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vitamin d and calcium

Michaël R Laurent
An overview of selected papers related to bone published in 2017 is provided. PURPOSE: This paper accompanies a lecture at the 2018 Belgian Bone Club annual Clinical Update Symposium held in Brussels on January 20th, discussing the best papers (in the opinion of the author) published in the previous year. METHODS: A PubMed search using the keyword "bone" and articles published in 2017. RESULTS: Hot topics include screening for osteoporosis, novel anabolic drugs such as romosozumab and abaloparatide for osteoporosis and rare metabolic bone diseases, as well as long-term efficacy of denosumab and possible risk of multiple vertebral fractures following its discontinuation...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Elizabeth W Uhl
Although vitamin D is critical to calcium/phosphorus homeostasis, bone formation and remodeling, there is evolution-based variation between species in vitamin D metabolism and susceptibility to rickets and osteomalacia. Most herbivores produce vitamin D3 in response to sunlight, but dogs and cats have generally lost the ability as carnivore diets are rich in vitamin D. Nutritional deficiencies and/or poor exposure to sunlight can induce rickets in birds, swine, cattle and sheep, but horses are less susceptible as they have evolved a calcium homeostasis that is quite different than other animals...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Jamal Abdul Nasir, Muhammad Imran, Syed Arif Ahmed Zaidi
Vitamin D deficiency is an emerging health concern around the world, highly prevalent in south Asian population, despite abundant sunlight. In Pakistan, all age groups are vulnerable to Vitamin D deficiency including pregnant women. This systematic review aimed to determine the pattern of Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women as well as exploring the causes and possible interventions that have had a substantial effect on improving the vitamin D level. Three databases (PubMed, Pub Get and Google Scholar), for the present review up to 2016, were used for the identification of published peer reviewed original relevant studies regarding Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women with the keywords Vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D in combination with pregnant women...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Noushin Mohammadifard, Carolyn Gotay, Karin H Humphries, Andrew Ignaszewski, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
Appropriate intake of micronutrient, such as electrolyte minerals is critical for the well-being of the cardiovascular health system. However, there are some debates regarding the impacts of dietary and/or supplemental intake of these minerals, on the risk of cardiovascular events and associated risk factors. High sodium intake is adversely associated with the risk of hypertension. Although many reports refered to the positive association of Na intake and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, however, other studies indicated that low Na intake is related to higher risk of all-cause mortality and HF-related events...
March 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Asmaa Y Elsary, Alkassem A Elgameel, Wael S Mohammed, Osman M Zaki, Shaimaa A Taha
To assess the prevalence of hypocalcemia in outpatient clinic neonates and its relation to vitamin D and calcium supplementation.  Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital from May to October 2016. Data were collected from 100 neonates by interviewing mothers using a structured questionnaire; which included socio-demographic information, maternal and neonatal history; in addition to investigations of serum calcium total and ionized and serum vitamin D level...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Bei Tan, Pan Li, Hong Lv, Hong Yang, Yue Li, Ji Li, Ou Wang, Jiaming Qian
AIMS: To assess the necessity and efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in Chinese inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. METHODS: Seventy-four ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and 71 Crohn's disease (CD) patients were randomly assigned into one of 3 arms for 12 months: Arm A (vitamin D3 150000IU per 3 months plus calcium 600mg oral daily); Arm B (calcium 600mg oral daily), and Arm C (vehicle control group), all in addition to conventional IBD treatment...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Rafat Murad, Zahra Shezad, Saara Ahmed, Mussarat Ashraf, Murad Qadir, Rehana Rehman
OBJECTIVE: To compare biochemical parameters serum tumour necrosis factor alpha, calcium, magnesium, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and vitamin D in postmenopausal women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out from June 2015 to July 2016 at Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Karachi, and comprised postmenopausal women. Bone mineral density done by dual energy X-ray absorptiometryscan categorised subjects by World Health Organisation classification into normal (T score > -1) osteopenic (T score between -1 and -2...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Narendra Kotwal, Vimal Upreti, Amit Nachankar, K V S Hari Kumar
Context: The number of men afflicted with osteoporosis is unknown. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in men. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, observational study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 200 male attendants of patients attending endocrine outpatient department and who were >55 years were recruited for the study. All the patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis were advised lifestyle interventions, supplementation with calcium carbonate (1000-1500 mg/day) and 25-hydroxyl-Vitamin D (400-600 IU/day) and bisphosphonates if indicated...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ushma Wadia, Wayne Soon, Paola Chivers, Aesen Thambiran, David Burgner, Sarah Cherian, Aris Siafarikas
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in newly settled refugees in Western Australia (WA). If adherence to daily vitamin D therapy is problematic, depot therapy is a therapeutic alternative. The aim of this study was to compare daily versus depot treatment and factors influencing the therapeutic outcome. Newly settled refugees ( n = 151) with 25(OH)D levels less than 78 nmol/L were randomised to receive daily or depot vitamin D therapy with eight weekly interval follow up to 40 weeks. Biochemical and clinical parameters were collected at each visit...
