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Cancer susceptibility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917268/kap1-inhibits-the-raf-mek-erk-pathway-to-promote-tumorigenesis-in-a549-lung-cancer-cells
#1
Guo-Jin Wu, Jun Pen, Ying Huang, Su An, Ying Liu, Yang Yang, Qian Hao, Xiao-Xi Guo, Tian-Rui Xu
Aberrant activation of the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway has frequently been associated with various cancers, especially lung cancer. However, the key regulators of this pathway are largely unknown. Using functional proteomics screening, we found that KAP1 interacts with c-Raf. Knocking out KAP1 decreased c-Raf phosphorylation at serine 259 and increased its phosphorylation at serine 338, which activated MEK and ERK. We detected higher KAP1 expression in lung cancer tissues than in normal peri-tumoral tissues. KAP1 knockdown arrested A549 lung cancer cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and attenuated cell growth, metastasis, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, stemness, and colony formation...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917141/tumor-cdkn2a-associated-jak2-loss-and-susceptibility-to-immunotherapy-resistance
#2
Susanne Horn, Sonia Leonardelli, Antje Sucker, Dirk Schadendorf, Klaus G Griewank, Annette Paschen
Poor clinical responses to checkpoint blockade with anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies in melanoma have recently been associated with acquired IFNγ resistance that protects tumor cells from the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic cytokine activity. IFNγ-resistant melanoma cells very often lack functional expression of the IFNγ signaling pathway gene JAK2 due to gene deletions or inactivating gene mutations. Analyzing melanoma cell lines (n = 46, applying next-generation targeted sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism arrays) as well as available genomic data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) tumor tissue samples (cutaneous melanoma n = 367, lung squamous cell carcinoma n = 501, bladder urothelial carcinoma n = 408, breast invasive carcinoma n = 768, colorectal adenocarcinoma n = 257), we demonstrate that the frequent chromosomal losses of the tumor suppressor CDKN2A in melanoma and other tumor entities enhance the susceptibility to IFNγ resistance by concomitant deletion of the JAK2 gene (odds ratio = 223...
June 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917126/genetic-susceptibility-to-thirdhand-smoke-induced-lung-cancer-development
#3
Bo Hang, Jian-Hua Mao, Antoine M Snijders
THS, the residual tobacco smoke remaining in the environment after tobacco has been smoked, represents an underestimated public health hazard. Evidence supports its widespread presence in indoor environments. Vulnerable populations are believed to include infants and children living in a smoking household exposed to THS and/or SHS and exposure has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer later in life. These and future studies will provide novel and important evidence of how early-life exposure to THS affects cancer development and other diseases, which should be useful for framing and enforcing new policies against passive smoking in the the world...
June 16, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917119/novel-common-genetic-susceptibility-loci-for-colorectal-cancer
#4
