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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140768/public-health-burden-of-hearing-impairment-and-the-promise-of-genomics-and-environmental-research-a-case-study-in-ghana-africa
#1
Samuel Mawuli Adadey, Gordon Awandare, Goffrey Kwabla Amedofu, Ambroise Wonkam
Hearing impairment (HI) is one of the most disabling conditions of major global health burden that contributes adversely to the social and economic development of a country, if not managed properly. A proper assessment of the nationwide burden and etiology of HI is instrumental in the prevention, treatment, and management of the condition. This article sought to perform an expert review of HI in Ghana to determine the present knowledge of its burden and possible causes of the condition. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using the following keywords: "hearing loss" OR "hearing impairment" OR "deafness" AND "Ghana...
November 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140482/estimating-autoantibody-signatures-to-detect-autoimmune-disease-patient-subsets
#2
Zhenke Wu, Livia Casciola-Rosen, Ami A Shah, Antony Rosen, Scott L Zeger
Autoimmune diseases are characterized by highly specific immune responses against molecules in self-tissues. Different autoimmune diseases are characterized by distinct immune responses, making autoantibodies useful for diagnosis and prediction. In many diseases, the targets of autoantibodies are incompletely defined. Although the technologies for autoantibody discovery have advanced dramatically over the past decade, each of these techniques generates hundreds of possibilities, which are onerous and expensive to validate...
November 13, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135590/the-analgesic-effect-of-ultrasound-guided-quadratus-lumborum-block-after-cesarean-delivery-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Anders Krohg, Kyrre Ullensvang, Leiv Arne Rosseland, Eldrid Langesæter, Axel R Sauter
BACKGROUND: Landmark and ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks have demonstrated an opioid-sparing effect postoperatively after cesarean delivery. The more posterior quadratus lumborum (QL) might provide superior local anesthetic spread to the thoracolumbar fascia and paravertebral space. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of the QL block after cesarean delivery. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was performed. Forty parturients undergoing cesarean delivery received bilateral ultrasound-guided QL blocks with either 2 mg/mL ropivacaine or saline postoperatively...
November 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131768/from-inguinal-hernias-to-spermatic-cord-lipomas-pearls-pitfalls-and-mimics-of-abdominal-and-pelvic-hernias
#4
Miguel C Cabarrus, Benjamin M Yeh, Andrew S Phelps, Jao J Ou, Spencer C Behr
Abdominal and pelvic hernias may be indolent and detected incidentally, manifest acutely with pain and distress, or cause chronic discomfort. Physical examination findings are often ambiguous and insufficient for optimal triage. Therefore, accurate anatomic delineation and identification of complications are critical for effective treatment planning. Imaging, particularly computed tomography, provides a vital understanding of the hernia's location and size, involved viscera, and severity of associated complications...
November 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128007/computed-tomography-versus-magnetic-resonance-in-head-and-neck-cancer-when-to-use-what-and-image-optimization-strategies
#5
REVIEW
Amy Juliano, Gul Moonis
This article provides a practical overview of head and neck cancers, outlining an approach to evaluating these lesions and optimizing imaging strategies. Recognition of key anatomic landmarks as suggested by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) criteria is emphasized. Further, the recently updated eighth edition of the AJCC staging manual has introduced some modifications that influence the TNM staging. These modifications are discussed throughout the article to provide an updated review on head and neck cancer...
February 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110624/recent-advancements-in-organotin-iv-complexes-as-potential-anticancer-agents
#6
Jai Devi, Jyoti Yadav
Cancer is a multistep disease incorporating physical, chemical, environmental, metabolic and genetic factors, which play direct or indirect role in the induction and deterioration of cancer. Many of the platinum based drugs were synthesized but due to their systemic toxicity, broad spectrum of action, intrinsic and acquired drug resistivity, it has become necessary to search for the effective anticancer drugs with superior efficiency. Among non-platinum metal compounds with antitumor activity, organotin complexes have proven effective management of toxicity, specific targeted drug uptake by the cancerous cell line and significant potential in the pharmaceutical chemistry...
