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Rasmus Hare Jensen
Antifungal drug resistance is a multifaceted clinical challenge, and when present, a primary cause of treatment failure in patients with severe fungal infections. Changing epidemiology, increasing resistance rates and a narrow antifungal armamentarium may further underline the required attention on resistance particularly within the most prevalent invasive fungal infections caused by Candida yeasts and Aspergillus moulds. In Denmark, the resistance epidemiology remains to be fully elucidated. This thesis sought to address this demand as well as provide insight into the landscape of underlying molecular resistance mechanisms...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Charles I Abramson, Christopher W Dinges, Harrington Wells
The honey bee has been an important model organism for studying learning and memory. More recently, the honey bee has become a valuable model to understand perception and cognition. However, the techniques used to explore psychological phenomena in honey bees have been limited to only a few primary methodologies such as the proboscis extension reflex, sting extension reflex, and free flying target discrimination-tasks. Methods to explore operant conditioning in bees and other invertebrates are not as varied as with vertebrates...
2016: PloS One
Daniel O'Keefe, Nick Scott, Campbell Aitken, Paul Dietze
BACKGROUND: Coverage is used as one indicator of needle and syringe program (NSP) effectiveness. At the individual level, coverage is typically defined as an estimate of the proportion of a person who injects drugs' (PWID) injecting episodes that utilise a sterile syringe. In this paper, we explore levels of individual syringe coverage and its changes over time. METHODS: Data were extracted from 1889 interviews involving 502 participants drawn from the Melbourne drug user cohort study (MIX)...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Bin Ran, Li Song, Jian Zhang, Yang Cheng, Huachun Tan
Traffic state estimation from the floating car system is a challenging problem. The low penetration rate and random distribution make available floating car samples usually cover part space and time points of the road networks. To obtain a wide range of traffic state from the floating car system, many methods have been proposed to estimate the traffic state for the uncovered links. However, these methods cannot provide traffic state of the entire road networks. In this paper, the traffic state estimation is transformed to solve a missing data imputation problem, and the tensor completion framework is proposed to estimate missing traffic state...
2016: PloS One
Giuseppe Capobianco, Luca Calienno, Claudia Pelosi, Martina Scacchi, Giuseppe Bonifazi, Giorgia Agresti, Rodolfo Picchio, Ulderico Santamaria, Silvia Serranti, Angela Lo Monaco
This paper reports the investigation on the effect of protective materials on poplar (Populus sp.) wood modifications as consequence of artificial photo-degradation in controlled environment. The novelty of this work is to try to understand what happens to wood surface under the protective layer. Shellac, beeswax and Linfoil® were tested to compare traditional and novel products generally used for wood. The samples, uncovered and covered by these protective layers, were artificially aged. Colour and chemical modifications due to ageing were investigated at different time intervals by reflectance spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging...
June 2, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Farzin Heravi, Navid Kerayechian, Saied Mostafa Moazzami, Hooman Shafaee, Parya Heravi
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retainers when bonding them to teeth with and without covering the FRC bars using two different adhesive systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hundred and twenty extracted human maxillary premolars were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 15). FRC bars (4 mm length, Everstick Ortho(®), Stick Tech, Oy, Turku, Finland) were bonded to the proximal (distal) surfaces of the teeth using two different adhesives (Tetric Flow [TF, Ivoclar Vivadent, Switzerland] and resin-modified glass ionomer cement [RMGIC, ODP, Vista, CA, USA]) with and without covering with the same adhesive...
October 2015: Journal of Orthodontic Science
Martina Rincic, Milan Rados, Zeljka Krsnik, Kristina Gotovac, Fran Borovecki, Thomas Liehr, Lukrecija Brecevic
BACKGROUND: Van der Woude syndrome (MIM: 119300, VWS) is a dominantly inherited and the most common orofacial clefting syndrome; it accounts for ~2 % of all cleft lip and palate cases. Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by significant limitations, both in intellectual functioning (cognitive deficit) and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. Karyotyping has been the first standard test for the detection of genetic imbalance in patients with ID for more than 35 years...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
Cynthia D Fast, Traci Biedermann, Aaron P Blaisdell
Mental imagery involves the perceptual-like experience of an event that is not physically present, or detected by the senses. Fast and Blaisdell (2011) reported that rats use the representation of an associatively retrieved event to guide behavior in ambiguous situations. Rats were reinforced for lever-pressing during 1 of 2 lights but not both lights. They were then tested with 1 light illuminated while the second light was either covered by an opaque shield (ambiguous) or uncovered and unlit (explicitly absent)...
April 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Jaleal S Sanjak, Anthony D Long, Kevin R Thornton
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have associated many single variants with complex disease, yet the better part of heritable complex disease risk remains unexplained. Analytical tools designed to work under specific population genetic models are needed. Rare variants are increasingly shown to be important in human complex disease, but most existing GWAS data do not cover rare variants. Explicit population genetic models predict that genes contributing to complex traits and experiencing recurrent, unconditionally deleterious, mutation will harbor multiple rare, causative mutations of subtle effect...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Christopher H Judson, Ryan Charette, Zachary Cavanaugh, Kevin P Shea
BACKGROUND: Traditional Bankart repair using bone tunnels has a reported failure rate between 0% and 5% in long-term studies. Arthroscopic Bankart repair using suture anchors has become more popular; however, reported failure rates have been cited between 4% and 18%. There have been no satisfactory explanations for the differences in these outcomes. HYPOTHESIS: Bone tunnels will provide increased coverage of the native labral footprint and demonstrate greater load to failure and stiffness and decreased cyclic displacement in biomechanical testing...
