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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453937/trajectory-classes-of-cannabis-use-and-heavy-drinking-among-rural-african-american-adolescents-multilevel-predictors-of-class-membership
#1
Allen W Barton, Gene H Brody, Tamika C B Zapolski, Trenette C Goings, Steven M Kogan, Michael Windle, Tianyi Yu
AIMS: To inform research on the etiology and prevention of substance use among rural African American youth by (a) identifying developmental trajectory classes of cannabis use and heavy drinking across adolescence and young adulthood, and (b) examining associations between trajectory class membership and multi-level assessments of risk factors. DESIGN: A prospective study spanning nine years with assessments of cannabis use and heavy drinking, the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, perceived stress, and psychosocial risk factors...
February 17, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444834/accuracy-of-high-throughput-nanofluidic-pcr-based-pneumococcal-serotyping-and-quantification-assays-using-sputum-samples-for-diagnosing-vaccine-serotype-pneumococcal-pneumonia-analyses-by-composite-diagnostic-standards-and-bayesian-latent-class-models
#2
Satoshi Kakiuchi, Motoi Suzuki, Bhim Gopal Dhoubhadel, Akitsugu Furumoto, Hiroyuki Ito, Kei Matsuki, Yoshiko Tsuchihashi, Norichika Asoh, Michio Yasunami, Koya Ariyoshi, Konosuke Morimoto
The lack of reliable diagnostic tests for detecting vaccine serotype pneumococcal pneumonia (VTPP) remains a challenging issue in pneumococcal vaccine studies. This study assessed the performances of high-throughput nanofluidic PCR-based pneumococcal serotyping and quantification assay methods using sputum samples (nanofluidic Sp-qPCR) to diagnose the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate VTPP compared with that of the serotype-specific urinary antigen detection (UAD) assay using urine samples. Adult pneumonia patients from Japan were enrolled in this study between September 2012 and August 2014...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432560/nutrient-composition-and-digestibility-of-energy-and-nutrients-in-wheat-middlings-and-red-dog-fed-to-growing-pigs
#3
G A Casas, D A Rodriguez, H H Stein
This experiment was designed to determine nutrient composition and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, DM, OM, and NDF and the concentration of DE and ME in 10 sources of wheat middlings and in 1 source of red dog that were obtained from different flour mills in the U.S. Twelve growing pigs (initial BW: 31.0 ± 1) were randomly allotted to a 12 × 8 Youden square design with 12 dietary treatments and 8 14-d periods. Pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for total collection of feces and urine...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429536/are-patients-affected-by-mitochondrial-disorders-at-nutritional-risk
#4
Emilie Aubry, Carla Aeberhard, Lia Bally, Jean-Marc Nuoffer, Lorenz Risch, Stefan Mühlebach, Jean-Marc Burgunder, Zeno Stanga
OBJECTIVES: Patients with mitochondrial disorders (MD) frequently present with gastrointestinal complaints, mainly gastrointestinal dysmotility, that interfere with their food intake. A deterioration of their nutritional state may worsen the course of the disease. Our study aimed to evaluate a simple screening tool to identify nutritional risk and perform an extended nutritional assessment to explore the potential presence of deficiencies in this population compared with controls. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted to compare outpatients with MD to matched healthy controls...
March 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428929/improvements-in-self-reported-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-with-prostate-health-supplement
#5
Isaac Eliaz, Elaine Weil, Barry Wilk
Context • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) produces lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) that diminish quality of life. Conventional treatments are often accompanied by adverse side effects. By contrast, consumers of phytochemicals-based dietary supplements often report a reduction in symptoms without side effects. The field needs studies that quantify the strength and character of perceived benefits. Objectives • The study intended to quantify the character and strength of perceived improvements in LUTS in men, after the consumption of a prostate health supplement...
February 10, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425657/urine-metabolomics-shows-an-induction-of-fatty-acids-metabolism-in-healthy-adult-volunteers-after-supplementation-with-green-coffee-coffea-robusta-l-bean-extract
#6
Gregorio Peron, Davide Santarossa, Dario Voinovich, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Stefania Sut
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Green coffee bean extract is used as herbal medicine or supplement for weight reduction and obesity. The active constituents are considered caffeine and chlorogenic acid (CGA) derivatives. The mode of action of CGA is still unclear and can be related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) and liver X receptor Rα (LXR-α). Metabolomics may be an innovative tool for the description and discovery of the multiple target nature of such phytocomplex...
