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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214837/efficacy-of-glucosamine-sulphate-in-skin-ageing-results-from-an-ex-vivo-anti-ageing-model-and-a-clinical-trial
#1
Audrey Gueniche, Isabelle Castiel-Higounenc
BACKGROUND: Glucosamine sulphate (GS) is essential in the biosynthesis of glycolipids, glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), hyaluronate, and proteoglycans. Connective tissues primarily contain collagen and proteoglycans and play an important role in skin ageing. OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to assess ex vivo the impact of GS on skin ageing parameters and in vivo the effect of GS on the skin physiology of mature healthy volunteers after oral intake. METHODS: The impact of GS on skin ageing was assessed ex vivo via different immunohistochemical assays and histology and via a clinical study using biopsies...
February 18, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214734/developmental-toxicity-and-molecular-responses-of-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-embryos-to-ciguatoxin-p-ctx-1-exposure
#2
Meng Yan, Priscilla T Y Leung, Jack C H Ip, Jin-Ping Cheng, Jia-Jun Wu, Jia-Rui Gu, Paul K S Lam
Ciguatoxins are produced by toxic benthic dinoflagellates and cause ciguatera fish poisoning worldwide, but the toxic effects on developing marine fish have not been well investigated. The Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1), is a potent sodium channel agonist, which is one of the most toxic members among all CTXs. This study evaluated the toxic effects of microinjecting purified Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) on embryonic development of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma. A lower 96h-LD50 value was estimated for eleuthero-embryos (1...
February 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213754/low-energy-availability-menstrual-dysfunction-and-low-bone-mineral-density-in-individuals-with-a-disability-implications-for-the-para-athlete-population
#3
REVIEW
Cheri A Blauwet, Emily M Brook, Adam S Tenforde, Elizabeth Broad, Caroline H Hu, Eliza Abdu-Glass, Elizabeth G Matzkin
Low energy availability, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and low bone mineral density are three interrelated conditions described in athletic women. Although described as the female athlete triad (Triad), males experience similar health concerns. The literature suggests that individuals with a disability may experience altered physiology related to these three conditions when compared with the able-bodied population. The goal of this review is to describe the unique implications of low energy availability, low bone mineral density, and, in females, menstrual dysfunction in individuals with a disability and their potential impact on the para athlete population...
February 17, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212706/sclerostin-antibody-inhibits-skeletal-deterioration-in-mice-exposed-to-partial-weight-bearing
#4
J M Spatz, R Ellman, A M Cloutier, L Louis, M van Vliet, D Dwyer, M Stolina, H Z Ke, M L Bouxsein
Whereas much is known regarding the musculoskeletal responses to full unloading, little is known about the physiological effects and response to pharmacological agents in partial unloading (e.g. Moon and Mars) environments. To address this, we used a previously developed ground-based model of partial weight-bearing (PWB) that allows chronic exposure to reduced weight-bearing in mice to determine the effects of murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) on bone microstructure and strength across different levels of mechanical unloading...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211679/site-directed-immobilization-of-bmp-2-two-approaches-for-the-production-of-innovative-osteoinductive-scaffolds
#5
Barbara Tabisz, Werner Schmitz, Michael Schmitz, Tessa Luehmann, Eva Heusler, Jens-Christoph Rybak, Lorenz Meinel, Juliane E Fiebig, Thomas D Mueller, Joachim Nickel
The regenerative potential of bone is strongly impaired in pathological conditions, such as nonunion fractures. To support bone regeneration various scaffolds have been developed in the past, which have been functionalized with osteogenic growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). However, most of them required supra-physiological levels of these proteins leading to burst releases, thereby causing severe side effects. Site-specific, covalent coupling of BMP2 to implant materials might be an optimal strategy in order to overcome these problems...