Stephanie L Schmit, Christopher K Edlund, Fredrick R Schumacher, Jian Gong, Tabitha A Harrison, Jeroen R Huyghe, Chenxu Qu, Marilena Melas, David J Van Den Berg, Hansong Wang, Stephanie Tring, Sarah J Plummer, Demetrius Albanes, M Henar Alonso, Christopher I Amos, Kristen Anton, Aaron K Aragaki, Volker Arndt, Elizabeth L Barry, Sonja I Berndt, Stéphane Bezieau, Stephanie Bien, Amanda Bloomer, Juergen Boehm, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Hermann Brenner, Stefanie Brezina, Daniel D Buchanan, Katja Butterbach, Bette J Caan, Peter T Campbell, Christopher S Carlson, Jose E Castelao, Andrew T Chan, Jenny Chang-Claude, Stephen J Chanock, Iona Cheng, Ya-Wen Cheng, Lee Soo Chin, James M Church, Timothy Church, Gerhard A Coetzee, Michelle Cotterchio, Marcia Cruz Correa, Keith R Curtis, David Duggan, Douglas F Easton, Dallas English, Edith J M Feskens, Rocky Fischer, Liesel M FitzGerald, Barbara K Fortini, Lars G Fritsche, Charles S Fuchs, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Manish Gala, Steven J Gallinger, W James Gauderman, Graham G Giles, Edward L Giovannucci, Stephanie M Gogarten, Clicerio Gonzalez-Villalpando, Elena M Gonzalez-Villalpando, William M Grady, Joel K Greenson, Andrea Gsur, Marc Gunter, Christopher A Haiman, Jochen Hampe, Sophia Harlid, John F Harju, Richard B Hayes, Philipp Hofer, Michael Hoffmeister, John L Hopper, Shu-Chen Huang, Jose Maria Huerta, Thomas J Hudson, David J Hunter, Gregory E Idos, Motoki Iwasaki, Rebecca D Jackson, Eric J Jacobs, Sun Ha Jee, Mark A Jenkins, Wei-Hua Jia, Shuo Jiao, Amit D Joshi, Laurence N Kolonel, Suminori Kono, Charles Kooperberg, Vittorio Krogh, Tilman Kuehn, Sébastien Küry, Andrea LaCroix, Cecelia A Laurie, Flavio Lejbkowicz, Mathieu Lemire, Heinz-Josef Lenz, David Levine, Christopher I Li, Li Li, Wolfgang Lieb, Yi Lin, Noralane M Lindor, Yun-Ru Liu, Fotios Loupakis, Yingchang Lu, Frank Luh, Jing Ma, Christoph Mancao, Frank J Manion, Sanford D Markowitz, Vicente Martin, Koichi Matsuda, Keitaro Matsuo, Kevin J McDonnell, Caroline E McNeil, Roger Milne, Antonio J Molina, Bhramar Mukherjee, Neil Murphy, Polly A Newcomb, Kenneth Offit, Hanane Omichessan, Domenico Palli, Jesus P Paredes Cotoré, Julyann Pérez-Mayoral, Paul D Pharoah, John D Potter, Conghui Qu, Leon Raskin, Gad Rennert, Hedy S Rennert, Bridget M Riggs, Clemens Schafmayer, Robert E Schoen, Thomas A Sellers, Daniela Seminara, Gianluca Severi, Wei Shi, David Shibata, Xiao-Ou Shu, Erin M Siegel, Martha L Slattery, Melissa Southey, Zsofia K Stadler, Mariana C Stern, Sebastian Stintzing, Darin Taverna, Stephen N Thibodeau, Duncan C Thomas, Antonia Trichopoulou, Shoichiro Tsugane, Cornelia M Ulrich, Franzel J B van Duijnhoven, Bethany van Guelpan, Joseph Vijai, Jarmo Virtamo, Stephanie J Weinstein, Emily White, Aung Ko Win, Alicja Wolk, Michael Woods, Anna H Wu, Kana Wu, Yong-Bing Xiang, Yun Yen, Brent W Zanke, Yi-Xin Zeng, Ben Zhang, Niha Zubair, Sun-Seog Kweon, Jane C Figueiredo, Wei Zheng, Loic Le Marchand, Annika Lindblom, Victor Moreno, Ulrike Peters, Graham Casey, Li Hsu, David V Conti, Stephen B Gruber
Background: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 42 loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk. Methods: We conducted a GWAS in European descent CRC cases and control subjects using a discovery-replication design, followed by examination of novel findings in a multiethnic sample (cumulative n = 163 315)...
