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Marta Oñate Miranda, Thomas P Moser
Percutaneous approaches for pelvic bone procedures (bone biopsies, tumour ablation and cementoplasty) are multiple and less well systematised than for the spine or extremities. Among the different imaging techniques that can be used for guidance, computed tomography (CT) scan is the modality of choice because of the complex pelvic anatomy. In specific cases, such as cementoplasty where real-time evaluation is a determinant, a combination of CT and fluoroscopy is highly recommended. The objective of this article is to propose a systematic approach for image-guided pelvic bone procedures, as well as to provide some technical tips...
March 21, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Aisha Aguiar Morais, Urjel Aguiar Bouissou Morais, Maria Marta Sarquis Soares, Márcia Christina Caetano Romano, Joel Alves Lamounier
OBJECTIVE: To critically analyze articles on the relation between neck circumference (NC) in adolescents and: body mass index, fat distribution, metabolic syndrome and its individual components, and cardiovascular risk. METHOD: Systematic review undertaken by two independent researchers using the Pubmed/Medline, Lilacs/Medline, Scielo and Cochrane databases in English, Spanish and Portuguese in the period comprising the past 5 years. RESULTS: Eighteen (18) articles were selected...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Max Ward, Joseph Doran, Boris Paskhover, Antonios Mammis
OBJECTIVES: Bibliometric analysis is a commonly used analytic tool for objective determination of the most influential and peer-recognized articles within a given field. This study is the first bibliometric analysis of the literature in the field of invasive neuromodulation, excluding deep brain stimulation. The objectives of this study are to identify the 50 most cited articles in invasive neuromodulation, provide an overview of the literature to assist in clinical education, and evaluate the effect of impact factor on manuscript recognition...
March 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
D A Gol'bin, V A Cherekaev
The article presents the literature data on the structural variability and age-related features of the midline anatomical structures of the anterior skull base (frontal sinus, ethmoid bone, anterior parasellar region, and medial orbital wall). This is the area of surgical interests of neurosurgeons and rhinosurgeons. The study objective is to analyze the literature data on the individual variability and age-related anatomy of these structures. The work is illustrated with original images from the authors' personal archive...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
A Lang, G Wirth, H Gasse
The surface architecture of the equine telencephalon is far more complex and complicated than, for example, that of the carnivore's brain, and basic organization patterns are more difficult to recognize. This is due to species differences, to interindividual variations and even to asymmetries between right and left hemispheres. Moreover, a very heterogeneous anatomical terminology, especially in the pioneering older literature, does not allow easy access to a unanimous topographical orientation. This review article presents the key features of this heterogeneity and its anatomical and terminological backgrounds, focusing on the cerebral sulci...
March 14, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
James M West
Anesthesiologists have clearly established their place in the history of medical ethics. Our involvement goes back to 1966 when Henri Beecher published his landmark paper on research and informed consent. Participation in the ethics of transplantation is no less important than our previous work. Organ transplant has been life saving for many but also has given rise to many misunderstandings not just from the public but also among our own colleagues. These include methods of allocation and donation, the role that affluence may play in receiving an organ, the definition of death and donation after circulatory death...
March 1, 2018: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Michael Akerman, Nada Pejčić, Ivan Veličković
The use of truncal nerve blocks has been described since 2001. Since then, there have been many studies trying to understand the ideal clinical scenarios for its use. Since 2001, the transversus abdominis plane block has evolved in many ways including from landmark based technique to ultrasound guided and more recently, into the quadratus lumborum (QL) block. Its anatomical placement, concentration of local anesthetic, volume of local anesthetic, and anatomic placement have all been raised as clinical questions...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Satomi Shiraishi, Michael P Grams, Luis E Fong de Los Santos
PURPOSE: To demonstrate an objective quality control framework for the image review process. METHODS AND MATERIALS: 927 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) registrations were retrospectively analyzed for 33 bilateral head and neck cancer patients who received definitive radiotherapy. Two registration tracking volumes (RTVs) - cervical spine (C-spine) and mandible - were defined, within which a similarity metric was calculated and used as a registration quality tracking metric over the course of treatment...
March 12, 2018: Medical Physics
Menuka Pallebage-Gamarallage, Sean Foxley, Ricarda A L Menke, Istvan N Huszar, Mark Jenkinson, Benjamin C Tendler, Chaoyue Wang, Saad Jbabdi, Martin R Turner, Karla L Miller, Olaf Ansorge
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder, in which therapy is hindered by the rapid progression of disease and lack of biomarkers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated its potential for detecting the pathological signature and tracking disease progression in ALS. However, the microstructural and molecular pathological substrate is poorly understood and generally defined histologically...
March 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
R C Jiloha, Prerna Kukreti
Delhi hasn't always enjoyed the status of the India's capital, but it has always played a pivotal role in the history of India as a gateway city. The same way, it received mental health services much later than the rest part of country, but it has witnessed an evolution from colonial era to the birth of state of art modern psychiatry services. Journey started with the landmark inaugural meeting in Delhi University of few visionaries paving the birth of Indian psychiatry society. Subsequently, it witnessed emergence of general hospital psychiatry units & saw their transformation to apex institutes of teaching and research like AIIMS and others...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Andrei D Sdrulla, Yun Guan, Srinivasa N Raja
The field of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) owes its inception to the concept of gate control theory (GCT), put forth by Wall and Melzack in their landmark 1965 paper, which proposed that "control of pain may be achieved by selectively activating the large, rapidly conducting fibers". The first reported clinical application of dorsal column stimulation came 2 years later, and the field has gradually expanded ever since. Today, an estimated 50,000 spinal cord neurostimulators are implanted annually...
