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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637283/an-essential-physiological-role-for-mct8-in-bone-in-male-mice
#1
Victoria D Leitch, Caterina Di Cosmo, Xiao-Hui Liao, Sam O'Boy, Thomas M Galliford, Holly Evans, Peter I Croucher, Alan Boyde, Alexandra Dumitrescu, Roy E Weiss, Samuel Refetoff, Graham R Williams, J H Duncan Bassett
T3 is an important regulator of skeletal development and adult bone maintenance. Thyroid hormone action requires efficient transport of T4 and T3 into target cells. We hypothesized that monocarboxylate transporter-8, encoded by Mct8 on the X-chromosome, is an essential thyroid hormone transporter in bone. To test this hypothesis, we determined the juvenile and adult skeletal phenotypes of male Mct8 knockout mice (Mct8KO) and Mct8D1D2KO compound mutants, which additionally lack the ability to convert the prohormone T4 to the active hormone T3...
June 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634532/cellularizing-hydrogel-based-scaffolds-to-repair-bone-tissue-how-to-create-a-physiologically-relevant-micro-environment
#2
Mathieu Maisani, Daniele Pezzoli, Olivier Chassande, Diego Mantovani
Tissue engineering is a promising alternative to autografts or allografts for the regeneration of large bone defects. Cell-free biomaterials with different degrees of sophistication can be used for several therapeutic indications, to stimulate bone repair by the host tissue. However, when osteoprogenitors are not available in the damaged tissue, exogenous cells with an osteoblast differentiation potential must be provided. These cells should have the capacity to colonize the defect and to participate in the building of new bone tissue...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631500/pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-survival-and-proliferation-are-promoted-by-protein-kinase-g-type-i%C3%AE-and-downstream-regulation-of-akt-foxo1
#3
Janica C Wong, Van Vo, Priyatham Gorjala, Ronald R Fiscus
Early studies showed nitric oxide as a pro-inflammatory-cytokine-induced toxin involved in pancreatic β-cell destruction during pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes. However, nitric oxide has both cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects on mammalian cells, depending on concentration and micro-environmental surroundings. Our studies have shown that low/physiological-level nitric oxide selectively activates protein kinase G type Iα isoform, promoting cytoprotective/pro-cell-survival effects in many cell types. In bone marrow-derived stromal/mesenchymal stem cells, protein kinase G type Iα mediates autocrine effects of nitric oxide and atrial natriuretic peptide, promoting DNA-synthesis/proliferation and cell survival...
June 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630584/time-loss-injuries-in-sub-elite-and-emerging-rugby-league-players
#4
Mark Booth, Rhonda Orr
This study aimed to 1) investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in emerging rugby league players; and 2) explore the differences in injury incidence and characteristics between the various sub-elite competitions. An NRL emerging player development squad (n = 34) was observed from the beginning of pre-season until the finish of competition. Time-loss injury was defined as any physical pain or impairment sustained that resulted in players missing a match. Injuries were categorised according to circumstance, incidence, characteristics, playing position and competition level...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629064/advanced-bredigite-containing-magnesium-matrix-composites-for-biodegradable-bone-implant-applications
#5
Sina Naddaf Dezfuli, Zhiguang Huan, Arjan Mol, Sander Leeflang, Jiang Chang, Jie Zhou
The present research was aimed at developing magnesium-matrix composites that could allow effective control over their physiochemical and mechanical responses when in contact with physiological solutions. A biodegradable, bioactive ceramic - bredigite was chosen as the reinforcing phase in the composites, based on the hypothesis that the silicon- and magnesium-containing ceramic could protect magnesium from fast corrosion and at the same time stimulate cell proliferation. Methods to prepare composites with integrated microstructures - a prerequisite to achieve controlled biodegradation were developed...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629020/a-comparative-in-vivo-evaluation-of-bioactive-glasses-and-bioactive-glass-based-composites-for-bone-tissue-repair
#6
Devis Bellucci, Alexandre Anesi, Roberta Salvatori, Luigi Chiarini, Valeria Cannillo
In this work a set of novel materials for bone tissue regeneration have been tested in vivo in an animal model. In fact, despite many studies have been devoted to amorphous 45S5 Bioglass®, there is lack in the literature of works aimed to study the in vivo performance of heat-treated - and thus partially crystallized - 45S5. As widely reported, crystallization limits the bioactivity of 45S5 and is the main reason that prevents a broader use of this material. Thus, in the present work, a recently developed bioactive glass (BG_Ca/Mix) is tested, since previous investigations demonstrated that BG_Ca/Mix is particularly promising by virtue of both its high bioactivity and lower tendency to crystallize with respect to 45S5...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626366/current-developments-in-mobilization-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-and-their-interaction-with-niches-in-bone-marrow
#7
REVIEW
Rudolf Richter, Wolfgang Forssmann, Reinhard Henschler
The clinical application of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) has evolved from a highly experimental stage in the 1980s to a currently clinically established treatment for more than 20,000 patients annually who suffer from hematological malignancies and other severe diseases. Studies in numerous murine models have demonstrated that HSPCs reside in distinct niches within the bone marrow environment. Whereas transplanted HSPCs travel through the bloodstream and home to sites of hematopoiesis, HSPCs can be mobilized from these niches into the blood either physiologically or induced by pharmaceutical drugs...
