Read by QxMD icon Read

bone physiology

Danka Grčević, Marina Sironi, Sonia Valentino, Livija Deban, Hrvoje Cvija, Antonio Inforzato, Nataša Kovačić, Vedran Katavić, Tomislav Kelava, Ivo Kalajzić, Alberto Mantovani, Barbara Bottazzi
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an inflammatory mediator acting as a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule and playing an essential role in innate immunity and matrix remodeling. Inflammatory mediators also contribute to skeletal homeostasis, operating at multiple levels in physiological and pathological conditions. This study was designed to investigate the role of PTX3 in physiological skeletal remodeling and bone healing. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) and bone histomorphometry of distal femur showed that PTX3 gene-targeted female and male mice ( ptx3-/- ) had lower trabecular bone volume than their wild-type ( ptx3+/+ ) littermates (BV/TV by μCT: 3...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rachel V Jimenez, Tyler T Wright, Nicholas R Jones, Jianming Wu, Andrew W Gibson, Alexander J Szalai
C-reactive protein (CRP) is the prototypical acute phase reactant, increasing in blood concentration rapidly and several-fold in response to inflammation. Recent evidence indicates that CRP has an important physiological role even at low, baseline levels, or in the absence of overt inflammation. For example, we have shown that human CRP inhibits the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in CRP transgenic mice by shifting CD4+ T cells away from the TH 1 and toward the TH 2 subset. Notably, this action required the inhibitory Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB), but did not require high levels of human CRP...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mone Zaidi, Maria New, Harry C Blair, Alberta Zallone, Ramkumarie Baliram, Terry F Davies, Christopher Cardozo, James Iqbal, Li Sun, Cliff Rosen, Tony Yuen
It has become increasingly clear that pituitary hormones that have traditionally been seen as regulators of single bodily processes, including endocrine functions, have additional roles in physiology. The global deletion of these hormones or their receptors in mice has yielded unexpected skeletal and metabolic phenotypes, which have been confirmed through traditional pharmacologic approaches. Initial reports showed that thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors were expressed on bone cells and that their haploinsufficiency in Tshr+/- mice caused osteopenia without affecting the thyroid function...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Guideng Li, Alex Yick-Lun So, Reeshelle Sookram, Stephanie Wong, Jessica K Wang, Yong Ouyang, Peng He, Yapeng Su, Rafael Casellas, David Baltimore
Deregulation of several microRNAs can influence critical developmental checkpoints during hematopoiesis as well as cell functions, eventually leading to the development of autoimmune disease or cancer. We found that miR-125b is expressed in bone marrow multipotent progenitors and myeloid cells but is shut down in the B cell lineage, and the gene encoding miR-125b lacked transcriptional activation markers in B cells. To understand the biological importance of the physiological silencing of miR-125b expression in B cells, we drove its expression in the B cell lineage and found that dysregulated miR-125b expression impaired egress of immature B cells from the bone marrow to peripheral blood...
March 19, 2018: Blood
E Scarpa, A A Janeczek, A Hailes, M C de Andrés, A De Grazia, Roc Oreffo, T A Newman, N D Evans
Spatiotemporal control of drug delivery is important for a number of medical applications which may be achieved using polymersome nanoparticles (PMs). Wnt signalling is a molecular pathway activated in various physiological processes, including bone repair, that requires precise control of activation. Here, we hypothesise that PMs can be stably loaded with a small molecule Wnt agonist, 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO), and activate Wnt signalling promoting the osteogenic differentiation in human primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs)...