January 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425281/at1-receptor-antagonism-improves-structural-functional-and-biomechanical-properties-in-resistance-arteries-in-a-rodent-chronic-kidney-disease-model
#7
K J Quek, O Z Ameer, J K Phillips
Background: The renin-angiotensin system, in particular Angiotensin II (AngII), plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Effects of chronic AT1 receptor antagonism were investigated in a genetic hypertensive rat model of CKD, the Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK) rat. Methods: Mixed-sex LPK and Lewis control rats (total n=31) were split between treated (valsartan 60mg/kg/day p.o. from 4-18 weeks) and vehicle groups...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421773/study-of-urine-composition-of-patients-with-recurrent-nephrolithiasis-in-lorestan-iran
#8
Babak Hadian, Azita Zafar-Mohtashami, Fershteh Ghorbani
INTRODUCTION: Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases. After the first episode of urinary calculus, the risk of recurrence is nearly 40% to 50% at 5 years. Nephrolithiasis is a systemic disease that is associated with some metabolic disorders. This study aimed to provide a picture of the frequency of metabolic abnormalities in patients with nephrolithiasis from west part of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with recurrent urinary tract calculi referred to the Nephrology-Urology Clinics in Khorramabad city were recruited...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421401/association-between-prenatal-exposure-to-multiple-insecticides-and-child-body-weight-and-body-composition-in-the-vhembe-south-african-birth-cohort
#9
Eric Coker, Jonathan Chevrier, Stephen Rauch, Asa Bradman, Muvhulawa Obida, Madelein Crause, Riana Bornman, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women may be co-exposed to multiple insecticides in regions where both pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control. Despite the potential for adverse effects on offspring, there are few studies in areas where IRS is currently used and little is known about the effects of pyrethroids on children's health. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between concentrations of four urinary pyrethroid metabolites in urine and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in maternal blood collected near delivery on body weight and body composition among children ≤2 years old participating in the prospective South Africa VHEMBE birth cohort (N = 708)...
February 1, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417114/the-effects-of-whey-and-soy-proteins-on-growth-performance-gastrointestinal-digestion-and-selected-physiological-responses-in-rats
#10
B Wróblewska, J Juśkiewicz, B Kroplewski, A Jurgoński, E Wasilewska, D Złotkowska, L Markiewicz
The objective of this work was to identify the nutritional and physiological effects of commercial soy and whey protein preparations. Wistar rats were fed with soy (S), whey (W), or casein (C) preparations as the sole dietary protein source. The nitrogen balance, body composition, changes in caecal microbiota, mucosal and bacterial enzyme activities, and allergenic potential of the preparations were analysed. The whey diet elicited greater skeletal muscle anabolism than the soy diet. Rats from the S group had the lowest values of body weight, fat, and lean mass gain...
February 8, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416283/metabolic-evaluation-of-children-with-urolithiasis
#11
Vijayabhaskar Reddy Gouru, Vedamurthy Reddy Pogula, Surya Prakash Vaddi, Venu Manne, Ranadheer Byram, Lalith Sagar Kadiyala
Aim: The aim of the study is to identify the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities in children with urolithiasis. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study; all children below 15 years who are found to have urolithiasis were prospectively evaluated with relevant history, clinical examination, and urine and serum testing. Metabolic workup includes complete urine examination, urine culture and sensitivity, and 24-h urinary analysis (lithorisk profile). Results: A total of 55 patients are included in the study...
January 2018: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407090/long-term-prognostic-significance-of-urinary-sodium-concentration-in-patients-with-acute-heart-failure
#12
Satoshi Honda, Toshiyuki Nagai, Kunihiro Nishimura, Michikazu Nakai, Yasuyuki Honda, Hiroki Nakano, Naotsugu Iwakami, Yasuo Sugano, Yasuhide Asaumi, Takeshi Aiba, Teruo Noguchi, Kengo Kusano, Hiroyuki Yokoyama, Hisao Ogawa, Satoshi Yasuda, Toshihisa Anzai
BACKGROUND: Lower urinary sodium concentration (UNa) may reflect impaired renal perfusion, higher neurohormonal activity and diuretic resistance. However, the prognostic impact of UNa in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: We investigate the association between UNa and clinical outcomes in 669 patients admitted with AHF in our prospective registry. Patients were stratified into tertiles based on UNa in a spot urine sample on admission...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391176/intake-of-trace-metals-and-the-risk-of-incident-kidney-stones
#13
Pietro Manuel Ferraro, Giovanni Gambaro, Gary C Curhan, Eric N Taylor
PURPOSE: The association between intakes of trace metals and risk of incident stones has not been longitudinally investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective analysis of 193,551 participants of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and II. During a follow-up of 3,316,580 person-years, there were 6,576 incident stones. We used multivariate regression models to identify associations between intakes of zinc, iron, copper and manganese and risk of stones...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378056/lysine-requirements-of-healthy-pregnant-women-are-higher-during-late-stages-of-gestation-compared-to-early-gestation
#14
Magdalene Payne, Trina Stephens, Kenneth Lim, Ronald O Ball, Paul B Pencharz, Rajavel Elango
Background: Lysine is the first limiting amino acid in cereal proteins and is found mainly in animal-derived products. Current Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendations extrapolate lysine requirements during pregnancy from nonpregnant adult data, and may underestimate true requirements. Objective: Our objective is to define a quantitative lysine requirement in healthy pregnant women and to determine whether requirements vary between 2 phases of gestation. Methods: Fourteen pregnant women in early (12-19 wk) and 19 women in late (33-39 wk) gestation were studied using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374911/-distribution-and-drug-resistance-of-pathogens-in-infected-organ-donors-from-donation-after-the-citizen-death
#15
Z Chen, X X Lai, L Zhang, J L Fang, J J Ma, G H Li, L Xu, W Yin, Y H Guo
Objective: To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens in infected organ donors from donation after the citizen death (DCD). Methods: Clinical data of 217 DCD donors from January 2013 to June 2017 were retrospectively analyzed.The phlegm, urine, blood and drainage fluid from all of the donors were routinely cultured.The infection rate of the donors, the composition ratio of pathogens and the distribution of specimen sources were observed and the drug resistance was analyzed. Results: Of all the 217 donors, 128 were infected and the infection rate was 59%...
