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health intervention

Oren Schwartz, Itzik Malka, Cara H Olsen, Israel Dudkiewicz, Tarif Bader
Introduction: Integration of females in combat units poses a unique challenge for army commanders around the world. The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed up-to-date situation report regarding overuse injuries among combat female warriors in the IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) in order to enable evidence-based decision-making, prevention policy, and further research of this highly significant military public health issue. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted including 2,519 females recruited to combat duties during the year of 2013...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Sharon Reif, Rachel Sayko Adams, Grant A Ritter, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
Introduction: Soldiers are at risk for acute and chronic pain due to the mental and physical challenges of military duties and ongoing training for force readiness. With the burden of pain on any individual attributable across pain sources, a broad perspective that goes beyond prior characterizations of pain is important. We aim to further the understanding of pain's effects among non-deployed active duty soldiers and the Military Health System (MHS), by describing prevalence of 10 painful conditions, reported pain levels, duration of pain and impact of pain on military duty limitations...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Orion Mowbray, Porter F Jennings, Tenesha Littleton, Claudette Grinnell-Davis, Jay O'Shields
Child welfare involvement has been linked to child behavioral health issues, including increased likelihood of internalizing mental health problems such as depression and anxiety, and externalizing behavioral problems such as oppositional behaviors and substance use problems. One predictor of child behavioral health is caregiver mental health. Although, there remains a specific gap associated with identification of factors among caregivers that are associated with longitudinal child behavioral health trajectories...
March 13, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Natalie Thomas, Melissa Bull
Contemporary research in the drugs field has demonstrated a number of gender differences in patterns and experiences of substance use, and the design and provision of gender-responsive interventions has been identified as an important policy issue. Consequently, whether and how domestic drug policies attend to women and gender issues is an important question for investigation. This article presents a policy audit and critical analysis of Australian national and state and territory policy documents. It identifies and discusses two key styles of problematisation of women's drug use in policy: 1) drug use and its effect on women's reproductive role (including a focus on pregnant women and women who are mothers), and 2) drug use and its relationship to women's vulnerability to harm (including violent and sexual victimisation, trauma, and mental health issues)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Raymond Smith, Vari Drennan, Ann Mackenzie, Nan Greenwood
BACKGROUND: Volunteer led befriending and peer support is provided to a wide range of people with varying needs. Despite large numbers of such schemes for carers of people with dementia, there is little evidence for any benefits they may offer. The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of befriending and peer support on carers of people with dementia and to explore their experiences of receiving the interventions using a mixed methods approach. METHODS: Nineteen carers of people with dementia were recruited from befriending and peer support services...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Grace Guerrero-Ramírez, Eduardo Cumba-Avilés
OBJECTIVE: People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may experience significant changes in their daily routines due to this condition, which frequently results in depressive symptoms and the deterioration of their quality of life. We examined the factors associated with suicidal ideation (SI) and diabetes-related quality of life (DRQOL) in adolescents (aged 12 to 17) with T1D. METHODS: The sample consisted of 51 youths (29 girls) recruited during a treatment study for depression...
2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Seo Ah Hong, Karl Peltzer, Kyi Tun Lwin, La Seng Aung
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and their socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in a female adult population in Myanmar. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in the 2015-16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey, 12,160 women aged 18-49 years and not currently pregnant completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was determined using Asian body mass index cut-offs: underweight (BMI<18...
2018: PloS One
Andrew McDowell, Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Raghuram Rao, Sanjay Sarin, Aakshi Kalra, Virender Singh Salhotra, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, Catharina Boehme, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in children presents considerable challenges. Upfront testing on Xpert® MTB/RIF ('Xpert')-a rapid molecular assay with high sensitivity and specificity-for pediatric presumptive TB patients, as recommended by India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), can pave the way for early TB diagnosis. As part of an ongoing project implemented by Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) dedicated to providing upfront free-of-cost (FOC) Xpert testing to children seeking care in the public and private sectors, a qualitative assessment was designed to understand how national guidelines on TB diagnosis and Xpert technology have been integrated into the pediatric TB care practices of different health providers...
2018: PloS One
Souheil El-Chemaly, Kevin J O'Brien, Steven D Nathan, Gerald L Weinhouse, Hilary J Goldberg, Jean M Connors, Ye Cui, Todd L Astor, Philip C Camp, Ivan O Rosas, Merte Lemma, Vladislav Speransky, Melissa A Merideth, William A Gahl, Bernadette R Gochuico
Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive, fatal manifestation of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS). Some patients with advanced HPS pulmonary fibrosis undergo lung transplantation despite their disease-associated bleeding tendency; others die while awaiting donor organs. The objective of this study is to determine the clinical management and outcomes of a cohort with advanced HPS pulmonary fibrosis who were evaluated for lung transplantation. Six patients with HPS-1 pulmonary fibrosis were evaluated at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center and one of two regional lung transplant centers...
2018: PloS One
Anatole Manzi, Jean Claude Mugunga, Hari S Iyer, Hema Magge, Fulgence Nkikabahizi, Lisa R Hirschhorn
BACKGROUND: Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) can reduce under-5 morbidity and mortality in low-income settings. A program to strengthen IMCI practices through Mentorship and Enhanced Supervision at Health centers (MESH) was implemented in two rural districts in eastern Rwanda in 2010. METHODS: We estimated cost per improvement in quality of care as measured by the difference in correct diagnosis and correct treatment at baseline and 12 months of MESH...