February 17, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211481/effects-of-strength-training-on-osteogenic-differentiation-and-bone-strength-in-aging-female-wistar-rats
#6
Monique Patricio Singulani, Camila Tami Stringhetta-Garcia, Leandro Figueiredo Santos, Samuel Rodrigues Lourenço Morais, Mário Jefferson Quirino Louzada, Sandra Helena Penha Oliveira, Antonio Hernandes Chaves Neto, Rita Cássia Menegati Dornelles
The effects of strength training (ST) on the mechanical bone strength and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) from adult, aged and exercised aged rats were determined. The exercised aged animals displayed higher values of areal bone mineral density, compression test, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and biological mineralization, while oil red O staining for adipocytes was lower. ST increased gene expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx) as well as bone matrix protein expression, and reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ)...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209728/evaluation-of-cell-therapy-on-exercise-performance-and-limb-perfusion-in-peripheral-artery-disease-the-cctrn-patients-with-intermittent-claudication-injected-with-aldh-bright-cells-pace-trial
#7
Emerson C Perin, Michael P Murphy, Keith L March, Roberto Bolli, John Loughran, Phillip C Yang, Nicholas J Leeper, Ronald L Dalman, Jason Q Alexander, Timothy D Henry, Jay H Traverse, Carl J Pepine, R David Anderson, Scott Berceli, James T Willerson, Raja Muthupillai, Amir A Gahremanpour, Ganesh Raveendran, Omaida C Velazquez, Joshua M Hare, Ivonne H Schulman, Vijaykumar S Kasi, William R Hiatt, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, João A Lima, Doris A Taylor, Micheline M Resende, Adrian P Gee, April G Durett, Jeannette Bloom, Sara Richman, Patricia G'Sell, Shari Williams, Fouzia Khan, Elsie G Ross, Michelle R Santoso, JoAnne Goldman, Dana Leach, Eileen Handberg, Benjamin Y C Cheong, Nichole A Piece, Darcy DiFede, Barb Bruhn-Ding, Emily Caldwell, Judy Bettencourt, Dejian Lai, Linda B Piller, Lara M Simpson, Michelle Cohen, Shelly L Sayre, Rachel W Vojvodic, Lem Moyé, Ray F Ebert, Robert D Simari, Alan T Hirsch
Background -Atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects 8-12% of Americans over 65 and is associated with a major decline in functional status, increased myocardial infarction and stroke rates, and increased risk of ischemic amputation. Current treatment strategies for claudication have limitations. PACE is an NHLBI-sponsored, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2, exploratory clinical trial designed to assess safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow-derived aldehyde dehydrogenase bright (ALDHbr) cells in PAD patients and to explore associated claudication physiologic mechanisms...
February 16, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208757/pathogenesis%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-therapeutic%C3%A2-mechanisms%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-immune%C3%A2-thrombocytopenia%C3%A2-itp
#8
REVIEW
Anne Zufferey, Rick Kapur, John W Semple
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by low  platelet counts. The pathogenesis of ITP remains unclear although both antibody-mediated and/or  T cell-mediated platelet destruction are key processes. In addition, impairment of T cells, cytokine  imbalances, and the contribution of the bone marrow niche have now been recognized to be  important. Treatment strategies are aimed at the restoration of platelet counts compatible with  adequate hemostasis rather than achieving physiological platelet counts...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207468/significant-differences-in-the-bone-of-an-isogenic-inbred-versus-nonisogenic-outbred-murine-mandible-a-study-in-rigor-and-reproducibility
#9
Edward G Carey, Sagar S Deshpande, Kevin M Urlaub, Alexander R Zheutlin, Noah S Nelson, Alexis Donneys, Stephen Y Kang, Kathleen K Gallagher, Peter A Felice, Catherine N Tchanque-Fossuo, Steven R Buchman
Inattention to differences between animal strains is a potential cause of irreproducibility of basic science investigations. Accordingly, the authors' laboratory sought to ensure that cross-comparisons of results generated from studies of mandibular physiology utilizing the Sprague Dawley and Lewis rat strains are valid. The authors specifically investigated baseline histomorphometrics, bone mineral density, and biomechanical strength of the unaltered endogenous mandibles of the inbred, isogenic Lewis rat, and the outbred, nonisogenic Sprague Dawley rat to determine if they are indeed equal...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205428/systemically-infused-mesenchymal-stem-cells-show-different-homing-profiles-in-healthy-and-tumor-mouse-models
#10