June 16, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916141/arginylated-calreticulin-increases-apoptotic-response-induced-by-bortezomib-in-glioma-cells
#5
Andrea Comba, Laura V Bonnet, Victor E Goitea, Marta E Hallak, Mauricio R Galiano
After retrotranslocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytoplasm, calreticulin is modified by the enzyme arginyltransferase-1 (ATE1). Cellular levels of arginylated calreticulin (R-CRT) are regulated in part by the proteasomal system. Under various stress conditions, R-CRT becomes associated with stress granules (SGs) or reaches the plasma membrane (PM), where it participates in pro-apoptotic signaling. The mechanisms underlying the resistance of tumor cells to apoptosis induced by specific drugs remain unclear...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915722/new-therapies-and-immunological-findings-in-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma
#6
REVIEW
Kazuyasu Fujii
Primary cutaneous lymphomas comprise a group of lymphatic malignancies that occur primarily in the skin. They represent the second most common form of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and are characterized by heterogeneous clinical, histological, immunological, and molecular features. The most common type is mycosis fungoides and its leukemic variant, Sézary syndrome. Both diseases are considered T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) diseases. Not only the tumor cells but also the tumor microenvironment can promote Th2 differentiation, which is beneficial for the tumor cells because a Th1 environment enhances antitumor immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915430/a-transcriptome-wide-association-study-of-229-000-women-identifies-new-candidate-susceptibility-genes-for-breast-cancer
#7
Lang Wu, Wei Shi, Jirong Long, Xingyi Guo, Kyriaki Michailidou, Jonathan Beesley, Manjeet K Bolla, Xiao-Ou Shu, Yingchang Lu, Qiuyin Cai, Fares Al-Ejeh, Esdy Rozali, Qin Wang, Joe Dennis, Bingshan Li, Chenjie Zeng, Helian Feng, Alexander Gusev, Richard T Barfield, Irene L Andrulis, Hoda Anton-Culver, Volker Arndt, Kristan J Aronson, Paul L Auer, Myrto Barrdahl, Caroline Baynes, Matthias W Beckmann, Javier Benitez, Marina Bermisheva, Carl Blomqvist, Natalia V Bogdanova, Stig E Bojesen, Hiltrud Brauch, Hermann Brenner, Louise Brinton, Per Broberg, Sara Y Brucker, Barbara Burwinkel, Trinidad Caldés, Federico Canzian, Brian D Carter, J Esteban Castelao, Jenny Chang-Claude, Xiaoqing Chen, Ting-Yuan David Cheng, Hans Christiansen, Christine L Clarke, Margriet Collée, Sten Cornelissen, Fergus J Couch, David Cox, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Julie M Cunningham, Kamila Czene, Mary B Daly, Peter Devilee, Kimberly F Doheny, Thilo Dörk, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Martine Dumont, Miriam Dwek, Diana M Eccles, Ursula Eilber, A Heather Eliassen, Christoph Engel, Mikael Eriksson, Laura Fachal, Peter A Fasching, Jonine Figueroa, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Olivia Fletcher, Henrik Flyger, Lin Fritschi, Marike Gabrielson, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Susan M Gapstur, Montserrat García-Closas, Mia M Gaudet, Maya Ghoussaini, Graham G Giles, Mark S Goldberg, David E Goldgar, Anna González-Neira, Pascal Guénel, Eric Hahnen, Christopher A Haiman, Niclas Håkansson, Per Hall, Emily Hallberg, Ute Hamann, Patricia Harrington, Alexander Hein, Belynda Hicks, Peter Hillemanns, Antoinette Hollestelle, Robert N Hoover, John L Hopper, Guanmengqian Huang, Keith Humphreys, David J Hunter, Anna Jakubowska, Wolfgang Janni, Esther M John, Nichola Johnson, Kristine Jones, Michael E Jones, Audrey Jung, Rudolf Kaaks, Michael J Kerin, Elza Khusnutdinova, Veli-Matti Kosma, Vessela N Kristensen, Diether Lambrechts, Loic Le Marchand, Jingmei Li, Sara Lindström, Jolanta Lissowska, Wing-Yee Lo, Sibylle Loibl, Jan Lubinski, Craig Luccarini, Michael