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Douglas Matsunaga, Parameswaran G Sreekumar, Keijiro Ishikawa, Hiroto Terasaki, Ernesto Barron, Pinchas Cohen, Ram Kannan, David R Hinton
Humanin (HN) is a small mitochondrial-encoded peptide with neuroprotective properties. We have recently shown protection of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells by HN in oxidative stress; however, the effect of HN on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has not been evaluated in any cell type. Our aim here was to study the effect of HN on ER stress-induced apoptosis in RPE cells with a specific focus on ER-mitochondrial cross-talk. Dose dependent effects of ER stressors (tunicamycin (TM), brefeldin A, and thapsigargin) were studied after 12 hr of treatment in confluent primary human RPE cells with or without 12 hr of HN pretreatment (1-20 μg/mL)...
2016: PloS One
S P Pantazatos, Y-Y Huang, G B Rosoklija, A J Dwork, V Arango, J J Mann
Brain gene expression profiling studies of suicide and depression using oligonucleotide microarrays have often failed to distinguish these two phenotypes. Moreover, next generation sequencing approaches are more accurate in quantifying gene expression and can detect alternative splicing. Using RNA-seq, we examined whole-exome gene and exon expression in non-psychiatric controls (CON, N=29), DSM-IV major depressive disorder suicides (MDD-S, N=21) and MDD non-suicides (MDD, N=9) in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 9) of sudden death medication-free individuals post mortem...
August 16, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Hui Zhao, Soushi Sonada, Akihiro Yoshikawa, Kousaku Ohinata, Masaaki Yoshikawa
Rubimetide (Met-Arg-Trp), which had been isolated as an antihypertensive peptide from an enzymatic digest of spinach ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), showed anxiolytic-like activity prostaglandin (PG) D2-dependent manner in the elevated plus-maze test after administration at a dose of 0.1mg/kg (ip.) or 1mg/kg (p.o.) in male mice of ddY strain. In this study, we found that rubimetide has weak affinities for the FPR1 and FPR2, subtypes of formyl peptide receptor (FPR). The anxiolytic-like activity of rubimetide (0...
September 2016: Peptides
Savitree T Charununtakorn, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Krekwit Shinlapawittayatorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
AIM: Myocardial reperfusion via the re-canalization of occluded coronary arteries is gold standard for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. However, reperfusion itself can cause myocardial damage due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, a process known as ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Cardiac mitochondria are the major organelle of ROS production in the heart. Cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction caused by an increased ROS production can increase cardiac arrhythmia incidence, myocardial infarct size and cardiac dysfunction...
July 19, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Su-Jeong Kim, Noel Guerrero, Gabriella Wassef, Jialin Xiao, Hemal H Mehta, Pinchas Cohen, Kelvin Yen
Humanin is a small secreted peptide that is encoded in the mitochondrial genome. Humanin and its analogues have a protective role in multiple age-related diseases including type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease, through cytoprotective and neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. However, the humanin-mediated signaling pathways are not well understood. In this paper, we demonstrate that humanin acts through the GP130/IL6ST receptor complex to activate AKT, ERK1/2, and STAT3 signaling pathways. Humanin treatment increases phosphorylation in AKT, ERK 1/2, and STAT3 where PI3K, MEK, and JAK are involved in the activation of those three signaling pathways, respectively...
July 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Nesreen Alsanousi, Toshihiko Sugiki, Kyoko Furuita, Masatomo So, Young-Ho Lee, Toshimichi Fujiwara, Chojiro Kojima
Humanin comprising 24 amino acid residues is a bioactive peptide that has been isolated from the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Humanin reportedly suppressed aging-related death of various cells due to amyloid fibrils and oxidative stress. There are reports that the cytoprotective activity of Humanin was remarkably enhanced by optical isomerization of the Ser14 residue from l to d form, but details of the molecular mechanism remained unclear. Here we demonstrated that Humanin d-Ser14 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against fibrillation of amyloid-β and remarkably higher binding affinity for amyloid-β than that of the Humanin wild-type and S14G mutant...