Chengying Xie, Zhangru Yang, Yuanzhen Suo, Qianqian Chen, Dan Wei, Xiaofu Weng, Zhengqin Gu, Xunbin Wei
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can localize in injured, inflamed, and cancerous tissues after systemic infusion. However, the dynamic homing profile of MSCs in the peripheral blood is not well characterized. Here, using in vivo flow cytometry to noninvasively monitor the dynamics of fluorescence-labeled cells, we found different clearance kinetics of systemically infused MSCs between healthy and tumor mouse models. The circulation times of MSCs in healthy mice and mice with subcutaneous tumors, orthotopically transplanted liver tumors, or metastatic lung tumors were 30, 24, 18, and 12 hours, respectively, suggesting that MSCs actively home to tumor environments...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205330/effect-of-matrix-stiffness-on-osteoblast-functionalization
#11
Tao Zhang, Shiyu Lin, Xiaoru Shao, Qi Zhang, Changyue Xue, Shu Zhang, Yunfeng Lin, Bofeng Zhu, Xiaoxiao Cai
OBJECTIVES: Stiffness of bone tissue differs response to its physiological or pathological status, such as osteoporosis or osteosclerosis. Consequently, the function of cells residing in bone tissue including osteoblasts (OBs), osteoclasts and osteocytes will be affected. However, to the best of our knowledge, the detailed mechanism of how extracellular matrix stiffness affects OB function remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a study that exposed rat primary OBs to polydimethylsiloxane substrates with varied stiffness to investigate the alterations of cell morphology, osteoblastic differentiation and its potential mechanism in mechanotransduction...
February 15, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202599/bone-cell-bioenergetics-and-skeletal-energy-homeostasis
#12
REVIEW
Ryan C Riddle, Thomas L Clemens
The rising incidence of metabolic diseases worldwide has prompted renewed interest in the study of intermediary metabolism and cellular bioenergetics. The application of modern biochemical methods for quantitating fuel substrate metabolism with advanced mouse genetic approaches has greatly increased understanding of the mechanisms that integrate energy metabolism in the whole organism. Examination of the intermediary metabolism of skeletal cells has been sparked by a series of unanticipated observations in genetically modified mice that suggest the existence of novel endocrine pathways through which bone cells communicate their energy status to other centers of metabolic control...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202594/surface-microtopography-modulates-sealing-zone-development-in-osteoclasts-cultured-on-bone
#13
Michal Shemesh, Lia Addadi, Benjamin Geiger
Bone homeostasis is continuously regulated by the coordinated action of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Imbalance between these two cell populations leads to pathological bone diseases such as osteoporosis and osteopetrosis. Osteoclast functionality relies on the formation of sealing zone (SZ) rings that define the resorption lacuna. It is commonly assumed that the structure and dynamic properties of the SZ depend on the physical and chemical properties of the substrate. Considering the unique complex structure of native bone, elucidation of the relevant parameters affecting SZ formation and stability is challenging...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199362/flowtaxis-of-osteoblast-migration-under-fluid-shear-and-the-effect-of-rhoa-kinase-silencing
#14
Brandon D Riehl, Jeong Soon Lee, Ligyeom Ha, Il Keun Kwon, Jung Yul Lim
Despite the important role of mechanical signals in bone remodeling, relatively little is known about how fluid shear affects osteoblastic cell migration behavior. Here we demonstrated that MC3T3-E1 osteoblast migration could be activated by physiologically-relevant levels of fluid shear in a shear stress-dependent manner. Interestingly, shear-sensitive osteoblast migration behavior was prominent only during the initial period after the onset of the steady flow (for about 30 min), exhibiting shear stress-dependent migration speed, displacement, arrest coefficient, and motility coefficient...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197373/systemic-activation-of-antigen-presenting-cells-via-rna-loaded-nanoparticles
#15
Elias J Sayour, Gabriel De Leon, Christina Pham, Adam Grippin, Hanna Kemeny, Joshua Chua, Jianping Huang, John H Sampson, Luis Sanchez-Perez, Catherine Flores, Duane A Mitchell
While RNA-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccines have shown promise, the advancement of cellular therapeutics is fraught with developmental challenges. To circumvent the challenges of cellular immunotherapeutics, we developed clinically translatable nanoliposomes that can be combined with tumor-derived RNA to generate personalized tumor RNA-nanoparticles (NPs) with considerable scale-up capacity. RNA-NPs bypass MHC restriction, are amenable to central distribution, and can provide near immediate immune induction...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196619/development-and-verification-of-novel-porous-titanium-metaphyseal-cones-for-revision-total-knee-arthroplasty