November 6, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109496/no-results-no-problem-why-we-are-publishing-methods-of-a-landmark-study-with-results-still-pending
#7
Brian E Lacy, Brennan Spiegel
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women in the United States, and screening for CRC is a national health-care priority. In this issue, investigators from the CONFIRM study group report on the aims and study design of a large, multicenter, randomized prospective study of whether screening colonoscopy is superior to an annual fecal immunochemical test (FIT). CONFRIM hopes to enroll 50,000 individuals, aged 50-75 years, from 46 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers and monitor them for 10 years...
November 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095575/tokyo-guidelines-2018-surgical-management-of-acute-cholecystitis-safe-steps-in-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-for-acute-cholecystitis-with-videos
#8
Go Wakabayashi, Yukio Iwashita, Taizo Hibi, Tadahiro Takada, Steven M Strasberg, Horacio J Asbun, Itaru Endo, Akiko Umezawa, Koji Asai, Kenji Suzuki, Yasuhisa Mori, Kohji Okamoto, Henry A Pitt, Ho-Seong Han, Tsann-Long Hwang, Yoo-Seok Yoon, Dong-Sup Yoon, In-Seok Choi, Wayne Shih-Wei Huang, Mariano Eduardo Giménez, O James Garden, Dirk J Gouma, Giulio Belli, Christos Dervenis, Palepu Jagannath, Angus C W Chan, Wan Yee Lau, Keng-Hao Liu, Cheng-Hsi Su, Takeyuki Misawa, Masafumi Nakamura, Akihiko Horiguchi, Nobumi Tagaya, Shuichi Fujioka, Ryota Higuchi, Satoru Shikata, Yoshinori Noguchi, Tomohiko Ukai, Masamichi Yokoe, Daniel Cherqui, Goro Honda, Atsushi Sugioka, Eduardo de Santibañes, Avinash Nivritti Supe, Hiromi Tokumura, Taizo Kimura, Masahiro Yoshida, Toshihiko Mayumi, Seigo Kitano, Masafumi Inomata, Koichi Hirata, Yoshinobu Sumiyama, Kazuo Inui, Masakazu Yamamoto
In some cases, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) may be difficult to perform in patients with acute cholecystitis (AC) with severe inflammation and fibrosis. The Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18) expand the indications for LC under difficult conditions for each level of severity of AC. As a result of expanding the indications for LC to treat AC, it is absolutely necessary to avoid any increase in bile duct injury (BDI), particularly vasculo-biliary injury (VBI), which is known to occur at a certain rate in LC. Since the Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13), an attempt has been made to assess intraoperative findings as objective indicators of surgical difficulty; based on expert consensus on these difficulty indicators, bail-out procedures (including conversion to open cholecystectomy) have been indicated for cases in which LC for AC is difficult to perform...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082019/antenatal-corticosteroids-for-women-at-risk-of-imminent-preterm-birth-in-low-resource-countries-the-case-for-equipoise-and-the-need-for-efficacy-trials
#9
REVIEW
Joshua P Vogel, Olufemi T Oladapo, Cynthia Pileggi-Castro, Ebunoluwa A Adejuyigbe, Fernando Althabe, Shabina Ariff, Adejumoke Idowu Ayede, Abdullah H Baqui, Anthony Costello, Davy M Chikamata, Caroline Crowther, Bukola Fawole, Luz Gibbons, Alan H Jobe, Monica Lulu Kapasa, John Kinuthia, Alka Kriplani, Oluwafemi Kuti, James Neilson, Janna Patterson, Gilda Piaggio, Rahat Qureshi, Zahida Qureshi, Mari Jeeva Sankar, Jeffrey S A Stringer, Marleen Temmerman, Khalid Yunis, Rajiv Bahl, A Metin Gülmezoglu
The scientific basis for antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) for women at risk of preterm birth has rapidly changed in recent years. Two landmark trials-the Antenatal Corticosteroid Trial and the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids Trial-have challenged the long-held assumptions on the comparative health benefits and harms regarding the use of ACS for preterm birth across all levels of care and contexts, including resource-limited settings. Researchers, clinicians, programme managers, policymakers and donors working in low-income and middle-income countries now face challenging questions of whether, where and how ACS can be used to optimise outcomes for both women and preterm newborns...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053173/the-williams-legacy-a-critical-reappraisal-of-his-nine-predictions-about-the-evolution-of-senescence
#10
Jean-Michel Gaillard, Jean-François Lemaître
Williams' evolutionary theory of senescence based on antagonistic pleiotropy has become a landmark in evolutionary biology, and more recently in biogerontology and evolutionary medicine. In his original article, Williams launched a set of nine 'testable deductions' from his theory. Although some of these predictions have been repeatedly discussed, most have been overlooked and no systematic evaluation of the whole set of Williams' original predictions has been performed. For the sixtieth anniversary of the publication of the Williams' paper, we provide an updated evaluation of all these predictions...