March 13, 2018: Nutrients
Elvira Larqué, Eva Morales, Rosaura Leis, José E Blanco-Carnero
BACKGROUND: To what extent does the circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration help to meet the physiological needs of humans is an ongoing subject of debate. Remaining unexposed to the sun to reduce melanoma cancer risk, current lifestyle with less out door activities, and increasing obesity rates, which in turn increases the storage of vitamin D in the adipose tissue, are presumably factors that contribute to the substantial upsurge in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in humans...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Joseph J Knapik, Sheryl A Bedno
Surveys indicated that 24% of military personnel are current cigarette smokers. Smoking is well known to increase the risk of cancers, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, reproductive problems, and other medical maladies, but one of the little known effects of smoking is that on injuries. There is considerable evidence from a variety of sources that (1) smoking increases overall injury risk, (2) the greater the amount of smoking, the higher is the injury risk, and (3) smoking is an independent injury risk factor...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Sabriye Arslan, Yasemin Akdevelioğlu
Nonclassical target organs recently defined for vitamin D, a major regulator of calcium phosphorus homeostasis and bone health, include reproductive ones. This compilation study focuses on the potential effects of vitamin D on female reproductive functions. Vitamin D receptor enzymes that metabolize vitamin D are expressed in both central and peripheral reproductive organs. Most studies suggest that vitamin D may be directly or indirectly related to gonadal functions. Vitamin D's effects on reproductive functions may be indirectly related to diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), uterine leiomyomas, and endometriosis...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
M Rroji, G Spasovski
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is common among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). SHPT is associated with high-turnover bone disease, interstitial and vascular calcifications, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The pharmacological management of SHPT has progressed in recent years. The introduction of targeted therapies, such as selective vitamin D receptors activators and calcium-sensing receptor modulators, offers an increased opportunity to adequately control elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), especially in patients with chronic kidney disease under dialysis treatment...
March 12, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Derek S Tsang, Jennifer M Jones, Osai Samadi, Suhayb Shah, Nicholas Mitsakakis, Charles N Catton, William Jeon, Joshua To, Henriette Breunis, Shabbir M H Alibhai
PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of a multimodal patient education initiative to improve adherence to healthy bone behaviors (HBBs) in men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS: This was a pilot prospective, single-site, before-and-after clinical trial. The control arm (n = 51) received routine care. The intervention arm (n = 52) received multimodal HBB education which included a healthy bones prescription (BoneRx), focused face-to-face education with an oncology nurse or physician, and customized educational materials...
March 12, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Hoda G Bakr, Takwa E Meawed
An association between low levels of vitamin D and Hashimoto's thyroiditis was suggested. This study aimed to determine the status of 25 (OH) vitamin D in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A case-control study was designed, a Hashimoto's thyroiditis patient group (n=30) and two control groups including Graves' disease (30) and a healthy control group (20). TSH, Free T3, Free T4, antithyroid antibodies (antithyroglobulin and antithyroid peroxidase), calcium and serum 25 (OH) vitamin D were assessed. Vitamin D and calcium levels were significantly lower in Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves' disease versus healthy controls...
June 2017: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
Jürgen Floege, Kate Tsirtsonis, Jan Iles, Tilman B Drueke, Glenn M Chertow, Patrick Parfrey
The calcimimetic cinacalcet is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving dialysis, and asymptomatic hypocalcemia is often observed following its initiation. Here we investigated the incidence, predictors and therapeutic consequences of hypocalcemia by a post hoc analysis of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled EValuation Of Cinacalcet Hydrochloride Therapy to Lower CardioVascular Events (EVOLVE) trial. Hypocalcemia was classified as mild (total serum calcium 8.0-8.39 mg/dL), moderate (7...
March 7, 2018: Kidney International
Wei Ling Lau, Yoshitsugu Obi, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops in CKD due to a combination of vitamin D deficiency, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia, and it exists in nearly all patients at the time of dialysis initiation. There is insufficient data on whether to prefer vitamin D analogs compared with calcimimetics, but the available evidence suggests advantages with combination therapy. Calcium derangements, patient adherence, side effects, and cost limit the use of these agents. When parathyroid hormone level persists >800 pg/ml for >6 months, despite exhaustive medical interventions, monoclonal proliferation with nodular hyperplasia is likely present along with decreased expression of vitamin D and calcium-sensing receptors...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Ayse Betul Ergul, Mehmet Kara, Cigdem Karakukcu, Arzu Tasdemir, Humeyra Aslaner, Mehmet Ali Ergul, Sebahattin Muhtaroglu, Gozde Erturk Zararsiz, Yasemin Altuner Torun
Boron plays roles in the metabolism of calcium, vitamin D, steroid hormones, healthy bone development, and maintenance of cell membranes. The biological effects of boron are dose-dependent but follow a U-shaped pattern, rendering it important to define the active range. The studies of Bahadoran et al. on rats and Naghii et al. on humans showed that low doses of boron (3 and 10 mg/day) prevented kidney stone formation. The aim of this study was to determine whether high doses of boron have an anti-urolithiatic or antioxidant effect on nephrolithiasis in an experimental rat model...
March 8, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Golaleh Asghari, Alireza Khalaj, Maryam Ghadimi, Maryam Mahdavi, Hossein Farhadnejad, Majid Valizadeh, Fereidoun Azizi, Maryam Barzin, Farhad Hosseinpanah
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are major concerns after bariatric surgery, although these conditions often go undiagnosed pre-surgery. OBJECTIVE: To assess pre-surgery micronutrient status of an Iranian population of morbidly obese candidates of bariatric surgery in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 2008 candidates for bariatric surgery, aged 15-65 years, with either body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m2 or 30 < BMI < 35 kg/m2 with a medical comorbidity was conducted...
March 8, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Katsuhiko Nakatsukasa, Hiroshi Koyama, Yoshimi Ouchi, Kouichi Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi Fujita, Takayuki Matsuda, Makoto Kato, Eiichi Konishi, Tetsuya Taguchi
Adjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy, for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, in postmenopausal women is associated with bone loss, leading to an increased risk of fractures. Denosumab, an antibody raised against the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, has been proven to protect against AI-induced bone loss. Hence, we aimed to determine whether denosumab is effective in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis, treated with AI. We prospectively evaluated the bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and the bilateral femoral neck in 102 postmenopausal women with clinical hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, stages I-IIIA, during a postoperative period of 12 months...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
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