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urine composition

Ghadeer S Aljuraiban, Jeremiah Stamler, Queenie Chan, Linda Van Horn, Martha L Daviglus, Paul Elliott, Linda M Oude Griep
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that low-fat dairy consumption may lower risk of hypertension. Dairy products may be distinctly linked to health, because of differences in nutritional composition, but little is known about specific nutrients that contribute to the dairy-blood pressure (BP) association, nor to underlying kidney function. METHODS: We examined cross-sectional associations to BP of dairy product intakes, total and by type, from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) including 2694 participants aged 40-59 years from the UK and the USA...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Philip Burnham, Darshana Dadhania, Michael Heyang, Fanny Chen, Lars F Westblade, Manikkam Suthanthiran, John Richard Lee, Iwijn De Vlaminck
Urinary tract infections are one of the most common infections in humans. Here we tested the utility of urinary cell-free DNA (cfDNA) to comprehensively monitor host and pathogen dynamics in bacterial and viral urinary tract infections. We isolated cfDNA from 141 urine samples from a cohort of 82 kidney transplant recipients and performed next-generation sequencing. We found that urinary cfDNA is highly informative about bacterial and viral composition of the microbiome, antimicrobial susceptibility, bacterial growth dynamics, kidney allograft injury, and host response to infection...
June 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Sang-Ho Jo, Sung-Ji Park, Eung Ju Kim, Soo-Joong Kim, Hyun-Jae Cho, Jong-Min Song, Jinho Shin, Jin Joo Park, Joon-Han Shin, Kyoo-Rok Han, Dong-Ju Choi
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of a combination of a calcium channel blocker (CCB) plus chlorthalidone (diuretic) versus a CCB plus an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in patients not responding to CCB monotherapy has not been evaluated previously. We plan to compare the efficacy and safety of S-amlodipine (CCB) plus chlorthalidone versus S-amlodipine plus telmisartan (ARB) combinations among hypertension patients unresponsive to amlodipine monotherapy. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, parallel, non-inferiority phase 4 study...
June 20, 2018: Trials
Tianqi Li, Shanshan Sun, Jinyue Zhang, Kai Qu, Liu Yang, Changlu Ma, Xiangju Jin, Haibo Zhu, Yinghong Wang
ABSTRACT:Hyperlipidemia is one of the main causes of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and atherosclerosis. The adenosine derivative, 2', 3', 5'-tri-acetyl-N6-(3-hydroxylaniline) adenosine (IMM-H007) is an effective lipid-lowering compound that has important implications for the development of lipid-lowering drugs. Metabolomic analysis based on 1H-NMR was used to monitor dynamic changes in diverse biological media including serum, liver, urine, and feces in response to high-fat diet (HFD) and IMM-H007 treatments...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Marta Pastor-Belda, Lidia Marín-Soler, Natalia Campillo, Pilar Viñas, Manuel Hernández-Córdoba
This study describes the use of a magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube composite for the preconcentration of nine parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, pentyl, phenyl and benzylparaben) from water and urine samples after in situ acetylation. The enriched extracts were obtained by dispersive magnetic solid phase extraction (DMSPE) and analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several parameters affecting the adsorption (extraction time, magnetic material mass and ionic strength) and desorption (desorption solvent nature and volume, and desorption time) DMSPE steps were investigated...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Adriana Luk, John D Groarke, Akshay S Desai, Syed Saad Mahmood, Deepa M Gopal, Emer Joyce, Sachin P Shah, Joann Lindenfeld, Lynne Stevenson, Neal K Lakdawala
BACKGROUND: Relief of congestion is the primary goal of initial therapy for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Early measurement of urine sodium concentration (UNa) may be useful to identify patients with diminished response to diuretics. The aim of this study was to determine if the first spot UNa after diuretic initiation could select patients likely to require more intensive therapy during hospitalization. METHODS: At the time of admission, 103 patients with ADHF were identified prospectively, and UNa was measured after the first dose of intravenous diuretic...