October 20, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052609/neuro-ophthalmic-side-effects-of-molecularly-targeted-cancer-drugs
#11
REVIEW
M T Bhatti, A K S Salama
The past two decades has been an amazing time in the advancement of cancer treatment. Molecularly targeted therapy is a concept in which specific cellular molecules (overexpressed, mutationally activated, or selectively expressed proteins) are manipulated in an advantageous manner to decrease the transformation, proliferation, and/or survival of cancer cells. In addition, increased knowledge of the role of the immune system in carcinogenesis has led to the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors to restore and enhance cellular-mediated antitumor immunity...
October 20, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037437/the-australian-royal-commission-into-institutional-responses-to-child-sexual-abuse
#12
Katie Wright, Shurlee Swain, Kathleen McPhillips
The Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse is the largest royal commission in Australia's history and one of the largest public inquiries into institutional child abuse internationally. With an investment from the Australian government of half a billion dollars, it examined how institutions with a responsibility for children, both historically and in the present, have responded to allegations of child sexual abuse. Announced in the wake of previous Australian and international inquiries, public scandals and lobbying by survivor groups, its establishment reflected increasing recognition of the often lifelong and intergenerational damage caused by childhood sexual abuse and a strong political commitment to improving child safety and wellbeing in Australia...
October 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032614/quantification-of-the-effect-of-instrumentation-error-in-objective-gait-assessment-in-the-horse-on-hindlimb-symmetry-parameters
#13
F M Serra Bragança, M Rhodin, T Wiestner, E Hernlund, T Pfau, P R van Weeren, M A Weishaupt
BACKGROUND: Objective gait-analysis is becoming more popular as a tool assisting veterinarians during the clinical lameness exam. At present, there is only limited information on the effect of misplacement of markers/motion-sensors. OBJECTIVES: To investigate and describe the effect of marker misplacement on commonly calculated pelvic symmetry parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Each horse was equipped with custom-made devices consisting of several reflective markers arranged in a predefined manner with a reference marker correctly positioned regarding the anatomical landmark and several misplaced markers along the sagittal and transverse planes...
October 15, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032607/erythroblast-macrophage-protein-emp-past-present-and-future
#14
REVIEW
Gulnaz T Javan, Amandeep Salhotra, Sheree J Finley, Shivani Soni
This review is a journey of the landmark protein Erythroblast macrophage protein (Emp) discovered in 1994, and it walks chronologically through the progress that has been made in understanding the biological function of this protein. Historically, Emp was the first identified cell attachment molecule and is expressed in both erythroblasts and macrophages and mediate their attachments to form erythroblastic islands. The absence of Emp erythroblasts shows defects in differentiation and enucleation. Emp-deficient macrophages display immature morphology characterized by small size, round shapes, and the lack of cytoplasmic projections...
