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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160835/vitamin-d-and-neurological-diseases-an-endocrine-view
#1
REVIEW
Carolina Di Somma, Elisabetta Scarano, Luigi Barrea, Volha V Zhukouskaya, Silvia Savastano, Chiara Mele, Massimo Scacchi, Gianluca Aimaretti, Annamaria Colao, Paolo Marzullo
Vitamin D system comprises hormone precursors, active metabolites, carriers, enzymes, and receptors involved in genomic and non-genomic effects. In addition to classical bone-related effects, this system has also been shown to activate multiple molecular mediators and elicit many physiological functions. In vitro and in vivo studies have, in fact, increasingly focused on the "non-calcemic" actions of vitamin D, which are associated with the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, cardiovascular morbidity, autoimmunity, inflammation, and cancer...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160745/the-unveiling-of-the-warburg-effect-and-the-inscribed-innovative-approach-to-a-radical-non-toxic-anticancer-therapy
#2
Olivia Crociani, Ilaria Marzi, Maria Grazia Cipolleschi, Antonella Mannini, Massimo Contini, Massimo Olivotto
The purpose of this research has been deciphering the Warburg paradox, the biochemical enigma unsolved since 1923. This paradox consists of the aerobic pyruvate conversion to lactate brought about by anaplastic cancer, through the metabolic pathway known as aerobic glycolysis. This pathway implies a heavy energetic waste. We solved the enigma by demonstrating that its specific character, i.e. the forced aerobic lactate exportation, represents a crucial metabolic device to counteract the cytotoxic effect produced by an excess of pyruvate at the connection of glycolysis with the Krebs cycle...
November 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159911/early-mechanical-stimulation-only-permits-timely-bone-healing-in-sheep
#3
Tufekci Pelin, Tavakoli Aramesh, Dlaska Constantin, Neumann Mirjam, Shanker Mihir, Saifzadeh Siamak, Steck Roland, Schuetz Michael, Epari Devakar
Bone fracture healing is sensitive to the fixation stability. However, it is unclear which phases of healing are mechano-sensitive and if mechanical stimulation is required throughout repair. In this study, a novel bone defect model, which isolates an experimental fracture from functional loading, was applied in sheep to investigate if stimulation limited to the early proliferative phase is sufficient for bone healing. An active fixator controlled motion in the fracture. Animals of the control group were unstimulated...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158129/mitochondrial-transfer-between-cells-methodological-constraints-in-cell-culture-and-animal-models
#4
M V Berridge, P M Herst, M R Rowe, R Schneider, M J McConnell
Interest in the recently discovered phenomenon of mitochondrial transfer between mammalian cells has gained momentum since it was first described in cell culture systems more than a decade ago. Mitochondria-targeting fluorescent dyes have been repurposed and are now widely used in these studies and in acute disease models, sometimes without due consideration of their limitations, while vectors containing mitochondrially-imported fluorescent proteins have complemented the use of mitochondria-targeting dyes. Genetic approaches that use mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms have also been used in some in vitro studies and in tumor models and are particularly useful where mtDNA is damaged or deleted...
November 17, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156538/combined-effects-of-simulated-microgravity-and-radiation-exposure-on-osteoclast-cell-fusion
#5
Srinivasan Shanmugarajan, Ye Zhang, Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Ryan Clanton, Larry H Rohde, Govindarajan T Ramesh, Jean D Sibonga, Honglu Wu
The loss of bone mass and alteration in bone physiology during space flight are one of the major health risks for astronauts. Although the lack of weight bearing in microgravity is considered a risk factor for bone loss and possible osteoporosis, organisms living in space are also exposed to cosmic radiation and other environmental stress factors. As such, it is still unclear as to whether and by how much radiation exposure contributes to bone loss during space travel, and whether the effects of microgravity and radiation exposure are additive or synergistic...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156188/addressing-obesity-in-aging-patients
#6
REVIEW
John A Batsis, Alexandra B Zagaria
Obesity in older adults affects not only morbidity and mortality but, importantly, quality of life and the risk of institutionalization. Weight loss interventions can effectively lead to improved physical function. Diet-alone interventions can detrimentally affect muscle and bone physiology and, without interventions to affect these elements, can lead to adverse outcomes. Understanding social and nutritional issues facing older adults is of utmost importance to primary care providers. This article will also discuss the insufficient evidence related to pharmacotherapy as well as providing an overview of using physiologic rather than chronologic age for identifying suitable candidates for bariatric surgery...