March 16, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Álvaro Sebastián-Serrano, Laura de Diego-García, David C Henshall, Tobías Engel, Miguel Díaz-Hernández
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare heritable metabolic bone disease caused by hypomorphic mutations in the ALPL (in human) or Akp2 (in mouse) gene, encoding the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) enzyme. In addition to skeletal and dental malformations, severe forms of HPP are also characterized by the presence of spontaneous seizures. Initially, these seizures were attributed to an impairment of GABAergic neurotransmission caused by altered vitamin B6 metabolism. However, recent work by our group using knockout mice null for TNAP (TNAP-/-), a well-described model of infantile HPP, has revealed a deregulation of purinergic signaling contributing to the seizure phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Qiaomu Tian, Jose Antonio Mendez, Laura Rivera-Castaneda, Omar Mahmood, Adam Showalter, Elizabeth Ang, Sarah Kazmi, Huinan Liu
Medical implants play a key role in treating bone fractures. Permanent implants are currently used for immobilization of fractures and bearing physiological loads during bone healing. After bone has healed, these implants, if not removed, often cause complications in the long run; and secondary surgeries for removing them pose additional discomfort and expenses for patients. Magnesium (Mg)-based bioresorbable implants, can potentially eliminate the need for additional surgeries by degrading safely over time in the human body...
April 15, 2018: Materials Letters
Jianghong Huang, Wei Liu, Yujie Liang, Long Li, Li Duan, Jielin Chen, Feiyan Zhu, Yuxiao Lai, Weimin Zhu, Wei You, ZhaoFeng Jia, Jianyi Xiong, Daping Wang
We describe the study of a new type of diphasic magnetic nanocomposite scaffold (PLGA/Col-I-PLGA/n-HA/Fe2 O3 ) and its preparation using a novel low-temperature deposition manufacturing (LDM) technology. In order to study the biocompatibility of this scaffold, we evaluated and explored its feasibility as a scaffold for tissue engineering. Diphasic magnetic nanocomposite scaffolds (PLGA/Col-I-PLGA/n-HA/Fe2 O3 ) were prepared using LDM technology. The mechanical properties of the scaffold were tested using an electronic testing machine, electron microscopy was utilized to observe the ultrastructure, and a medium (ethanol) immersion method was used to determine the porosity of the scaffold...
June 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Shuhei Kajikawa, Yuu Taguchi, Tadayoshi Hayata, Yoichi Ezura, Ryo Ueta, Sumimasa Arimura, Jun-Ichiro Inoue, Masaki Noda, Yuji Yamanashi
Bone mass is determined by coordinated acts of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which control bone formation and resorption, respectively. Osteoclasts are multinucleated, macrophage/monocyte lineage cells from bone marrow. The Dok-family adaptors Dok-1, Dok-2 and Dok-3 are expressed in the macrophage/monocyte lineage and negatively regulate many signaling pathways, implying roles in osteoclastogenesis. Indeed, mice lacking Dok-1 and Dok-2, the closest homologues with redundant functions, develop osteopenia with increased osteoclast counts compared to the wild-type controls...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Haseeb Khaliq, Zhong Juming, Peng Ke-Mei
Boron is an essential mineral that plays an important role in several biological processes. Boron is required for growth of plants, animals, and humans. There are increasing evidences of this nutrient showing a variety of pleiotropic effects, ranging from anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects to the modulation of different body systems. In the past few years, the trials showed disease-related polymorphisms of boron in different species, which has drawn attention of scientists to the significance of boron to health...
March 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Alessandra Balduini, Hana Raslova, Christian A Di Buduo, Alessandro Donada, Matthias Ballmaier, Manuela Germeshausen, Carlo L Balduini
Inherited thrombocytopenias (ITs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by low platelet count resulting in impaired hemostasis. Patients can have spontaneous hemorrhages and/or excessive bleedings provoked by hemostatic challenges as trauma or surgery. To date, ITs encompass 32 different rare monogenic disorders caused by mutations of 30 genes. This review will focus on the major discoveries that have been made in the last years on the diagnosis, treatment and molecular mechanisms of ANKRD26-Related Thrombocytopenia and MYH9-Related Diseases...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Fumio Otsuka
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system in the ovary plays a physiological role as a luteinization inhibitor in growing follicles. BMP-6 secreted from oocytes and granulosa cells can exert an inhibitory effect on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) actions by suppressing adenylate cyclase activity downstream of the FSH receptor. The inhibition of FSH-induced progesterone production by BMP-6 is impaired by melatonin treatment in granulosa cells. Intracellular Smad signaling induced by BMP-6 is suppressed by melatonin, suggesting that melatonin has a regulatory role in BMP receptor signaling in granulosa cells...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Kevin C Kemp, Rimi Dey, Johan Verhagen, Neil J Scolding, Maria M Usowicz, Alastair Wilkins
Bone marrow-derived cells are known to infiltrate the adult brain and fuse with cerebellar Purkinje cells. Histological observations that such heterotypic cell fusion events are substantially more frequent following cerebellar injury suggest they could have a role in the protection of mature brain neurons. To date, the possibility that cell fusion can preserve or restore the structure and function of adult brain neurons has not been directly addressed; indeed, though frequently suggested, the possibility of benefit has always been rather speculative...