October 15, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027756/what-is-the-outcome-in-patients-with-acute-leukaemia-who-survive-severe-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#15
Olle Ringdén, Myriam Labopin, Behnam Sadeghi, Audrey Mailhol, Dietrich Beelen, Yngvar Fløisand, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh, Jürgen Finke, Gerhard Ehninger, Liisa Volin, Gérard Socié, Nicolaus Kröger, Gernot Stuhler, Arnold Ganser, Christoph Schmid, Sebastian Giebel, Mohamad Mohty, Arnon Nagler
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). With new promising therapies, survival may improve for severe aGVHD. We wanted to analyze the long-term outcome in patients who survive severe aGVHD. This study was a landmark analysis of 23,567 patients with acute Leukaemia who survived for more than 6 months after HSCT, 2002-2014. Patients alive after severe aGVHD (n = 1,738) were compared to controls. Patients with severe aGVHD had higher non-relapse mortality (NRM) and higher rate of extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) than the controls (p < 10(-5) )...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024541/development-and-assessment-of-fully-automated-and-globally-transitive-geometric-morphometric-methods-with-application-to-a-biological-comparative-dataset-with-high-interspecific-variation
#16
Tingran Gao, Gabriel S Yapuncich, Ingrid Daubechies, Sayan Mukherjee, Doug M Boyer
Automated geometric morphometric methods are promising tools for shape analysis in comparative biology, improving researchers' abilities to quantify variation extensively (by permitting more specimens to be analyzed) and intensively (by characterizing shapes with greater fidelity). Although use of these methods has increased, published automated methods have some notable limitations: pairwise correspondences are frequently inaccurate and pairwise mappings are not globally consistent (i.e., they lack transitivity across the full sample)...
October 12, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024511/the-relationship-between-linear-osteological-and-radiographic-measurements-of-the-human-calcaneus-and-talus
#17
David Agoada
Plain radiographs of the foot are a common form of examination in individuals when medical evaluation is indicated. Their availability makes them useful for studying human variation where large sample sizes are crucial. Calcaneal and talar morphology are critical in the understanding of human foot form and function, but few studies have examined the accuracy of linear measurements of these bones taken from radiographs. If linear measurements are to be used in quantitative analysis, their accuracy must first be demonstrated...
October 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024071/an-unjustified-benefit-immortal-time-bias-in-the-analysis-of-time-dependent-events
#18
REVIEW
Andreas Gleiss, Rainer Oberbauer, Georg Heinze
Immortal time bias is a problem arising from methodologically wrong analyses of time-dependent events in survival analyses. We illustrate the problem by analysis of a kidney transplantation study. Following patients from transplantation to death, groups defined by the occurrence or nonoccurrence of graft failure during follow-up seemingly had equal overall mortality. Such naive analysis assumes that patients were assigned to the two groups at time of transplantation, which actually are a consequence of occurrence of a time-dependent event later during follow-up...
October 11, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982262/adaptive-designs-the-swiss-army-knife-among-clinical-trial-designs
#19
Frank Bretz, Paul Gallo, Willi Maurer
There has been considerable progress in the development and implementation of adaptive designs over the past 30 years. A major driver for this class of novel designs is the possibility to increase the information value of clinical trial data to enable better decisions, leading to more efficient drug development processes and improved late-stage success rates. In the first part of this article, we review the development of adaptive designs from different perspectives. We trace back key historical papers, report on landmark adaptive design clinical trials, review major cross-industry collaborations, and highlight key regulatory guidance documents...
October 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969919/a-clinical-technique-for-virtual-articulator-mounting-with-natural-head-position-by-using-calibrated-stereophotogrammetry
#20
Walter Y H Lam, Richard T C Hsung, Winnie W S Choi, Henry W K Luk, Leo Y Y Cheng, Edmond H N Pow
Accurate articulator-mounted casts are essential for occlusion analysis and for fabrication of dental prostheses. Although the axis orbital plane has been commonly used as the reference horizontal plane, some clinicians prefer to register the horizontal plane with a spirit level when the patient is in the natural head position (NHP) to avoid anatomic landmark variations. This article presents a digital workflow for registering the patient's horizontal plane in NHP on a virtual articulator. An orientation reference board is used to calibrate a stereophotogrammetry device and a 3-dimensional facial photograph with the patient in NHP...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
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