January 16, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363331/enalapril-decreases-rat-plasma-concentration-of-tmao-a-gut-bacteria-derived-cardiovascular-marker
#16
Marek Konop, Marek Radkowski, Marta Grochowska, Karol Perlejewski, Emilia Samborowska, Marcin Ufnal
INTRODUCTION: Increased plasma level of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a bacterial metabolite of choline, is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Indoxyl sulfate, a bacterial metabolite of tryptophan, is thought to be associated with higher mortality in cardiorenal syndrome. We hypothesized that enalapril, a well-established drug reducing cardiovascular mortality, may affect the plasma level of gut bacteria-derived metabolites and gut bacteria composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 14-16-week-old Wistar rats were maintained either on water (controls) or water solution of enalapril for two weeks (5...
January 24, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360814/postmenopausal-breast-cancer-and-oestrogen-associations-with-the-iga-coated-and-iga-noncoated-faecal-microbiota
#17
James J Goedert, Xing Hua, Agata Bielecka, Isao Okayasu, Ginger L Milne, Gieira S Jones, Mutsunori Fujiwara, Rashmi Sinha, Yunhu Wan, Xia Xu, Jacques Ravel, Jianxin Shi, Noah W Palm, Heather Spencer Feigelson
BACKGROUND: The diversity and composition of the gut microbiota may affect breast cancer risk by modulating systemic levels of oestrogens and inflammation. The current investigation tested this hypothesis in postmenopausal women by identifying breast cancer associations with an inflammation marker, oestrogen levels, and faecal microbes that were or were not coated with mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA). METHODS: In this population-based study, we compared 48 postmenopausal breast cancer cases (75% stage 0-1, 88% oestrogen-receptor positive) to 48 contemporaneous, postmenopausal, normal-mammogram, age-matched controls...
January 23, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357769/is-the-body-composition-development-in-premature-infants-associated-with-a-distinctive-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-metabolomic-profiling-of-urine
#18
Daniela Morniroli, Angelica Dess'ı, Maria Lorella Giann'ı, Paola Roggero, Antonio Noto, Luigi Atzori, Milena Lussu, Vassilios Fanos, Fabio Mosca
OBJECTIVE: Preterm infants' body composition at term-corrected age differs from that of term infants but appears to be similar at the age of 3 months. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolomic pattern of preterm infants at term and at 3 months with that of term infants and to determine its association with body composition development. METHOD: We designed a pilot study. Growth and body composition were evaluated by an air displacement plethysmography system in 13 preterm infants and seven term newborns at term and at 3 months of corrected age...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356875/upper-metastable-limit-osmolality-of-urine-as-a-predictor-of-kidney-stone-formation-in-children
#19
Tadeusz Porowski, Jan K Kirejczyk, Piotr Mrozek, Piotr Protas, Agata Kozerska, Łukasz Łabieniec, Krzysztof Szymański, Anna Wasilewska
High fluid intake has been universally recommended for kidney stone prophylaxis. We evaluated 24-h urine osmolality regarded as the best biomarker of optimal hydration and upper metastable limit osmolality after water evaporation from urine sample to the onset of spontaneous crystallization and its usefulness as a new risk index that would describe an individual lithogenic potential. We collected 24-h urine from 257 pediatric patients with kidney stones and 270 controls. After volume and osmolality assessment, the urine samples were subjected to volume reduction in vacuum rotavapor continued to the onset of an induced urinary crystallization...
January 22, 2018: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344587/an-exploratory-study-of-red-raspberry-rubus-idaeus-l-poly-phenols-metabolites-in-human-biological-samples
#20
Xuhuiqun Zhang, Amandeep Sandhu, Indika Edirisinghe, Britt Burton-Freeman
Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) contains a variety of polyphenols including anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Red raspberry polyphenols absorbed in different forms (parent compounds, degradants or microbial metabolites) are subject to xenobiotic metabolism in the intestine, liver, and/or kidney, forming methylate, glucuronide, and sulfate conjugated metabolites. Upon acute exposure, (poly)phenol/metabolite presence in the blood depends mainly on intestinal absorption, enterohepatic circulation, and metabolism by resident microbiota...
January 18, 2018: Food & Function
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