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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451983/reinforcing-mucus-barrier-properties-with-low-molar-mass-chitosans
#1
Sujit Kootala, Luimar Filho, Vaibhav Srivastava, Victoria Linderberg, Amani Moussa, Laurent David, Stéphane Trombotto, Thomas Crouzier
The mucus gel covers the wet epithelia that forms the inner lining of the body. It constitutes our first line of defense protecting the body from infections and other deleterious molecules. Failure of the mucus barrier can lead to the inflammation of the mucosa such as in inflammatory bowel diseases. Unfortunately, there are no effective strategies that reinforce the mucus barrier properties to recover or enhance its ability to protect the epithelium. Herein, we describe a mucus engineering approach that addresses this issue where we physically crosslink the mucus gel with low molar mass chitosan variants to reinforce its barrier functions...
February 16, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393705/alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-detection-in-a-portuguese-population
#2
Leonor Meira, Rita Boaventura, Susana Seixas, Maria Sucena
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an autosomal co-dominant disease characterised by low serum levels of this molecule. Its epidemiology remains unknown in many countries, mainly due to its underdiagnosed state and lack of patients' registries. We aim to evaluate and characterise a sample of Portuguese individuals tested for AATD, between 2006 and 2015, based on a retrospective analysis from the database of a laboratory offering AATD genetic diagnosis service. 1684 individuals were considered, covering almost every region in Portugal...
February 2, 2018: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284419/serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-from-17-chinese-cities-from-2011-to-2016
#3
Chunjiang Zhao, Zongbo Li, Feifei Zhang, Xiaobing Zhang, Ping Ji, Ji Zeng, Bijie Hu, Zhidong Hu, Kang Liao, Hongli Sun, Rong Zhang, Bin Cao, Chao Zhuo, Wei Jia, Yaning Mei, Yunzhuo Chu, Xuesong Xu, Qing Yang, Yan Jin, Quan Fu, Xiuli Xu, Hongling Li, Lijun Wang, Yuxing Ni, Hongjie Liang, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading pathogen of bacterial infections in infants and the elderly, is responsible for pneumococcal diseases with severe morbidity and mortality. Emergence of drug-resistant strains presented new challenges for treatment and prevention. Vaccination has proven to be an effective means of preventing pneumococcal infection worldwide. Detailed epidemiological information of antibiotic susceptibilities and serotype distribution will be of great help to the management of pneumococcal infections...
December 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283388/evolutionary-dynamics-of-the-w-chromosome-in-caenophidian-snakes
#4
Barbora Augstenová, Sofia Mazzoleni, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Michail Rovatsos
The caenophidian (assigned also as "advanced") snakes are traditionally viewed as a group of reptiles with a limited karyotypic variation and stable ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes. The W chromosomes of the caenophidian snakes are heterochromatic, and pioneering studies demonstrated that they are rich in repetitive elements. However, a comparative study of the evolutionary dynamics of the repetitive content of the W chromosome across the whole lineage is missing. Using molecular-cytogenetic techniques, we explored the distribution of four repetitive motifs (microsatellites GATA, GACA, AG and telomeric-like sequences), which are frequently accumulated in differentiated sex chromosomes in vertebrates, in the genomes of 13 species of the caenophidian snakes covering a wide phylogenetic spectrum of the lineage...
December 28, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231849/evolution-of-karyotypes-in-chameleons
#5
Michail Rovatsos, Marie Altmanová, Martina Johnson Pokorná, Petr Velenský, Antonio Sánchez Baca, Lukáš Kratochvíl
The reconstruction of the evolutionary dynamics of karyotypes and sex determining systems in squamate reptiles is precluded by the lack of data in many groups including most chameleons (Squamata: Acrodonta: Chamaeleonidae). We performed cytogenetic analysis in 16 species of chameleons from 8 genera covering the phylogenetic diversity of the family and also phylogenetic reconstruction of karyotype evolution in this group. In comparison to other squamates, chameleons demonstrate rather variable karyotypes, differing in chromosome number, morphology and presence of interstitial telomeric signal (ITS)...
December 12, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182469/semistructured-observation-of-population-based-eye-screening-in-the-netherlands
#6
Frea Sloot, Aya Sami, Hatice Karaman, Mari Gutter, Janine Benjamins, Trijntje Sjoerdsma, Huibert Jan Simonsz
BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, youth-healthcare (YHC) physicians screen children 7 times for vision disorders between the ages of 1 and 60 months. Examination consists of inspection of the external structures of the eye, fundus red reflex, Hirschberg test, pupillary reflexes, cover-uncover test, alternating-cover test, eye motility, monocular pursuit, and, from 36 months onwards, visual acuity (VA). We observed how well these tests are done. METHODS: Screening test performance was assessed with semistructured observations...