June 2017: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624839/the-effects-of-irrigation-volume-to-the-heat-generation-during-implant-surgery
#8
A Sindel, Ö Dereci, M Hatipoğlu, A Altay, Ö Özalp, A Öztürk
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effects of the amount of irrigation on heat generated during implant site preparation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten freshly dissected sheep mandibles were sectioned into 30 equal bone blocks and transferred into a heat-controlled water tank. Implant socket preparations were performed with four consecutive drills. Temperature measurements were performed with a thermocouple inserted into the bone immediately before the preparation and after the drilling using three different physiologic saline irrigation set-ups: 1- No irrigation, 2- 12 ml/min and 3- 30 ml/min irrigation volume...
June 18, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622009/mir-139-5p-represses-bmsc-osteogenesis-via-targeting-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#9
Haitao Long, Buhua Sun, Liang Cheng, Shushan Zhao, Yong Zhu, Ruibo Zhao, Jianxi Zhu
Osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has played a necessary role in the repair of bone. According to some reports, microRNAs participate in different physiological activity of the cells, including cell differentiation. This study investigated the function that miR-139-5p plays in the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow MSCs (hBMSCs). In addition to miR-139-5p, the effects of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that is considered an early osteogenic differentiation marker, have also been investigated...
June 16, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621834/from-intricate-to-integrated-biofabrication-of-articulating-joints
#10
Wilhelmina Margaretha Groen, Paweena Diloksumpan, Paul René van Weeren, Riccardo Levato, Jos Malda
Articulating joints owe their function to the specialized architecture and the complex interplay between multiple tissues including cartilage, bone and synovium. Especially the cartilage component has limited self-healing capacity and damage often leads to the onset of osteoarthritis, eventually resulting in failure of the joint as an organ. Although in its infancy, biofabrication has emerged as a promising technology to reproduce the intricate organization of the joint, thus enabling the introduction of novel surgical treatments, regenerative therapies, and new sets of tools to enhance our understanding of joint physiology and pathology...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621323/a-robust-methodology-for-the-quantitative-assessment-of-the-rat-jawbone-microstructure
#11
Marissa Chatterjee, Fernanda Faot, Cassia Correa, Joke Duyck, Ignace Naert, Katleen Vandamme
Micro-computed tomography can be applied for the assessment of the micro-architectural characteristics of the cortical and trabecular bones in either physiological or disease conditions. However, reports often lack a detailed description of the methodological steps used to analyse these images, such as the volumes of interest, the algorithms used for image filtration, the approach used for image segmentation, and the bone parameters quantified, thereby making it difficult to compare or reproduce the studies...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618821/low-intensity-ultrasound-activates-vestibular-otolith-organs-through-acoustic-radiation-force
#12
M M Iversen, D A Christensen, D L Parker, H A Holman, J Chen, M J Frerck, R D Rabbitt
The present study examined the efficacy of 5 MHz low-intensity focused ultrasound (LiFU) as a stimulus to remotely activate inner ear vestibular otolith organs. The otolith organs are the primary sensory apparati responsible for detecting orientation of the head relative to gravity and linear acceleration in three-dimensional space. These organs also respond to loud sounds and vibration of the temporal bone. The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was used to facilitate unobstructed acoustic access to the otolith organs in vivo...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618652/cross-talk-of-microrna-and-hydrogen-sulfide-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-for-bone-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Yuankun Zhai, Suresh C Tyagi, Neetu Tyagi
Bone homeostasis requires a balance between the bone formation of osteoblasts and bone resorption of osteoclasts to maintain ideal bone mass and bone quality. An imbalance in bone remodeling processes results in bone metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gasotransmitter, has attracted the focus of many researchers due to its multiple physiological functions. It has been implicated in anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory, angiogenic, cytoprotective, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic mechanisms...
June 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616217/is-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder-associated-with-the-presence-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-with-a-calcifying-phenotype
#14
Giuseppe Cianciolo, Irene Capelli, Maria Cappuccilli, Anna Scrivo, Chiara Donadei, Antonio Marchetti, Paola Rucci, Gaetano La Manna
Background: Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) has been implicated in vascular calcification pathogenesis. CKD-MBD results in alterations in the number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), physiological regulators of angiogenesis and vessel repair, commonly defined as proangiogenic progenitor cells (PACs) by the antigen pattern CD34+CD133+KDR+CD45- and putative EPCs by the pattern CD34+CD133-KDR+CD45-. These cells might acquire a calcifying phenotype in CKD-MBD, expressing mineralization biomarkers...