May 19, 2018: American Heart Journal
Francesca Raimondo, Clizia Chinello, Martina Stella, Lucia Santorelli, Fulvio Magni, Marina Pitto
Hematuria is a common sign of many renal and urologic pathologic conditions and it may affect the proteomic analysis of urinary extracellular vesicles (UEv), nanovesicles released from all cells in contact with the urinary space. This condition hinders UEv based proteomic studies aiming to discover biomarkers. Therefore, we studied the effects of hematuria on the proteome of UEv, and introduced a possible solution to reduce its misleading impact. We mimicked hematuria by adding increasing amount of blood to non-affected urine, and investigated its effects on UEv isolation, purity and proteomic composition...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Jian Zhang, Haiting Chai, Song Guo, Huaping Guo, Yanling Li
Secreted proteins are widely spread in living organisms and cells. Since secreted proteins are easy to be detected in body fluids, urine, and saliva in clinical diagnosis, they play important roles in biomarkers for disease diagnosis and vaccine production. In this study, we propose a novel predictor for accurate high-throughput identification of mammalian secreted proteins that is based on sequence-derived features. We combine the features of amino acid composition, sequence motifs, and physicochemical properties to encode collected proteins...
June 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Muriel Dietrich, Teresa Kearney, Ernest C J Seamark, Janusz T Paweska, Wanda Markotter
Seasonal reproduction is a period of extreme physiological and behavioural changes, yet we know little about how it may affect host microbial communities (i.e. microbiota) and pathogen transmission. Here, we investigated shifts of the bacterial microbiota in saliva, urine and faeces during the seasonal reproduction of bats in South Africa, and test for an interaction in shedding patterns of both bacterial ( Leptospira ) and viral (adeno- and herpesviruses) agents. Based on a comparative approach in two cave-dwelling bat species and high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we demonstrated a clear signature in microbiota changes over the reproduction season, consistent across the multiple body habitats investigated, and associated with the sex, age and reproductive condition of bats...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Margaret O Murphy, Scott G Erpelding, Aftab S Chishti, Adam Dugan, Ali Ziada, Stefan G Kiessling
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of pediatric nephrolithiasis has increased significantly in the past 20 years. Metabolic abnormalities predisposing adults to nephrolithiasis in obese patients include increased urinary sodium and uric acid excretion as well as low urine pH; however, limited data are available in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate whether obese pediatric patients presenting with nephrolithiasis have a unique metabolic profile similar to reported findings in obese adults with nephrolithiasis...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Fatemeh Samadi, Ali Sarafraz-Yazdi, Zarrin Es'haghi
A vortex assisted dispersive solid phase extraction approach (VADSPE) based on crab shell powder as biodegradable and biocompatible μ-sorbent was developed for simultaneous analysis of three benzodiazepines (BZPs): Oxazepam, Flurazepamand Diazepam, in biological matrixes included blood, nail, hair and urine samples. The effective parameters in VADSPE process, including the volume of uptake solvent, the dosage of sorbent, extraction time and back extraction time, were optimized using response surface methodology(RSM) based on central composite design(CCD)...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Erin F Barreto, Andrew D Rule, Stacy A Voils, Sandra L Kane-Gill
Over the last decade, the discovery and research into the application of novel renal biomarkers to improve medication efficacy and safety has expanded considerably. Pharmacists are uniquely positioned to leverage this new technology for renal assessment to improve medication dosing and monitoring. Serum cystatin C is a relatively new, inexpensive, functional renal biomarker that responds more quickly to changing renal function than creatinine and is not meaningfully affected by age, sex, skeletal muscle mass, dietary intake, or deconditioning...
June 8, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Xuran Wang, Ming Gao, Jiajia Gao, Xuedong Wang, Meiping Ma, Huili Wang
Herein, we established an ionic liquid (IL)-based liquid-solid transformation microextraction (IL-LTME) combined with HPLC-UV detection for the simultaneous determination of triclosan (TCS) and its methylated product, methyltriclosan (MTCS), in human fluids. The IL-LTME method was based on an in situ metathesis between hydrophilic IL and ion-exchange salt to form a solid hydrophobic IL. According to the above principle, a hydrophilic IL, [C12 MIM]Br, was selected as the extractant, and NH4 PF6 as ion-exchange salt...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Ali Nazaripour, Yadollah Yamini, Hasan Bagheri, Mohammad Tajik
An automated three-phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents followed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV-vis detection was applied for the extraction and determination of exemestane, letrozole, and paclitaxel in water and urine samples. n-Dodecane was selected as the supported liquid membrane and its polarity was justified by trioctylphosphine oxide. Acetonitrile was used as an organic acceptor phase with desirable immiscibility with n-dodecane. All the effective parameters of the microextraction procedure such as type of the organic acceptor phase, the supported liquid membrane composition, extraction time, pH of the donor phase, hollow fiber length, stirring rate, and ionic strength were evaluated and optimized separately by a one variable at-a-time method...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Indranil Dasgupta, David Keane, Elizabeth Lindley, Ihab Shaheen, Kay Tyerman, Franz Schaefer, Elke Wühl, Manfred J Müller, Anja Bosy-Westphal, Hans Fors, Jovanna Dahlgren, Paul Chamney, Peter Wabel, Ulrich Moissl
BACKGROUND: Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) with a whole-body model to distinguish excess fluid from major body tissue hydration can provide objective assessment of fluid status. BIS is integrated into the Body Composition Monitor (BCM) and is validated in adults, but not children. This study aimed to (1) assess agreement between BCM-measured total body water (TBW) and a gold standard technique in healthy children, (2) compare TBW_BCM with TBW from Urea Kinetic Modelling (UKM) in haemodialysis children and (3) investigate systematic deviation from zero in measured excess fluid in healthy children across paediatric age range...