November 28, 2017: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105728/tests-for-detecting-strabismus-in-children-aged-1-to-6-years-in-the-community
#7
REVIEW
Sarah Hull, Vijay Tailor, Sara Balduzzi, Jugnoo Rahi, Christine Schmucker, Gianni Virgili, Annegret Dahlmann-Noor
BACKGROUND: Strabismus (misalignment of the eyes) is a risk factor for impaired visual development both of visual acuity and of stereopsis. Detection of strabismus in the community by non-expert examiners may be performed using a number of different index tests that include direct measures of misalignment (corneal or fundus reflex tests), or indirect measures such as stereopsis and visual acuity. The reference test to detect strabismus by trained professionals is the cover‒uncover test...
November 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968416/complications-of-stent-placement-in-patients-with-esophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Amin Doosti-Irani, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Abbas Rahimi-Foroushani, Peiman Haddad, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni
BACKGROUND: Palliative treatments and stents are necessary for relieving dysphagia in patients with esophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to simultaneously compare available treatments in terms of complications. METHODS: Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Embase were searched. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using the Chi2 test and was quantified by I2. The results of this study were summarized in terms of Risk Ratio (RR). The random effects model was used to report the results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951253/phylogenomics-and-species-delimitation-of-a-complex-radiation-of-neotropical-suboscine-birds-pachyramphus
#9
Lukas J Musher, Joel Cracraft
Phylogeographic studies within the Neotropics continue to uncover hidden diversity, the extent of which remains poorly known. In birds, molecular studies are producing evidence that species-level diversity is substantially underestimated. Many avian taxa comprise large complexes of subspecies that often represent species-level taxa by various criteria. One such group of Neotropical suboscine birds, the becards (Pachyramphus), ranges from Argentina through northern Mexico. Their taxonomic limits have been complex and controversial as the genus has bounced around a number of suboscine families...
September 22, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922699/vision-assessment-in-persons-with-intellectual-disabilities
#10
Werner Eisenbarth
PURPOSE: To investigate the degree of visual acuity in workers with intellectual disabilities and the impact of vision on their working conditions. METHODS: We recruited 224 workers (mean age 43.77 years, SD ± 12.96; range, 19-72 years) from a workshop for those with intellectual disabilities, to participate in a vision examination program. The assessment consisted of objective refraction, visual acuity, ocular motility, near-point of convergence, cover/uncover test, stereo acuity and colour perception...
September 18, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813578/incomitance-and-eye-dominance-in-intermittent-exotropia
#11
Daniel L Adams, John R Economides, Jonathan C Horton
Purpose: To determine if the deviation angle changes in subjects with intermittent exotropia as they alternate fixation between the right and left eye in primary gaze. Methods: In this prospective observational cohort study, 37 subjects with intermittent exotropia were tested for evidence of incomitance. The position of each eye was recorded with a video tracker during fixation on a small central target. A cover-uncover test was performed by occluding one eye with a shutter that passed infrared light, allowing continuous tracking of both eyes...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777665/an-anatomic-and-biomechanical-comparison-of-bankart-repair-configurations
#12
Christopher H Judson, Andreas Voss, Elifho Obopilwe, Felix Dyrna, Robert A Arciero, Kevin P Shea
BACKGROUND: Suture anchor repair for anterior shoulder instability can be performed using a number of different repair techniques, but none has been proven superior in terms of anatomic and biomechanical properties. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to compare the anatomic footprint coverage and biomechanical characteristics of 4 different Bankart repair techniques: (1) single row with simple sutures, (2) single row with horizontal mattress sutures, (3) double row with sutures, and (4) double row with labral tape...
November 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772935/the-rejuvenating-effect-in-hot-asphalt-recycling-by-mortar-transfer-ratio-and-image-analysis
#13
Fusong Wang, Zipeng Wang, Chao Li, Yue Xiao, Shaopeng Wu, Pan Pan
Using a rejuvenator to improve the performance of asphalt pavement is an effective and economic way of hot asphalt recycling. This research analyzes the rejuvenating effect on aged asphalt by means of a Mortar Transfer Ratio (MTR) test, which concerns the ratio of asphalt mortar that moves from recycled aggregates (RAP aggregates) to fresh added aggregates when aged asphalt is treated with a regenerating agent and comes into contact with fresh aggregates. The proposed MTR test analyzes the regeneration in terms of the softening degree on aged asphalt when the rejuvenator is applied...