January 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155746/saturated-fatty-acids-induce-ceramide-associated-macrophage-cell-death
#7
Yuwen Zhang, Jiaqing Hao, Yanwen Sun, Bing Li
Macrophages highly express epidermal fatty acid-binding protein and adipose fatty acid-binding protein. They actively uptake saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which might play a critical role in regulating their immune functions. Numerous studies have shown that various fatty acids, saturated or unsaturated, may possess different impacts on cell growth and function. However, the approaches used for fatty acid preparation vary, which may lead to non-physiological results. Serum albumin, a natural carrier for fatty acids in mammalian peripheral blood, is recommended for forming a conjugate complex with the sodium salt of fatty acids to study fatty acid function in mammalian cells, thus minimizing the toxicity of fatty acid soap...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155725/an-efficient-and-reproducible-protocol-for-distraction-osteogenesis-in-a-rat-model-leading-to-a-functional-regenerated-femur
#8
Martine Pithioux, Flavy Roseren, Christian Jalain, Franck Launay, Philippe Charpiot, Patrick Chabrand, Sandrine Roffino, Edouard Lamy
This protocol describes the use of a newly developed external fixator for distraction osteogenesis in a rat femoral model. Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical technique leading to bone regeneration after an osteotomy. The osteotomized extremities are moved away from each other by gradual distraction to reach the desired elongation. This procedure is widely used in humans for lower and upper limb lengthening, treatment after a bone nonunion, or the regeneration of a bone defect following surgery for bone tumor excision, as well as in maxillofacial reconstruction...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155218/the-collective-influence-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-with-physiological-fluid-shear-stress-on-osteoblasts
#9
Yan Li, Jiafeng Yuan, Qianwen Wang, Lijie Sun, Yunying Sha, Yanxiang Li, Lizhong Wang, Zhonghua Wang, Yonggang Ma, Hui Cao
1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1, 25 (OH)2 D3) and mechanical stimuli in physiological environment contributes greatly to osteoporosis pathogenesis. Wide investigations have been conducted on how 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and mechanical stimuli separately impact osteoblasts. This study reports the collective influences of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and flow shear stress (FSS) on biological functions of osteoblasts. 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 were prepared in various kinds of concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 nmmol/L), while physiological fluid shear stress (12 dynes/cm(2)) was produced by using a parallel-plate fluid flow system...
November 16, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154022/the-anti-tumor-effect-of-rankl-inhibition-in-malignant-solid-tumors-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
A F de Groot, N M Appelman-Dijkstra, S H van der Burg, J R Kroep
At present, accumulating evidence suggests that inhibition of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) does not only induce an increase in bone mass and strength, but also has anti-tumor effects. Denosumab, an antibody targeting RANKL, is used to treat osteoporosis and to prevent skeletal related events (SREs) in patients with bone metastases originating from solid tumors. However, expression of RANKL and its receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) is not solely restricted to cells involved in homeostasis of the bone and RANKL-RANK signalling appears to play a substantial role in many other processes in the body like mammary physiology, mammary tumorigenesis and the immune system...
November 2, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152615/scid-pigs-an-emerging-large-animal-nk-model
#11
Ellis J Powell, Joan E Cunnick, Christopher K Tuggle
Severe Combined ImmunoDeficiency (SCID) is defined as the lack or impairment of an adaptive immune system. Although SCID phenotypes are characteristically absent of T and B cells, many such SCID cellular profiles include the presence of NK cells. In human SCID patients, functional NK cells may impact the engraftment success of life saving procedures such as bone marrow transplantation. However, in animal models, a T cell-, B cell-, NK cell+ environment provides a valuable tool for asking specific questions about the extent of the innate immune system function as well as emerging NK targeted therapies against cancer...
2017: Journal of Rare Diseases Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150954/physiological-role-of-urothelial-cancer-associated-1-long-noncoding-rna-in-human-skeletogenic-cell-differentiation
#12
Takanori Ishikawa, Takashi Nishida, Mitsuaki Ono, Takeshi Takarada, Nguyen Ha, Shinnosuke Kurihara, Takayuki Furumatsu, Yurika Murase, Masaharu Takigawa, Toshitaka Oohashi, Hiroshi Kamioka, Satoshi Kubota
A vast number of long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are found expressed in human cells, which RNAs have been developed along with human evolution. However, the physiological functions of these lncRNAs remain mostly unknown. In the present study, we for the first time uncovered the fact that one of such lncRNAs plays a significant role in the differentiation of chondrocytes and, possibly, of osteoblasts differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells, which cells eventually construct the human skeleton. The urothelial cancer-associated 1 (UCA1) lncRNA is known to be associated with several human malignancies...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149826/novel-functions-of-microrna-17-92-cluster-in-the-endocrine-system
#13
Shan Wan, Xiang Chen, Yuedong He, Xijie Yu
BACKGROUND: MiR-17-92 cluster is coded by MIR17HG in chromosome 13, which is highly conserved in vertebrates. Published literatures have proved that miR-17-92 cluster critically regulates tumorigenesis and metastasis. Recent researches showed that the miR-17-92 cluster also plays novel functions in the endocrine system. OBJECTIVE: To summarize recent findings on the physiological and pathological roles of miR-17-92 cluster in bone, lipid and glucose metabolisms...
