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Hpv vaccines and efficacy

Marija Vujadinovic, Selina Khan, Koen Oosterhuis, Taco G Uil, Kerstin Wunderlich, Sarra Damman, Satish Boedhoe, Annemiek Verwilligen, Jonathan Knibbe, Jan Serroyen, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Roland Zahn, Gert Scheper, Jerome Custers, Jort Vellinga
Oncogenic high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause a substantial number of genital and non-genital cancers worldwide. Approximately 70% of all cervical cancers are caused by the high-risk HPV16 and 18 types. The remaining 30% can be attributed to twelve other high-risk HPV-types. Highly efficacious 2-valent, 4-valent and 9-valent L1 protein based prophylactic HPV vaccines are available however with limited cross-protection. To further increase the coverage, development of a multivalent cross-protective HPV vaccine is currently focused on the conserved N-terminus of HPV's L2 protein...
June 15, 2018: Vaccine
Nicholas Tan, Monisha Sharma, Rachel Winer, Denise Galloway, Helen Rees, Ruanne V Barnabas
BACKGROUND: Women in sub-Saharan Africa have high dual burden of HPV and HIV infections, which can interact to increase cervical cancer (CC) risk. The 9-valent HPV (9vHPV) vaccine has high demonstrated effectiveness against HPV types causing 90% of CC. Additionally, one dose of the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to achieve greater coverage at lower costs than a two-dose schedule. However, the potential impact of single-dose 9vHPV vaccine accounting for HPV-HIV interactions has not been estimated...
June 8, 2018: Vaccine
Vladimir Gilca, Jorge Salmerón-Castro, Chantal Sauvageau, Gina Ogilvie, Monique Landry, Monica Naus, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce
Although human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were initially licensed based on efficacy after three-dose regimens in women aged 15-26 years, it was recognized early in clinical development that comparable immunogenicity could be obtained after just two doses when administered to younger girls. In both Canada and Mexico, public health authorities made the decision to administer two doses 6 months apart with a planned additional dose at 60 months, while simultaneously doing further study to determine if the third dose would confer meaningful additional benefit...
June 7, 2018: Vaccine
Lisa Jamieson, Gail Garvey, Joanne Hedges, Amanda Mitchell, Terry Dunbar, Cathy Leane, Isaac Hill, Kate Warren, Alex Brown, Xiangqun Ju, David Roder, Richard Logan, Newell Johnson, Megan Smith, Annika Antonsson, Karen Canfell
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal cancer is an important, understudied cancer affecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer. Current generation HPV vaccines are effective against the 2 most common types of high-risk HPVs in cancer (hrHPVs 16/18). OBJECTIVES: This study aims (1) to yield population estimates of oncogenic genotypes of HPV in the mouth and oropharynx of defined Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations; (2) to estimate the proportion of oropharyngeal cancer attributable to HPV among these Australian citizens; (3) to estimate the impact of HPV vaccination as currently implemented on rates of oropharyngeal cancer among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians; and (4) taking into account impact on oropharyngeal as well as cervical cancer, to evaluate efficacy and cost-effectiveness of targeted extended HPV vaccination to older ages, among our study population...
June 8, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Asami Yagi, Yutaka Ueda, Yusuke Tanaka, Ruriko Nakae, Reisa Kakubari, Akiko Morimoto, Yoshito Terai, Masahide Ohmichi, Tomoyuki Ichimura, Toshiyuki Sumi, Hiromi Murata, Hidetaka Okada, Hidekatsu Nakai, Noriomi Matsumura, Kiyoshi Yoshino, Tadashi Kimura, Junko Saito, Sayaka Ikeda, Mikiko Asai-Sato, Etsuko Miyagi, Masayuki Sekine, Takayuki Enomoto, Kei Hirai, Yorihiko Horikoshi, Tetsu Takagi, Kentaro Shimura
In Japan, the trend for cervical cancer at younger ages has been increasing. As a countermeasure, the HPV vaccine was introduced as a routine vaccination in April 2013. However, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) announced a "Suspension of its active inoculation recommendation for HPV vaccine" in June 2013. In 2016, 32 months after that suspension, we conducted survey via Internet and compared the results with our previous ones conducted at 9 and 23 months after suspension (in 2014 and 2015, respectively)...