#16
Ahmad Faizan, Manoshi Bhowmik-Stoker, Amanda E Kirk, Viktor E Krebs, Steven F Harwin, R Michael Meneghini
BACKGROUND: Porous metaphyseal cones are widely used in revision knee arthroplasty. A new system of porous titanium metaphyseal cones has been designed based on the femoral and tibial morphology derived from a computed tomography-based anatomical database. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the initial mechanical stability of the new porous titanium revision cone system by measuring the micromotion under physiologic loading compared with a widely-used existing porous tantalum metaphyseal cone system...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196601/cholinergic-signals-from-the-cns-regulate-g-csf-mediated-hsc-mobilization-from-bone-marrow-via-a-glucocorticoid-signaling-relay
#17
Halley Pierce, Dachuan Zhang, Claire Magnon, Daniel Lucas, John R Christin, Matthew Huggins, Gary J Schwartz, Paul S Frenette
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are mobilized from niches in the bone marrow (BM) to the blood circulation by the cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) through complex mechanisms. Among these, signals from the sympathetic nervous system regulate HSC egress via its niche, but how the brain communicates with the BM remains largely unknown. Here we show that muscarinic receptor type-1 (Chrm1) signaling in the hypothalamus promotes G-CSF-elicited HSC mobilization via hormonal priming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
February 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195832/four-dimensional-printing-hierarchy-scaffolds-with-highly-biocompatible-smart-polymers-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#18
Shida Miao, Wei Zhu, Nathan J Castro, Jinsong Leng, Lijie Grace Zhang
The objective of this study was to four-dimensional (4D) print novel biomimetic gradient tissue scaffolds with highly biocompatible naturally derived smart polymers. The term "4D printing" refers to the inherent smart shape transformation of fabricated constructs when implanted minimally invasively for seamless and dynamic integration. For this purpose, a series of novel shape memory polymers with excellent biocompatibility and tunable shape changing effects were synthesized and cured in the presence of three-dimensional printed sacrificial molds, which were subsequently dissolved to create controllable and graded porosity within the scaffold...
October 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194185/osteopontin-relation-between-adipose-tissue-and-bone-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Carolina De Fusco, Antonietta Messina, Vincenzo Monda, Emanuela Viggiano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Anna Valenzano, Teresa Esposito, Chieffi Sergio, Giuseppe Cibelli, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina
Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein mainly associated with bone metabolism and remodeling. Besides its physiological functions, OPN is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disease states, such as obesity and osteoporosis. Importantly, during the last decades obesity and osteoporosis have become among the main threats to health worldwide. Because OPN is a protein principally expressed in cells with multifaceted effects on bone morphogenesis and remodeling and because it seems to be one of the most overexpressed genes in the adipose tissue of the obese contributing to osteoporosis, this mini review will highlight recent insights about relation between adipose tissue and bone homeostasis...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192120/osteopontin-attenuates-acute-gastrointestinal-graft-versus-host-disease-by-preventing-apoptosis-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#20
Kentaro Kawakami, Naoki Minami, Minoru Matsuura, Tomoya Iida, Takahiko Toyonaga, Kanna Nagaishi, Yoshiaki Arimura, Mineko Fujimiya, Toshimitsu Uede, Hiroshi Nakase
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which often targets gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Osteopontin (OPN) plays an important physiological role in the efficient development of Th1 immune responses and cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. The role of OPN in acute GI-GVHD is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of OPN in donor T cells in the pathogenicity of acute GI-GVHD...
February 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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