2018: PloS One
Nelson S Yee
Progress has been made in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers through advances in systemic therapies, surgical interventions, and radiation therapy. At the Multi-Disciplinary Patient Care in Gastrointestinal Oncology conference, the faculty members of the Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center presented a variety of topics that focused on this sub-specialty. This conference paper highlights the new development in systemic treatment of various malignant diseases in the digestive system. Results of the recent clinical trials that investigated the clinical efficacy of pegylated hyaluronidase, napabucasin, and L-asparaginase in pancreatic carcinoma are presented...
March 16, 2018: Biomedicines
Siti Azdiah Abdul Aziz, Megan Mcstea, Nor Syuhada Ahmad Bashah, Meng Li Chong, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Helmi Sulaiman, Iskandar Azwa, Maw Pin Tan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Reena Rajasuriar, Shahrul Bahyah Kamaruzzaman
OBJECTIVES: In a clinic-based, treated HIV-infected cohort, we identified individuals with sarcopenia and compared with age, sex and ethnically matched controls; and investigated associated risk factors and health outcomes. DESIGN: Sarcopenia (age-related muscle loss) causes significant morbidity to the elderly, leading to frequent hospitalizations, disability and death. Few have characterized sarcopenia in the HIV-infected who experience accelerated aging. METHODS: Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass with weak grip strength and/or slow gait speed using lower 20th percentiles of controls...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Rogério M Pinto, Susan S Witte, Prema L Filippone, C Jean Choi, Melanie Wall
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions project has disseminated HIV behavioral interventions (EBIs) across the United States since the 1990s. In 2011, the CDC launched the High-Impact HIV Prevention (HIP) project, providing EBIs plus high-impact services (HIV testing, primary care, and support services). Providers (nurses, social workers, educators) are unable to consistently make linkages; thus, numerous at-risk individuals are not benefitting from HIP...
March 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
C Le Roy, G Larios, D Springmüller, C Clavería
INTRODUCTION: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) present a high percentage of undern utrition and the interpretation of their nutritional assessment is difficult. OBJECTIVE: To describe the nutritional status of infants with CHD using two anthropometric classifications and compare them. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Non-concurrent cohort study. We studied children under 12 months under going cardiac surgery. We excluded preterm infants, small for gestational age, carriers of genetic syndrome or other disease with nutritional compromise...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Štefica Mikšić, Maja Miškulin, Brankica Juranić, Željko Rakošec, Aleksandar Včev, Dunja Degmečić
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women experience a set of biological and psychological disturbances. The aim of this study was to assess the appearance of depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts in pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 110 pregnant women were included in the study. All of them filled out an anonymous questionnaire about sociodemographic data, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Kresimir Radic, Marko Curkovic, Dario Bagaric, Maja Vilibic, Andrea Tomic, Maja Zivkovic
Patients with schizophrenia, nowadays chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder, get initial treatment after detection of a psychotic episode, seemingly late, potentially preventable stage of illness. As our knowledge about the nature of schizophrenia and other diseases of the spectrum is growing, so are the early interventions becoming more possible, and it is important to conceptualize the clinical, legal and moral issues emerging with new preventive treatments. Every intervention, especially in pre-clinical population, demands a careful risk-benefit assessment and having basic bioethical principles - primacy of patient's welfare, beneficience/non-maleficience, autonomy and justice - in mind...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Judd B Kessler, Andrea B Troxel, David A Asch, Shivan J Mehta, Noora Marcus, Raymond Lim, Jingsan Zhu, William Shrank, Troyen Brennan, Kevin G Volpp
BACKGROUND: Poor medication adherence is common and limits the effectiveness of treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how social supports, automated alerts, and their combination improve medication adherence. DESIGN: Four-arm, randomized clinical trial with a 6-month intervention. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 179 CVS health employees or adult dependents with CVS Caremark prescription coverage, a current daily statin prescription, a medication possession ratio less than 80%, and Internet access...
March 15, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Amelia Swanson, Jessica Geller, Kelly DeMartini, Anne Fernandez, Dwain Fehon
Without a transplant, end-stage liver disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Transplant candidates endure physical and psychological stress while awaiting surgery, yet little is known about the relationship between physical health and psychological resilience during the wait-list period. This study examined predictors of psychological resilience and mediators of the relationship between physical health and psychological resilience in liver transplant candidates. Wait-listed candidates (N = 120) from a single Northeast transplant center completed assessments of physical functioning, coping, perceived social support, and resilience...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Tamar Mendelson, William W Eaton
PURPOSE: Prevention of mental disorders is a rapidly growing area of research with substantial potential benefits for population health. This paper reviews the evidence base for prevention of depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. METHODS: We synthesized evidence from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between 2013 and 2018 on prevention of depression, anxiety, and first-episode psychosis. We included reviews of randomized controlled trials testing psychological, psychosocial, and pharmacological preventive interventions...
March 15, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
N M Kriznik, A L Kinmonth, T Ling, M P Kelly
Background: A strong focus on individual choice and behaviour informs interventions designed to reduce health inequalities in the UK. We review evidence for wider mechanisms from a range of disciplines, demonstrate that they are not yet impacting on programmes, and argue for their systematic inclusion in policy and research. Methods: We identified potential mechanisms relevant to health inequalities and their amelioration from different disciplines and analysed six policy documents published between 1976 and 2010 using Bacchi's 'What's the problem represented to be?' framework for policy analysis...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
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