June 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615966/acute-physiological-and-electrical-accentuation-of-vagal-tone-has-no-effect-on-pain-or-gastrointestinal-motility-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#15
Jacob Juel, Christina Brock, Søren S Olesen, Adnan Madzak, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz, Jens B Frøkjær, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
BACKGROUND: The effective management of pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) remains a therapeutic challenge. Analgesic drugs, such as opioids, and the underlying pathology can impair gut function. The autonomic nervous system influences hormone secretion and gut motility. In healthy volunteers, electrical (using noninvasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation [t-VNS]) and physiological (using deep slow breathing [DSB]) modulation of parasympathetic tone results in pain attenuation and enhanced gut motility...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615947/treatment-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-the-clinical-utility-of-etelcalcetide
#16
REVIEW
Mario Cozzolino, Andrea Galassi, Ferruccio Conte, Michela Mangano, Luca Di Lullo, Antonio Bellasi
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), a very frequent, severe, and worsening complication of chronic kidney disease, is characterized by high serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), parathyroid gland hyperplasia, and disturbances in mineral metabolism. Clinically, SHPT shows renal osteodystrophy, vascular calcification, cardiovascular damage, and fatal outcome. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is the main physiological regulator of PTH secretion; its activation by calcium rapidly inhibits PTH. Another important player in regulating mineral metabolism is vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is under the influence of vitamin D and influences the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate, PTH gene expression, and bone calcium mobilization...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615302/ccr2-dependent-monocyte-derived-macrophages-resolve-inflammation-and-restore-gut-motility-in-postoperative-ileus
#17
Giovanna Farro, Michelle Stakenborg, Pedro J Gomez-Pinilla, Evelien Labeeuw, Gera Goverse, Martina Di Giovangiulio, Nathalie Stakenborg, Elisa Meroni, Francesca D'Errico, Yvon Elkrim, Damya Laoui, Zofia M Lisowski, Kristin A Sauter, David A Hume, Jo A Van Ginderachter, Guy E Boeckxstaens, Gianluca Matteoli
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative ileus (POI) is assumed to result from myeloid cells infiltrating the intestinal muscularis externa (ME) in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. In the current study, we investigated the role of infiltrating monocytes in a murine model of intestinal manipulation (IM)-induced POI in order to clarify whether monocytes mediate tissue damage and intestinal dysfunction or they are rather involved in the recovery of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. DESIGN: IM was performed in mice with defective monocyte migration to tissues (C-C motif chemokine receptor 2, Ccr2(-/ (-)) mice) and wild-type (WT) mice to study the role of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MΦs) during onset and resolution of ME inflammation...
June 14, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611442/competing-factors-link-to-bone-health-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-takes-a-toll
#18
Shirin Kalyan, Millan S Patel, Elaine Kingwell, Hélène C F Côté, Danmei Liu, Jerilynn C Prior
Chronic inflammation predisposes to poor bone health. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) experience androgen excess, ovulatory disturbances, insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity and chronic inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the relationships among bone health parameters, chronic subclinical inflammation and anthropometric measures in premenopausal women with and without PCOS. In 61 premenopausal women, 22 women with PCOS and 39 controls, we assessed bone parameters (total hip bone mineral density [BMD] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and radius strength-strain index [SSI] by peripheral quantitative computed tomography), inflammation (C-reactive protein/albumin), oxidative stress (leukocyte telomere length, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine); hemoglobin A1c; anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, cross-sectional muscle area)...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611002/chondrogenesis-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-3-dimensional-photocrosslinked-hydrogel-constructs-effect-of-cell-seeding-density-and-material-stiffness
#19
Aaron X Sun, Hang Lin, Madalyn R Fritch, He Shen, Pete G Alexander, Michael DeHart, Rocky S Tuan
Three-dimensional hydrogel constructs incorporated with live stem cells that support chondrogenic differentiation and maintenance offer a promising regenerative route towards addressing the limited self-repair capabilities of articular cartilage. In particular, hydrogel scaffolds that augment chondrogenesis and recapitulate the native physical properties of cartilage, such as compressive strength, can potentially be applied in point-of-care procedures. We report here the synthesis of two new materials, [poly-l-lactic acid/polyethylene glycol/poly-l-lactic acid] (PLLA-PEG 1000) and [poly-d,l-lactic acid/polyethylene glycol/poly-d,l-lactic acid] (PDLLA-PEG 1000), that are biodegradable, biocompatible (>80% viability post fabrication), and possess high, physiologically relevant mechanical strength (∼1500 to 1800kPa)...
June 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609287/the-role-of-thyrostimulin-and-its-potential-clinical-significance
#20
Dimitrios Karponis, S Ananth
Thyrostimulin is a glycoprotein heterodimer of GPA2 and GPB5, first described in 2002. It is involved in the physiological function of several tissues. Moreover, evidence points towards the ability of thyrostimulin's individual monomers to induce a biological effect, which could denote the circulatory/systemic effects of the molecule when found in higher concentrations. From the evolutionary point of view, thyrostimulin shares a binding epitope with the thyroid-stimulating hormone for the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor, whilst possessing affinity for another unique binding site on the same receptor...
April 25, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
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