September 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Li Yuan, Xiao-Jie Liu, Wei-Na Han, Qing-Shan Li, Zhao-Jun Wang, Mei-Na Wu, Wei Yang, Jin-Shun Qi
Alzheimer disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by cognitive decline and the accumulation of senile plaques in the brain. Amyloid β protein (Aβ) in the plaques is thought to be responsible for the memory loss in AD patients. [Gly14]-humanin (HNG), a derivative of humanin (HN), has much stronger neuroprotective effects than natural HN in vitro. However, clarification of the Aβ active center and the neuroprotective mechanism of HN still need in vivo evidence. The present study first compared the in vivo biological effects of three Aβ fragments (1-42, 31-35, and 35-31) on spatial memory in rats, and investigated the neuroprotective effects and molecular mechanisms of HNG...
August 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Changhan Lee, Kyung Hwa Kim, Pinchas Cohen
Mitochondria are ancient organelles that are thought to have emerged from once free- -proto-bacteria. As such, they still possess several bacterial-like qualities, including a semi-autonomous genetic system, complete with an independent genome and a unique genetic code. The bacterial-like circular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been described to encode 37 genes, including 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and 13 mRNAs. Two additional peptides reported to originate from the mtDNA, namely humanin [1-3] and MOTS-c (mitochondrial ORF of the twelve S c)[4], indicate a larger mitochondrial genetic repertoire [5]...
May 20, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Annet Voigt, Herbert F Jelinek
Mitochondrial RNR-2 (mt-RNR2, humanin) has been shown to play a role in protecting several types of cells and tissues from the effects of oxidative stress. Humanin (HN) functions through extracellular and intracellular pathways adjusting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production. Addition of HN improved insulin sensitivity in animal models of diabetes mellitus but no clinical studies have been carried out to measure HN levels in humans associated with hyperglycemia. The plasma levels of HN in participants attending a diabetes complications screening clinic were measured...
May 2016: Physiological Reports
J Xiao, S-J Kim, P Cohen, K Yen
Humanin is the first newly discovered peptide encoded in the mitochondrial genome in over three decades. It is the first member of a novel class of mitochondrial derived peptides. This small, 24 amino acid peptide was initially discovered to have neuroprotective effects and subsequent experiments have shown that it is beneficial in a diverse number of disease models including stroke, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Over a decade ago, our lab found that humanin bound IGFBP-3 and more recent studies have found it to decrease circulating IGF-I levels...
August 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Laura J Cobb, Changhan Lee, Jialin Xiao, Kelvin Yen, Richard G Wong, Hiromi K Nakamura, Hemal H Mehta, Qinglei Gao, Carmel Ashur, Derek M Huffman, Junxiang Wan, Radhika Muzumdar, Nir Barzilai, Pinchas Cohen
Mitochondria are key players in aging and in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. Recent mitochondrial transcriptome analyses revealed the existence of multiple small mRNAs transcribed from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Humanin (HN), a peptide encoded in the mtDNA 16S ribosomal RNA region, is a neuroprotective factor. An in silico search revealed six additional peptides in the same region of mtDNA as humanin; we named these peptides small humanin-like peptides (SHLPs). We identified the functional roles for these peptides and the potential mechanisms of action...
April 2016: Aging
Sirinart Kumfu, Savitree T Charununtakorn, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
What is the central question of this study? Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury causes interference in the systemic circulation and damages not only the heart but also several vital organs, including the brain. Recently, a novel peptide called humanin has been shown to exert potent neuroprotective effects. However, the effect of humanin on the brain during cardiac I/R injury has not yet been investigated. What is the main finding and its importance? The I/R injury caused blood-brain barrier breakdown, increased brain oxidative stress and resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction...