P Lux, Robert J MacInnis, Tom Maishman, Ivana Maleva Kostovska, Arto Mannermaa, JoAnn E Manson, Sara Margolin, Dimitrios Mavroudis, Hanne Meijers-Heijboer, Alfons Meindl, Usha Menon, Jeffery Meyer, Anna Marie Mulligan, Susan L Neuhausen, Heli Nevanlinna, Patrick Neven, Sune F Nielsen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Janet E Olson, Håkan Olsson, Paolo Peterlongo, Julian Peto, Dijana Plaseska-Karanfilska, Ross Prentice, Nadege Presneau, Katri Pylkäs, Brigitte Rack, Paolo Radice, Nazneen Rahman, Gad Rennert, Hedy S Rennert, Valerie Rhenius, Atocha Romero, Jane Romm, Anja Rudolph, Emmanouil Saloustros, Dale P Sandler, Elinor J Sawyer, Marjanka K Schmidt, Rita K Schmutzler, Andreas Schneeweiss, Rodney J Scott, Christopher G Scott, Sheila Seal, Mitul Shah, Martha J Shrubsole, Ann Smeets, Melissa C Southey, John J Spinelli, Jennifer Stone, Harald Surowy, Anthony J Swerdlow, Rulla M Tamimi, William Tapper, Jack A Taylor, Mary Beth Terry, Daniel C Tessier, Abigail Thomas, Kathrin Thöne, Rob A E M Tollenaar, Diana Torres, Thérèse Truong, Michael Untch, Celine Vachon, David Van Den Berg, Daniel Vincent, Quinten Waisfisz, Clarice R Weinberg, Camilla Wendt, Alice S Whittemore, Hans Wildiers, Walter C Willett, Robert Winqvist, Alicja Wolk, Lucy Xia, Xiaohong R Yang, Argyrios Ziogas, Elad Ziv, Alison M Dunning, Paul D P Pharoah, Jacques Simard, Roger L Milne, Stacey L Edwards, Peter Kraft, Douglas F Easton, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Wei Zheng
The breast cancer risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies explain only a small fraction of the familial relative risk, and the genes responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. To identify novel risk loci and likely causal genes, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study evaluating associations of genetically predicted gene expression with breast cancer risk in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry. We used data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project to establish genetic models to predict gene expression in breast tissue and evaluated model performance using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas...
June 18, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915025/glutathione-metabolism-in-cancer-progression-and-treatment-resistance
#8
REVIEW
Ankita Bansal, M Celeste Simon
Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant antioxidant found in living organisms and has multiple functions, most of which maintain cellular redox homeostasis. GSH preserves sufficient levels of cysteine and detoxifies xenobiotics while also conferring therapeutic resistance to cancer cells. However, GSH metabolism plays both beneficial and pathogenic roles in a variety of malignancies. It is crucial to the removal and detoxification of carcinogens, and alterations in this pathway can have a profound effect on cell survival...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914591/regorafenib-induced-hand-foot-skin-reaction-is-more-severe-on-the-feet-than-on-the-hands
#9
Yuma Nonomiya, Takashi Yokokawa, Kazuyoshi Kawakami, Kazuo Kobayashi, Takeshi Aoyama, Tomomi Takiguchi, Takahito Sugisaki, Kenichi Suzuki, Mitsukuni Suenaga, Takeru Wakatsuki, Kensei Yamaguchi, Yoshikazu Sugimoto, Toshihiro Hama
Regorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Regorafenib-induced hand-footskin reaction (HFSR) is a common side effect during treatment. The reported frequency of HFSR was 80% (Grade 3: 28%) of the Japanese subpopulation in the CORRECT trial; however, more detailed data regarding HFSR in terms of onset and sites of susceptibility are unclear. Additionally, the risk factors for regorafenib-induced severe HFSR are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare HFSR between the hands and feet and identify pre-existing risk factors for severe HFSR in Japanese patients receiving regorafenib...