May 24, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750251/blood-borne-virus-testing-of-2250-patients-in-an-unusual-repeated-dental-patient-notification-exercise-challenges-faced-and-lessons-learnt
#14
H J Henderson, L Hopps, K M Roy
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to ascertain the risk created for patients of two dental practices where infection control was found to be inadequate, and if the risk was deemed to be significant, initiate an investigation involving notification and blood borne virus (BBV) testing to establish if any patient-to-patient BBV transmissions had occurred as a result of these infection control breaches. STUDY DESIGN: A case study. METHODS: A public health investigation and patient notification...
October 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707240/elemental-mobility-in-sulfidic-mine-tailings-reclaimed-with-paper-mill-by-products-as-sealing-materials
#15
Yu Jia, Nanna Stahre, Maria Mäkitalo, Christian Maurice, Björn Öhlander
Sealing layers made of two alkaline paper mill by-products, fly ash and green liquor dregs, were placed on top of 50-year-old sulfide-containing tailings as a full-scale remediation approach. The performance and effectiveness of the sealing layers with high water content for an oxygen barrier and low hydraulic conductivity for a sealing layer in preventing the formation of acid rock drainage were evaluated 5 years after the remediation. The leaching behavior of the covered tailings was studied using batch leaching tests (L/S ratio 10 L/kg)...
September 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650350/performing-pediatric-eye-exams-in-primary-care
#16
Elaine F Martin
Early vision care is critical for all children. If undetected, eye disorders such as amblyopia and strabismus may result in permanent vision loss. Vision exams should include a careful history and physical including fix and follow, red reflex, and cover/uncover testing. Photo screening and visual acuity exams should be administered whenever possible.
August 17, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548545/mild-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-why-spirometry-is-not-sufficient
#17
Amany F Elbehairy, Grace Parraga, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Denis E O'Donnell
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - an inflammatory disease of the airways, alveoli and lung microvasculature - is a leading cause of death worldwide. Smokers with milder airway obstruction constitute the majority of patients with this disease. Many studies have shown increased morbidity, activity-related dyspnea, exercise intolerance and mortality in such patients, compared with age-matched healthy populations. Clinical evaluation of symptomatic smokers with ostensibly mild airway obstruction poses a challenge in clinical practice as spirometry can obscure extensive heterogeneous pathophysiological impairment...
July 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525963/the-use-of-transgenic-parasites-in-malaria-vaccine-research
#18
Ahmad Syibli Othman, Catherin Marin-Mogollon, Ahmed M Salman, Blandine M Franke-Fayard, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan
Transgenic malaria parasites expressing foreign genes, for example fluorescent and luminescent proteins, are used extensively to interrogate parasite biology and host-parasite interactions associated with malaria pathology. Increasingly transgenic parasites are also exploited to advance malaria vaccine development. Areas covered: We review how transgenic malaria parasites are used, in vitro and in vivo, to determine protective efficacy of different antigens and vaccination strategies and to determine immunological correlates of protection...
July 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484971/video-modeling-of-sbirt-for-alcohol-use-disorders-increases-student-empathy-in-standardized-patient-encounters
#19
Anthony Crisafio, Victoria Anderson, Julia Frank
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of adding video models of brief alcohol assessment and counseling to a standardized patient (SP) curriculum that covers and tests acquisition of this skill. METHODS: The authors conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study of third- and fourth-year medical students between 2013 and 2015. All students completed a standardized patient (SP) encounter illustrating the diagnosis of alcohol use disorder, followed by an SP exam on the same topic...
May 8, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413816/spectroscopic-and-afm-characterization-of-polypeptide-surface-interactions-controls-and-lipid-quantitative-analyses
#20
Øyvind Strømland, Ørjan S Handegård, Morten L Govasli, Hanzhen Wen, Samuel Furse, Øyvind Halskau
This article is related to http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2017.01.005 (Ø. Strømland, Ø.S. Handegård, M.L. Govasli, H. Wen, Ø. Halskau, 2017) [1]. In protein and polypeptide-membrane interaction studies, negatively charged lipids are often used as they are a known driver for membrane interaction. When using fluorescence spectroscopy and CD as indicators of polypeptide binding and conformational change, respectively, the effect of zwitterionic lipids only should be documented. The present data documents several aspects of how two engineered polypeptides (A-Cage-C and A-Lnk-C) derived from the membrane associating protein alpha-Lactalbumin affects and are affected by the presence of zwitterionic bilayers in the form of vesicles...
June 2017: Data in Brief
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