June 8, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Matti Lehtinen, Tapio Luostarinen, Simopekka Vänskä, Anna Söderlund-Strand, Tiina Eriksson, Kari Natunen, Dan Apter, Iacopo Baussano, Katja Harjula, Mari Hokkanen, Marjo Kuortti, Johanna Palmroth, Tiina Petäjä, Eero Pukkala, Sirpa Rekonen, Mari Siitari-Mattila, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Leena Tuomivaara, Jorma Paavonen, Pekka Nieminen, Joakim Dillner, Gary Dubin, Geoff Garnett
With optimal strategy human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have the potential to control HPV. We have assessed vaccine efficacy (VE), herd effect (HE) of HPV vaccination, and overall protective effectiveness (PE) against high-risk HPV infections by HPV type and vaccination strategy in a community-randomized trial using the bivalent HPV16/18 vaccine. We randomized 33 communities to gender-neutral HPV vaccination (Arm A); HPV vaccination of girls and hepatitis B-virus (HBV) vaccination of boys (Arm B), and gender-neutral HBV vaccination (Arm C)...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Martha J Goleman, Millie Dolce, Jennifer Morack
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low. Early vaccination may improve the efficacy of the vaccine and immunization rates. However, clinicians have not routinely made a strong recommendation to younger adolescents. This study assessed the feasibility of routine vaccination at nine years of age. METHODS: Three sequential quality improvement (QI) interventions were implemented to shift the initiation of the HPV vaccine to nine years of age in a primary care network in low-income neighborhoods in Columbus, Ohio...
May 26, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Emily A Burger, Nicole G Campos, Stephen Sy, Catherine Regan, Jane J Kim
BACKGROUND: Although guidelines for prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination recommend two doses for girls ages 9-14 years, several studies have demonstrated similar protection with one dose. Our objective was to evaluate the long-term health and economic impacts of routine one-dose HPV vaccination compared to (1) no vaccination and (2) two-dose HPV vaccination in a low-income country. METHODS: We used a three-tiered hybrid modeling approach that captured HPV transmission, cervical carcinogenesis, and population demographics to project long-term health and economic outcomes associated with one-dose HPV vaccination (assuming 80% efficacy against HPV-16/18 infections under three waning scenarios) and two-dose HPV vaccination (assuming 100% efficacy over the lifetime) in Uganda...
May 25, 2018: Vaccine
S Marshall, A Fleming, A C Moore, L J Sahm
INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract. Three prophylactic HPV vaccines are available for the prevention of HPV-related disease. Despite clinical success, immunisation rates remain sub-optimal. The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesise qualitative literature to achieve an understanding of the drivers and barriers to HPV vaccine acceptability and to determine targets for an intervention to improve vaccine uptake...
May 22, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
S M Garland, P Pitisuttithum, H Y S Ngan, C-H Cho, C-Y Lee, C-A Chen, Y C Yang, T-Y Chu, N-F Twu, R Samakoses, Y Takeuchi, T H Cheung, S C Kim, L-M Huang, B-G Kim, Y-T Kim, K-H Kim, Y-S Song, S Lalwani, J-H Kang, M Sakamoto, H-S Ryu, N Bhatla, H Yoshikawa, M C Ellison, S R Han, E Moeller, S Murata, M Ritter, M Sawata, C Shields, A Walia, G Perez, A Luxembourg
Background: A 9-valent human papillomavirus-6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 (9vHPV) vaccine extends coverage to 5 next most common oncogenic types (31/33/45/52/58) in cervical cancer versus quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine. We describe efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety in Asian participants (India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand) from 2 international studies: a randomized, double-blinded, qHPV vaccine-controlled efficacy study (young women aged 16-26 years; NCT00543543; Study 001); and an immunogenicity study (girls and boys aged 9-15 years; NCT00943722; Study 002)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
S Zhao, F H Zhao
Bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccine have been approved by CFDA successively in China. However, currently available prophylactic vaccines have no therapeutic effect for established infection or disease. In recent years, based on the application of genomics and proteomics for interpretation of tumor antigen, animal experiments and clinical trials of vaccines aiming at a wide variety of antigens have been conducted. In this review, we summarize about the preclinical and clinical research status of HPV therapeutic vaccine and find that the efficacy of HPV therapeutic vaccine alone or combined with other conventional cancer treatment is satisfying, which has potential clinical application value...
May 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Marc Arbyn, Lan Xu, Cindy Simoens, Pierre Pl Martin-Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) types is causally linked with the development of cervical precancer and cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the harms and protection of prophylactic human papillomaviruses (HPV) vaccines against cervical precancer and HPV16/18 infection in adolescent girls and women. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Embase (June 2017) for reports on effects from trials...