November 17, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149730/divergence-of-insulin-superfamily-ligands-receptors-and-igf-binding-proteins-in-marine-versus-freshwater-stickleback-evidence-of-selection-in-known-and-novel-genes
#14
Tim Pellissier, Hend Al Nafea, Sara V Good
Three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a teleost model for understanding genetic, physiological and morphological changes accompanying freshwater (FW) adaptation. There is growing evidence that the insulin superfamily plays important roles in traits involved in marine and FW adaptation. We performed a candidate gene analysis to look for evidence of selection on 33 insulin superfamily ligand-receptor genes and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (Igfbp's) in stickleback. Using genotype data from 11 marine and 10 FW populations, we calculated the number of SNPs per site in regulatory and intronic regions, the number of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in coding regions, Wright's fixation index (Fst), and performed t-tests to identify SNPs with divergent genotype frequencies between marine/FW versus Atlantic/Pacific populations...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148561/the-role-of-il-23-receptor-signaling-in-inflammation-mediated-erosive-autoimmune-arthritis-and-bone-remodeling
#15
REVIEW
Wida Razawy, Marjolein van Driel, Erik Lubberts
The IL-23/Th17 axis has been implicated in the development of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). RA and PsA are heterogeneous diseases with substantial burden on patients. Increasing evidence suggests that the IL-23 signaling pathway may be involved in the development of autoimmunity and erosive joint damage. IL-23 can act either directly or indirectly on bone forming osteoblasts as well as on bone resorbing osteoclasts. As IL-23 regulates the activity of cells of the bone, it is conceivable that in addition to inflammation-mediated joint erosion, IL-23 may play a role in physiological bone remodeling...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147721/osteomimicry-how-the-seed-grows-in-the-soil
#16
REVIEW
Nadia Rucci, Anna Teti
Metastasis is defined as a very inefficient process, since less than 0.01% of cancer cells injected into the circulation will engraft in a distant organ, where they must acquire the ability to survive and proliferate inside a "foreign" environment. In bone metastases, the interaction with the host organ is much more favoured if tumour cells gain "osteomimicry", that is the ability to resemble a resident bone cell (i.e. the osteoblast), thus intruding in the physiology of the bone. This is accomplished by the expression of osteoblast markers (e...
November 16, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146302/mechanisms-involved-in-bone-resorption-regulated-by-vitamin-d
#17
REVIEW
Yuko Nakamichi, Nobuyuki Udagawa, Tatsuo Suda, Naoyuki Takahashi
Active forms of vitamin D enhance osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in osteoblast-lineage cells consisting of osteoblasts and osteocytes. This pro-resorptive activity was evident basically with higher concentrations of active vitamin D than those expected in physiological conditions. Nevertheless, vitamin D compounds have been used in Japan for treating osteoporosis to increase bone mineral density (BMD). Of note, the increase in BMD by long-term treatment with pharmacological (=near-physiological) doses of vitamin D compounds was caused by the suppression of bone resorption...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144508/ly6g-neutrophil-derived-mir-223-inhibits-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-mitochondrial-damp-induced-acute-lung-injury
#18
Zunyong Feng, Shimei Qi, Yue Zhang, Zhilin Qi, Liang Yan, Jing Zhou, Fang He, Qianqian Li, Yanyan Yang, Qun Chen, Shi Xiao, Qiang Li, Yang Chen, Yao Zhang
MicroRNA (miRNA) mediates RNA interference to regulate a variety of innate immune processes, but how miRNAs coordinate the mechanisms underlying acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) in patients with pulmonary inflammatory injury is still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-223 limits the number of Ly6G+ neutrophils and inhibits the activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome to alleviate ALI induced by mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) (MTDs). miR-223 expression is increased in the lungs of MTD-induced mice or ARDS patients following trauma/transfusion or following the physiological remission of ALI/ARDS...
November 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142785/role-of-cord-blood-and-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-recent-deep-burn-a-case-control-prospective-study
#19
Wael Abo-Elkheir, Fawzy Hamza, Ahmed M Elmofty, Atef Emam, Magdy Abdl-Moktader, Sameh Elsherefy, Hala Gabr
RATIONALE: Burn injuries represent one of the major worldwide public health problems causing more severe physiological stress than other traumas. Effective treatment of burn injuries is mandatory to prevent the numerous life-threatening complications and possible disabilities. Stem cells, a population of multipotent cells retaining the properties of self-renewal and differentiation, are the main player in tissue regeneration after major trauma. Thus, they are thought to play a key role in wound healing inducing efficient and physiological skin regeneration...
2017: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142196/dj-1-controls-bone-homeostasis-through-the-regulation-of-osteoclast-differentiation
#20
Hyuk Soon Kim, Seung Taek Nam, Se Hwan Mun, Sun-Kyeong Lee, Hyun Woo Kim, Young Hwan Park, Bokyung Kim, Kyung-Jong Won, Hae-Rim Kim, Yeong-Min Park, Hyung Sik Kim, Michael A Beaven, Young Mi Kim, Wahn Soo Choi
Receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) generates intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which increase RANKL-mediated signaling in osteoclast (OC) precursor bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). Here we show that a ROS scavenging protein DJ-1 negatively regulates RANKL-driven OC differentiation, also called osteoclastogenesis. DJ-1 ablation in mice leads to a decreased bone volume and an increase in OC numbers. In vitro, the activation of RANK-dependent signals is enhanced in DJ-1-deficient BMMs as compared to wild-type BMMs...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
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