March 11, 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Ying Chen, Simona Monaco, Douglas J Crawford
Targets for goal-directed action can be encoded in allocentric coordinates (relative to another visual landmark), but it is not known how these are converted into egocentric commands for action. Here, we investigated this using a slow event-related fMRI paradigm, based on our previous behavioral finding that the Allocentric to Egocentric (Allo-Ego) conversion for reach is done at the first possible opportunity. Participants were asked to remember (and eventually reach toward) the location of a briefly presented target relative to another visual landmark...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Timothy D Weaver, Philipp Gunz
Researchers studying extant and extinct taxa are often interested in identifying the evolutionary processes that have lead to the morphological differences among the taxa. Ideally, one could distinguish the influences of neutral evolutionary processes (genetic drift, mutation) from natural selection, and in situations for which selection is implicated, identify the targets of selection. The directional selection gradient is an effective tool for investigating evolutionary process, because it can relate form (size and shape) differences between taxa to the variation and covariation found within taxa...
March 6, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Puja Gaur Khaitan, Thomas A D'Amico
OBJECTIVE: To highlight some of the legendary figures in the medical field who have paved the path of thoracic surgery today. METHODS: We reviewed historical articles and landmark studies published in anesthesiology, pulmonology, and thoracic surgery, and summarized them as they pertain to current practice. RESULTS: Throughout our article, we have attempted to chronologically depict how our field has evolved, starting from the development of the stethoscope to reconstructing the esophagus using an extracorporeal tube to minimally invasive complex surgeries that we practice today...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Jesús Montúfar, Marcelo Romero, Rogelio J Scougall-Vilchis
INTRODUCTION: This article presents a novel technique for automatic cephalometric landmark localization on 3-dimensional (3D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) volumes by using an active shape model to search for landmarks in related projections. METHODS: Twenty-four random CBCT scans from a public data set were imported and processed into Matlab (MathWorks, Natick, Mass). Orthogonal coronal and sagittal projections (digitally reconstructed radiographs) were created, and 2 trained active shape models were used to locate cephalometric landmarks on each...
March 2018: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Paulo José Lorenzoni, Cláudia Suemi Kamoi Kay, Lineu Cesar Werneck, Rosana Herminia Scola
This historical review describes the contribution of Drs. Lee M. Eaton and Edward H. Lambert to the diagnosis of myasthenic syndrome on the 60th anniversary of their pioneering article (JAMA 1957) on the disease. There are important landmarks in their article on a disorder of the neuromuscular junction associated with thoracic neoplasm and the electrophysiological criteria for Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). After 60 years, the main electrophysiological criteria described in Eaton and Lambert's pioneering article are still currently useful in the diagnosis of LEMS...
February 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Nalini N Jairath, Cynthia J Peden-McAlpine, Mary C Sullivan, Judith A Vessey, Susan J Henly
BACKGROUND: Articles from three landmark symposia on theory for nursing-published in Nursing Research in 1968-1969-served as a key underpinning for the development of nursing as an academic discipline. The current special issue on Theory and Theorizing in Nursing Science celebrates the 50th anniversary of publication of these seminal works in nursing theory. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this commentary is to consider the future of nursing theory development in light of articles published in the anniversary issue...
March 2018: Nursing Research
Joseph Lee
Face transplantation (FT) is a landmark in reconstructive surgery involving vascularised composite allotransplantation. A recent issue of FT for patients who are blind has arisen. Some bioethicists recommend not excluding a patient who is blind, as this may amount to discrimination. From an ethical standpoint, FT for those with blindness is appropriate in selected candidates. This article seeks to add to the clinical evidence supporting FT for those with blindness by detailing a complementary psychosocial perspective...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Lori Berard, Noreen Antonishyn, Kathryn Arcudi, Sarah Blunden, Alice Cheng, Ronald Goldenberg, Stewart Harris, Shelley Jones, Upender Mehan, James Morrell, Robert Roscoe, Rick Siemens, Michael Vallis, Jean-François Yale
It is currently estimated that 11 million Canadians are living with diabetes or prediabetes. Although hyperglycemia is associated with serious complications, it is well established that improved glycemic control reduces the risk of microvascular complications and can also reduce cardiovascular (CV) complications over the long term. The UKPDS and ADVANCE landmark trials have resulted in diabetes guidelines recommending an A1C target of ≤ 7.0% for most patients or a target of ≤ 6.5% to further reduce the risk of nephropathy and retinopathy in those with type 2 diabetes (T2D), if it can be achieved safely...
February 23, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
F Westhauser, B Reible, M Höllig, R Heller, G Schmidmaier, A Moghaddam
Micro-computed tomography (mCT) belongs to the most powerful tools for the three-dimensional (3D) assessment of bone. While it is possible to refer to landmarks in mCT scans of actual bone structure, the assessment of calcified osteoid within scaffolds is problematic, due to the missing morphological correlates. Therefore, bone formation within scaffolds is mostly analyzed using indirect parameters such as changes in volume or surface alteration, preserving histomorphometry the gold standard in the direct analysis of bone formation...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
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