June 18, 2018: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914420/low-expression-of-recql-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-chinese-breast-cancer-patients
#10
Huiying Xu, Ye Xu, Tao Ouyang, Jinfeng Li, Tianfeng Wang, Zhaoqing Fan, Tie Fan, Benyao Lin, Yuntao Xie
BACKGROUND: RECQL is a number of the RecQ DNA helicase family and plays an important role in maintaining genome stability. Although several studies have reported that RECQL mutations were correlated with the susceptibility to breast cancer, the effect on prognosis in breast cancer was not yet clarified. Here, we explored the association between RECQL expression level and survival in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: In the first cohort, the RECQL mRNA expression level was evaluated in 774 primary breast cancer patients using a quantitative real-time PCR assay...
June 18, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912883/acceptability-of-hpv-vaccines-and-associations-with-perceptions-related-to-hpv-and-hpv-vaccines-among-male-baccalaureate-students-in-hong-kong
#11
Teris Cheung, Joseph T F Lau, Johnson Z Wang, P K H Mo, Y S Ho
OBJECTIVES: The highly infectious human papillomavirus (HPV) causes both genital warts and cervical cancer in women. In 2009, the prevalence of genital warts in Hong Kong was 203.7 per 100,000 person-years. Cervical cancer, more seriously, was the eight most common cancer among women and girls in Hong Kong, accounting for 2.3% of all new cancer cases in females in 2014. Cervical cancer is a significant global public health problem and HPV is a major risk factor leading to the development of cervical cancer...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910638/prognostic-value-and-clinical-significance-of-long-noncoding-rna-casc2-in-human-malignancies-a-meta-analysis
#12
Juan Cai, Xueliang Zuo, Zhiqiang Chen, Wenying Zhao, Yiping Zhu, Zhengxiang Zhang, Xiaobing Ye
Purpose: This meta-analysis aimed to assess the prognostic value of long noncoding RNA cancer susceptibility candidate 2 (CASC2) in human tumors. Materials and methods: We searched the available databases up to December 2017. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to examine the prognostic impact of CASC2 on overall survival (OS) in patients diagnosed with malignancies. Results: A total of eight studies with 663 cancer patients were enrolled...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910622/association-of-vdr-gene-taqi-polymorphism-with-the-susceptibility-to-prostate-cancer-in-asian-population-evaluated-by-an-updated-systematic-meta-analysis
#13
Liangliang Chen, Junjun Wei, Shuwei Zhang, Zhongguan Lou, Xue Wang, Yu Ren, Honggang Qi, Zhenhua Xie, Yirun Chen, Feng Chen, Qihang Wu, Xiaoxiao Fan, Honglei Xu, Shuaishuai Huang, Guobin Weng
Background: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) plays a key role in vitamin-mediated signaling pathway. Emerging evidence has suggested that the VDR polymorphism may contribute to the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the existing results are not conclusive in Asian population. Methods: We aim to evaluate the potential role of VDR polymorphisms on PCa of Asian population. PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wang Fang Data, and VIP Periodical were retrieved, and eligible studies (case-control or cohort study) meeting the inclusion criteria were evaluated through an updated meta-analysis using Stata13...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909492/modelling-glioma-invasion-using-3d-bioprinting-and-scaffold-free-3d-culture
#14
Derek M van Pel, Kaori Harada, Dandan Song, Christian C Naus, Wun Chey Sin
Glioma is a highly aggressive form of brain cancer, with some subtypes having 5-year survival rates of less than 5%. Tumour cell invasion into the surrounding parenchyma seems to be the primary driver of these poor outcomes, as most gliomas recur within 2 cm of the original surgically-resected tumour. Many current approaches to the development of anticancer therapy attempt to target genetic weaknesses in a particular cancer, but may not take into account the microenvironment experienced by a tumour and the patient-specific genetic differences in susceptibility to treatment...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909406/the-role-of-microrna-608-polymorphism-on-the-susceptibility-and-survival-of-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#15
Zhi-Ming Dai, Jian-Rui Lv, Kang Liu, Xiao-Ming Lei, Wei Li, Gang Wu, Xing-Han Liu, Yu-Xiao Zhu, Qian Hao, Zhi-Jun Dai
The role of rs4919510 polymorphism in microRNA-608 (miR-608) and cancer susceptibility and prognosis remain controversial and debatable. We conducted a meta-analysis of twenty-four eligible publications on the association of rs4919510 polymorphism with cancer risk and/or prognosis. Odds ratios, hazard ratios, and 95% confidence interval were used to investigate the association between this polymorphism and susceptibility, overall survival, and recurrence-free survival of cancer. Overall, eighteen case-control studies and nine cohort studies evaluated the susceptibility and prognostic value of rs4919510 polymorphism in cancer, respectively...