May 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jessica Kaufman, Rebecca Ryan, Louisa Walsh, Dell Horey, Julie Leask, Priscilla Robinson, Sophie Hill
BACKGROUND: Early childhood vaccination is an essential global public health practice that saves two to three million lives each year, but many children do not receive all the recommended vaccines. To achieve and maintain appropriate coverage rates, vaccination programmes rely on people having sufficient awareness and acceptance of vaccines.Face-to-face information or educational interventions are widely used to help parents understand why vaccines are important; explain where, how and when to access services; and address hesitancy and concerns about vaccine safety or efficacy...
May 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jane M Garbutt, Sherry Dodd, Emily Walling, Amanda A Lee, Katharine Kulka, Rebecca Lobb
BACKGROUND: In the United States, the effective, safe huma papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine is underused and opportunities to prevent cancer continue to be missed. National guidelines recommend completing the 2-3 dose HPV vaccine series by age 13, well before exposure to the sexually transmitted virus. Accurate characterization of the facilitators and barriers to full implementation of HPV vaccine recommendations in the primary care setting could inform effective implementation strategies...
May 7, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Alfred Saah, Oliver Bautista, Alain Luxembourg, Gonzalo Perez
HPV vaccine efficacy trials have been conducted in populations exposed to HPV infection (i.e., sexually active individuals); participants were not excluded from participating in the trials based on their HPV status at baseline. Thus, some participants could have been infected at baseline with 1 or more vaccine HPV types. Because HPV vaccines are prophylactic and do not affect existing HPV infections, prophylactic efficacy was assessed in a per-protocol population (those not infected at enrollment to the HPV type being analyzed who also completed the 3-dose regimen of vaccine and had no protocol violations)...
September 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Georges Van Kriekinge, Woo-Yun Sohn, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Ruey Soon, Chee-Meng Yong, Jing Chen, I-Heng Lee
Purpose: To comparatively evaluate the results of a 2-dose human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme with the AS04-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine (AS04-HPV-16/18v) or HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (4vHPVv), in addition to cervical cancer (CC) screening, in Malaysia. Methods: A lifetime Markov model replicating the natural history of HPV in 13-year-old girls was adapted to Malaysia to assess the impact of vaccination on pre-cancerous lesions, genital warts and CC cases, CC deaths, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs from the perspective of the Malaysian Ministry of Health...
April 25, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Timothy J Wilkin, Huichao Chen, Michelle S Cespedes, Jorge T Leon-Cruz, Catherine Godfrey, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Barbara Bastow, Jennifer Webster-Cyriaque, Qinghua Feng, Joan Dragavon, Robert W Coombs, Rachel M Presti, Alfred Saah, Ross D Cranston
Background: Adults living with HIV are at increased risk for anal and oropharyngeal cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). The efficacy of HPV vaccines in this population is unknown. Methods: Phase 3, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. We assigned HIV-infected adults age 27 or older to the quadrivalent HPV (Types 6, 11, 16, 18) vaccine or placebo (1:1) stratified by sex and presence of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions on biopsy (bHSIL)...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Maria J Abou El-Ola, Mariam A Rajab, Dania I Abdallah, Ismail A Fawaz, Lyn S Awad, Hani M Tamim, Ahmad O Ibrahim, Anas M Mugharbil, Rima A Moghnieh
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an established predisposing factor of cervical cancer. In this study, we assessed the awareness about genital warts, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine among mothers having girls who are at the age of primary HPV vaccination attending a group of schools in Lebanon. We also assessed the rate of HPV vaccination among these girls and the barriers to vaccination in this community. Subjects and methods: This is a cross-sectional, school-based survey...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Jarim Kim
Despite the HPV vaccine’s efficacy in preventing cervical cancer, its coverage rates among Asians are very low. To increase immunization coverage among these populations, understanding the psychological factors that affect HPV acceptability is critical. To this end, this study examined the relationships between multidimensional health beliefs and HPV vaccine acceptance, and what information sources effectively foster HPV vaccination-related health beliefs. Data were collected using a survey of 323 undergraduate students in Korea...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Zixin Wang, Jingjing Wang, Yuan Fang, Danielle L Gross, Martin C S Wong, Eliza L Y Wong, Joseph T F Lau
BACKGROUND: This study was to investigate parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for their sons and daughters aged 9-13 years under different cost scenarios, and factors associated with parental acceptability at market price. METHODS: Participants were: (1) Chinese speaking parents aged 18-60 years with a Hong Kong ID card; (2) had a son or a daughter aged 9-13 years at the date of the survey; (3) the child had the right to abode in Hong Kong. Random telephone numbers were selected from up-to-date telephone directories of Hong Kong...
May 3, 2018: Vaccine
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