June 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Parameswaran G Sreekumar, Keijiro Ishikawa, Chris Spee, Hemal H Mehta, Junxiang Wan, Kelvin Yen, Pinchas Cohen, Ram Kannan, David R Hinton
PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of humanin (HN) in human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells and its effect on oxidative stress-induced cell death, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and senescence. METHODS: Humanin localization in RPE cells and polarized RPE monolayers was assessed by confocal microscopy. Human RPE cells were treated with 150 μM tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBH) in the absence/presence of HN (0.5-10 μg/mL) for 24 hours. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by XF96 analyzer...
March 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Rong Yin, Kai Yin, ZhiQiang Guo, ZhiQiang Zhang, LiPin Chen, Li Cao, YuanMin Li, YaXuan Wei, XueFeng Fu, XiangQun Shi
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized with progressive memory loss and severe cognitive impairments, which affect everyday life and human health in the elderly. It is required that an effective and safe protective reagent against AD should be developed. It has been reported that humanin (HN) exerts neuroprotective effects against AD. In this study, we investigated the effect of a novel and more effective HN derivative, Colivelin (CLN) on AD. METHODS: PDAPP(V717I) transgenic AD model mice (derived from parental C57/BL6 mice) were used in our study as AD model...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
I Karu, P Tahepold, A Ruusalepp, E Reimann, S Koks, J Starkopf
In experimental setting the concept of myocardial preconditioning by hyperoxia has been introduced and different intracellular protective mechanisms and their effects have been described. To study whether similar protective phenotype can be induced by hyperoxia also in humans, gene expression profile after hyperoxic exposure was analyzed. Adult patients were randomized to be ventilated with either FiO2 0.4 (n = 14) or 1.0 (n = 10) for 60 minutes before coronary artery bypass grafting. A tissue sample from the right atrial appendage was taken for gene analysis and expression profile analysis on genome wide level by RNA-seq analysis was applied...
December 2015: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Savitree T Charununtakorn, Krekwit Shinlapawittayatorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
The process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is known as a key player in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. The proposed mechanism for apoptosis is the activation of two main apoptotic signaling pathways (the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways), which lead to cell death. As the rate and amount of cardiomyocyte loss is the most important determinant of patient morbidity and mortality, novel treatment strategies targeting apoptosis are crucial. Recently, Humanin has been shown to exert protective effects against cellular apoptosis in both experimental and clinical studies...
April 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
YanHe Lue, Ronald Swerdloff, Junxiang Wan, Jialin Xiao, Samuel French, Vince Atienza, Victor Canela, Kevin W Bruhn, Brian Stone, Yue Jia, Pinchas Cohen, Christina Wang
Humanin is a peptide that is cytoprotective against stresses in many cell types. We investigated whether a potent humanin analogue S14G-humanin (HNG) would protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to normal cells without interfering with the chemotherapy-induced suppression of cancer cells. Young adult male mice were inoculated iv with murine melanoma cells. After 1 week, cancer-bearing mice were randomized to receive either: no treatment, daily ip injection of HNG, a single ip injection of cyclophosphamide (CP), or CP+HNG and killed at the end of 3 weeks...
December 2015: Endocrinology
Alain Veilleux, Sylvain Mayeur, Jean-Christophe Bérubé, Jean-François Beaulieu, Eric Tremblay, Frédéric-Simon Hould, Yohan Bossé, Denis Richard, Emile Levy
BACKGROUND: Metabolic alterations relevant to postprandial dyslipidemia were previously identified in the intestine of obese insulin-resistant subjects. The aim of the study was to identify the genes deregulated by systemic insulin resistance in the intestine of severely obese subjects. METHODS: Transcripts from duodenal samples of insulin-sensitive (HOMA-IR < 3, n = 9) and insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR > 7, n = 9) obese subjects were assayed by microarray (Illumina HumanHT-12)...
September 16, 2015: BMC Gastroenterology
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