March 14, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Dylan K Wainwright, Sam Ingersoll, George V Lauder
Tunas of the genus Thunnus possess many morphological and physiological adaptations for their high-performance epipelagic ecology. Although Thunnus anatomy has been studied, there are no quantitative studies on the structure of their scales. We investigated the scales of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) from ten regions of the body using micro computed tomography (µCT)-scanning and histology to quantitatively and qualitatively compare regional scale morphology. We found a diversity of scale sizes and shapes across the body of bigeye tuna and discriminant function analysis on variables derived from µCT-data showed that scales across the body differ quantitatively in shape and size...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Nicole Schulz, Arne Güssow, Natali Bauer, Andreas Moritz
Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium. It plays a vital role in almost every metabolic process in the body and is important for bone mineralization, muscle contraction and relaxation, and neuronal signal transduction. Because of its expanding role in intensivecare medicine, there has been a significant increase in knowledge during recent years regarding the functions of magnesium in the body, problems leading to magnesium disorders, and limitations of laboratory testing...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Kristina Glenske, Phil Donkiewicz, Alexander Köwitsch, Nada Milosevic-Oljaca, Patrick Rider, Sven Rofall, Jörg Franke, Ole Jung, Ralf Smeets, Reinhard Schnettler, Sabine Wenisch, Mike Barbeck
The regeneration of bone tissue is the main purpose of most therapies in dental medicine. For bone regeneration, calcium phosphate (CaP)-based substitute materials based on natural (allo- and xenografts) and synthetic origins (alloplastic materials) are applied for guiding the regeneration processes. The optimal bone substitute has to act as a substrate for bone ingrowth into a defect, as well as resorb in the time frame needed for complete regeneration up to the condition of restitution ad integrum . In this context, the modes of action of CaP-based substitute materials have been frequently investigated, where it has been shown that such materials strongly influence regenerative processes such as osteoblast growth or differentiation and also osteoclastic resorption due to different physicochemical properties of the materials...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
F Andrea Sass, Michael Fuchs, Matthias Pumberger, Sven Geissler, Georg N Duda, Carsten Perka, Katharina Schmidt-Bleek
Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Santa Mammana, Paolo Fagone, Eugenio Cavalli, Maria Sofia Basile, Maria Cristina Petralia, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
In physiological conditions, different types of macrophages can be found within the central nervous system (CNS), i.e., microglia, meningeal macrophages, and perivascular (blood-brain barrier) and choroid plexus (blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier) macrophages. Microglia and tissue-resident macrophages, as well as blood-borne monocytes, have different origins, as the former derive from yolk sac erythromyeloid precursors and the latter from the fetal liver or bone marrow. Accordingly, specific phenotypic patterns characterize each population...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Elvira Larqué, Eva Morales, Rosaura Leis, José E Blanco-Carnero
BACKGROUND: To what extent does the circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration help to meet the physiological needs of humans is an ongoing subject of debate. Remaining unexposed to the sun to reduce melanoma cancer risk, current lifestyle with less out door activities, and increasing obesity rates, which in turn increases the storage of vitamin D in the adipose tissue, are presumably factors that contribute to the substantial upsurge in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in humans...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Alberto A Castro, Theodore Garland
We have used selective breeding with house mice to study coadaptation of morphology and physiology with the evolution of high daily levels of voluntary exercise. Here, we compared hindlimb bones and muscle masses from the 11th generation of four replicate High Runner (HR) lines of house mice bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running with four non-selected control (C) lines. Mass, length, diameter, and depth of the femur, tibia-fibula, and metatarsal bones, as well as masses of gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles, were compared by analysis of covariance with body mass or body length as the covariate...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"