June 4, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Giovanni Corsetti, Evasio Pasini, Claudia Romano, Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Emanuele Marzetti, Vincenzo Flati, Francesco S Dioguardi
Objective: Inadequate protein intake can impair protein balance thus leading to skeletal muscle atrophy, impaired body growth, and functional decline. Foods provide both non-essential (NEAAs) and essential amino acids (EAAs) that may convey different metabolic stimuli to specific organs and tissues. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of six diets, with various EAA/NEAA blends, on body composition and the risk of developing tissue wasting in late middle-aged male mice. Methods: Six groups of late middle-aged male mice were fed for 35 days with iso-nutrients, iso-caloric, and iso-nitrogenous special diets containing different EAA/NEAA ratios ranging from 100/0% to 0/100%...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Kirsten Y Renkema, Rachel H Giles, Marc R Lilien, Philip L Beales, Ronald Roepman, Machteld M Oud, Heleen H Arts, Nine V A M Knoers
Nephronophthisis (NPH) is the most common monogenic cause of renal failure in children. Treatment options are limited to dialysis and transplantation. Therapeutics to significantly delay or prevent end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children are currently not available. In the Dutch-Anglo KOUNCIL ( K idney- O riented UN derstanding of correcting CIL iopathies) consortium, several groups and specialties united to perform scientific groundwork with the aim to develop genetic and therapeutic personalized care for NPH patients...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Stéphanie Chacar, Mehrad Tarighi, Nassim Fares, Jean-François Faivre, Nicolas Louka, Richard G Maroun
The high diversity of phenolic compounds (PC) found in food matrices makes it challenging to analyze their bioavailability and their impact on health and functional metabolism. It is well recognized that PC do modulate the composition of the gut microbiota (GM), however, the literature still lacks significant data concerning the link between the metabolic fate of the ingested compounds and their bioactivity, mainly when considering the secondary metabolites produced. In this study, we assessed the metabolic fate of PC for a period covering 14 months of daily intake to identify the metabolites that could be responsible for the effects of PC on the GM observed in our previous work...
June 4, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Adrien Flahault, Jean-François Chassé, Eric Thervet, Alexandre Karras, Nicolas Pallet
The analysis of urinary protein composition is an important step in the evaluation and monitoring of kidney diseases. Among the various approaches, the determination of urinary-specific proteins makes it possible to non-invasively detect a preferentially tubular or glomerular injury, to orientate towards a pathological process, to guide the indication of a kidney biopsy, and to follow the evolution of the disease and the effectiveness of a therapy. No study systematically evaluated the performance of urinary-specific proteins for the diagnosis of a renal disease...
June 1, 2018: Annales de Biologie Clinique
Reza Alizadeh, Maryam Salami, Shahram Seidi
A novel ZnO-graphene oxide nanocomposite was prepared and is shown to be a viable coating on fused silica fibers for use in solid phase microextraction (SPME) of diazepam and oxazepam from urine, this followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatographic quantitation using a flame ionization detector. A central composite design was used to optimize extraction time, salt percentage, sample pH and desorption time. Limits of detection are 0.5 μg·L-1 for diazepam and 1.0 μg·L-1 for oxazepam. Repeatability and reproducibility for one fiber (n = 4), expressed as the relative standard deviation at a concentration of 50 μg·L-1 , are 8...
June 2, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
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