January 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Cynthia D Fast, M Melissa Flesher, Nathanial A Nocera, Michael S Fanselow, Aaron P Blaisdell
Identifying statistical patterns between environmental stimuli enables organisms to respond adaptively when cues are later observed. However, stimuli are often obscured from detection, necessitating behavior under conditions of ambiguity. Considerable evidence indicates decisions under ambiguity rely on inference processes that draw on past experiences to generate predictions under novel conditions. Despite the high demand for this process and the observation that it deteriorates disproportionately with age, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
June 2016: Hippocampus
Valtteri Uusitalo, Antti Saraste, Juhani Knuuti
In myocardial bridging (MB) a segment of the coronary artery is covered by the myocardium. MB can be seen as a systolic compression by invasive coronary angiography (ICA) or as an intramural course by computed tomography angiography (CTA). Intramural course is a common incidental finding in CTA studies. Only minority of the bridging segments are associated with systolic compression causing a possible impairment of myocardial perfusion. The relationship between myocardial blood flow and MB is complex and poorly evaluated by anatomic imaging...
January 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
Md-Abu Affan, Dae-Won Lee, Salim Marzoog Al-Harbi, Han-Jun Kim, Najah Ibrahim Abdulwassi, Soo-Jin Heo, Chulhong Oh, Heung-Sik Park, Chae Woo Ma, Hyeon-Yong Lee, Do-Hyung Kang
Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover)...
October 2015: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Markus A Wenzel, Rafael Schultze-Kraft, Frank C Meinecke, Fabien Cardinaux, Thomas Kemp, Klaus-Robert Müller, Gabriel Curio, Benjamin Blankertz
OBJECTIVE: Neurotechnology can contribute to the usability assessment of products by providing objective measures of neural workload and can uncover usability impediments that are not consciously perceived by test persons. In this study, the neural processing effort imposed on the viewer of 3D television by shutter glasses was quantified as a function of shutter frequency. In particular, we sought to determine the critical shutter frequency at which the 'neural flicker' vanishes, such that visual fatigue due to this additional neural effort can be prevented by increasing the frequency of the system...
February 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Emo E van Halsema, Erik A J Rauws, Paul Fockens, Jeanin E van Hooft
AIM: To provide an overview of the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (MGOO). METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed of the literature published between January 2009 and March 2015. Only prospective studies that reported on the clinical success of stent placement for MGOO were included. The primary endpoint was clinical success, defined according to the definition used in the original article...
November 21, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Amy P Chiu, Barbara R Tschida, Lilian H Lo, Branden S Moriarity, Dewi K Rowlands, David A Largaespada, Vincent W Keng
The major type of human liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and there are currently many risk factors that contribute to this deadly disease. The majority of HCC occurrences are associated with chronic hepatitis viral infection, and hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection is currently a major health problem in Eastern Asia. Elucidating the genetic mechanisms associated with HBV-induced HCC has been difficult due to the heterogeneity and genetic complexity associated with this disease. A repertoire of animal models has been broadly used to study the pathophysiology and to develop potential treatment regimens for HBV-associated HCC...
November 14, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Marie Suez, Abdelkader Behdenna, Sophie Brouillet, Paula Graça, Dominique Higuet, Guillaume Achaz
Microsatellites are widely used in population genetics to uncover recent evolutionary events. They are typically genotyped using capillary sequencer, which capacity is usually limited to 9, at most 12 loci for each run, and which analysis is a tedious task that is performed by hand. With the rise of next-generation sequencing (NGS), a much larger number of loci and individuals are available from sequencing: for example, on a single run of a GS Junior, 28 loci from 96 individuals are sequenced with a 30X cover...
March 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Maria Gabriela G de Camargo, H Martin Schaefer, Gustavo Habermann, Eliana Cazetta, Natalia Costa Soares, Leonor Patrícia C Morellato
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Most bird-dispersed fruits are green when unripe and become colored and conspicuous when ripe, signaling that fruits are ready to be consumed and dispersed. The color pattern for fruits of Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae), however, is the opposite, with reddish unripe and green ripe fruits. We (1) verified the maintenance over time of its bicolored display, (2) tested the communicative function of unripe fruits, (3) tested the photoprotective role of anthocyanins in unripe fruits, and (4) verified whether green ripe fruits can assimilate carbon...
September 2015: American Journal of Botany
Steven R Goodman, Rachel Petrofes Chapa, Warren E Zimmer
In this minireview, we cover the discovery of the human erythrocyte α spectrin E2/E3 ubiquitin conjugating/ligating enzymatic activity and the specific cysteines involved. We then discuss the consequences when this activity is partially inhibited in sickle cell disease and the possibility that the same attenuation is occurring in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. We finish by discussing the reasons for believing that nonerythroid α spectrin isoforms (I and II) also have this activity and the importance of testing this hypothesis...
August 2015: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Fotios Sampaziotis, Joshua Elias, William T H Gelson, Alexander E Gimson, William J H Griffiths, Jeremy Woodward, Mohamed Shariff, Bruce Macfarlane, Alistair King, Gareth Corbett, Anthony Leahy
OBJECTIVES: Fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS) constitute the first type of metal stent that can easily be removed endoscopically and/or intraoperatively, which may be advantageous in the management of distal malignant biliary strictures (DMBS). To assess the efficacy of FCSEMS as first-line treatment for DMBS, we compared patency, survival and complication rates between FCSEMS, uncovered self-expanding metal stents (USEMS) and plastic stents (PS). METHODS: This was a multicentre retrospective study of 315 consecutive patients with DMBS, who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and stenting (FCSEMS, USEMS or PS) at two hospitals between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2013...
November 2015: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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