. Here, we present methodologies to evaluate the effects of P. aeruginosa N-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL) on Caco-2 cell monolayers. First, we describe a method for assessing barrier function and permeability of epithelial cells when exposed to 3O-C12-HSL by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular flow using fluorescently labeled dextran...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129733/doxorubicin-synergism-and-resistance-reversal-in-human-neuroblastoma-be-2-c-cell-lines-an-in-vitro-study-with-dextran-catechin-nanohybrids
#16
Orazio Vittorio, Marion Le Grand, Sami A Makharza, Manuela Curcio, Paola Tucci, Francesca Iemma, Fiore Pasquale Nicoletta, Silke Hampel, Giuseppe Cirillo
Hybrid nanocarrier consisting in nanographene oxide coated by a dextran-catechin conjugate was proposed in the efforts to find more efficient Neuroblastoma treatment with Doxorubicin chemotherapy. The dextran-catechin conjugate was prepared by immobilized laccase catalysis and its peculiar reducing ability exploited for the synthesis of the hybrid carrier. Raman spectra and DSC thermograms were recorded to check the physicochemical properties of the nanohybrid, while DLS measurements, SEM, TEM, and AFM microscopy allowed the determination of its morphological and dimensional features...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129629/phenolic-compounds-based-conjugates-from-dextran-aldehyde-and-bsa-preparation-characterization-and-evaluation-of-their-anti-cancer-efficacy-for-therapeutic-applications
#17
Sudheer Rai, Amit Kumar Kureel, P K Dutta, G K Mehrotra
Here, we have synthesized phenolic compounds (pc) based on conjugates from dextran aldehyde (dex-ald) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) and screening their potential activity as therapeutic agents in cancer disease. The synthesized conjugates were analyzed by UV-vis, FT-IR, XRD and SEM analysis. UV-vis spectra of conjugates showed the shifting of spectral peak at UV to visible region revealed the enhanced conjugation due to formation of linkage. The XRD peaks of conjugates found broader and indicating the amorphous phase of conjugating materials in compared to free components...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129008/high-levels-of-oxidized-fatty-acids-in-hdl-are-associated-with-impaired-hdl-function-in-patients-with-active-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
Christina Charles-Schoeman, David Meriwether, Yuen Yin Lee, Ani Shahbazian, Srinivasa T Reddy
The objective of this study was to evaluate oxidation products of arachidonic acid and linoleic acid in lipoproteins and synovial fluid (SF) from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to non-RA controls. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were isolated from plasma using fast protein liquid chromatography and HDL was isolated from SF using dextran sulfate precipitation. 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), 12-HETE, 15-HETE, 9 hydroxyoctadecadienoic (HODE), and 13-HODE levels were measured in HDL, LDL, and SF by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128569/lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-1-is-important-for-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function-and-susceptibility-to-colitis
#19
Songbai Lin, Yiran Han, Kayte Jenkin, Sei-Jung Lee, Maiko Sasaki, Jan-Michael Klapproth, Peijian He, C Chris Yun
Intestinal epithelial cells form a barrier that is critical in protecting the host from the hostile luminal environment. Previously, we showed that lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1) regulates proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells such that the absence of LPA1 mitigates epithelial wound healing process. This study provides evidence that LPA1 is important for the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. The epithelial permeability, determined by fluorescently labeled dextran flux and transepithelial resistance, is increased in Lpar1(-/-) (Lpa1(-/-)) mouse intestine...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123834/inhaled-hydrogen-ameliorates-endotoxin-induced-bowel-dysfunction
#20
Hiroyuki Sakata, Ayana Okamoto, Michiko Aoyama-Ishikawa, Hayato Yamashita, Keisuke Kohama, Noritomo Fujisaki, Taihei Yamada, Joji Kotani, Kohei Tsukahara, Atsuyoshi Iida, Atsunori Nakao
Aim: Gastrointestinal dysmotility frequently occurs during sepsis and multiple organ failure, remaining a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Previous studies have shown that hydrogen, a new therapeutic gas, can improve various organ damage associated with sepsis. In this study, we investigated the protective efficacies of inhaled hydrogen against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ileus. Methods: Sepsis was induced in rats and mice by a single i...
January 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
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