June 16, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907587/precision-prevention-and-early-detection-of-cancer-fundamental-principles
#16
Timothy R Rebbeck, Karen Burns-White, Andrew T Chan, Karen Emmons, Matthew Freedman, David J Hunter, Peter Kraft, Francine Laden, Lorelei Mucci, Giovanni Parmigiani, Deborah Schrag, Sapna Syngal, Rulla M Tamimi, Kasisomayajula Viswanath, Matthew B Yurgelun, Judy E Garber
Prevention and early detection is critical for reducing the population cancer burden. Two approaches have been used: Population approaches change social norms (e.g., smoking bans) or impose incentives (e.g., cigarette taxes); high-risk strategies intervene upon individuals with elevated cancer risk (e.g., smoking cessation). Knowledge about carcinogenesis mechanisms, extreme exposures, and inherited susceptibility provides opportunities to develop precision prevention and early-detection (PPED) strategies. PPED aims to understand the basis of risk, identify groups that optimally benefit from interventions, characterize heterogeneity in intervention responses, optimize intervention timing, and minimize toxicities...
June 15, 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906295/tyms-2r3r-polymorphism-and-dpyd-ivs-14-1g-a-gene-mutation-in-mexican-colorectal-cancer-patients
#17
Martha Patricia Gallegos-Arreola, Guillermo Moisés Zúñiga-González, Josefina Yoaly Sánchez-López, Alondra Yeraldi Naranjo Cruz, Valeria Peralta-Leal, Luis Eduardo Figuera, Ana María Puebla-Pérez, Carlos Alberto Ronquillo-Carreón, Ana Graciela Puebla-Mora
Objective To examine the association between TYMS 2R3R polymorphism and DPYD [IVS]14+1G < A mutation by comparing healthy subjects with colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in the Mexican population. Method Genotyping of the 2R/3R was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and [IVS]14+1G < A mutation by real-time PCR analysis. Results The observed frequencies of the TYMS 2R3R polymorphism and the -[IVS]14+1G < A mutation in DPYD did not indicate an increased risk for CRC (p < 0.05). However we observed an association of the 2R/2R (OR 3...
June 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904056/an-evolutionarily-conserved-structural-platform-for-prc2-inhibition-by-a-class-of-ezh2-inhibitors
#18
Matthew Bratkowski, Xin Yang, Xin Liu
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) mediates trimethylation of histone H3K27 (H3K27me3), an epigenetic hallmark for repressed chromatin. Overactive mutants of the histone lysine methyltransferase subunit of PRC2, Ezh2, are found in various types of cancers. Pyridone-containing inhibitors such as GSK126 compete with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) for Ezh2 binding and effectively inhibit PRC2 activity. PRC2 from the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum (ct) is functionally similar to the human version in several regards and has the added advantage of producing high-resolution crystal structures, although inhibitor-bound structures of human or human/chameleon PRC2 are also available at up to 2...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903684/environment-cancer-and-inequalities-the-urgent-need-for-prevention
#19
REVIEW
Paolo Vineis, Daniela Fecht
The proportion of total deaths attributable to environmental factors is estimated to be 23% of global deaths and 22% of global disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) according to one review. These estimates encompass all environmental agents including infectious agents but excluding behavioural factors. The authors of the review also estimated that 16% (95% CI: 7-41%) of cancer deaths are attributable to environmental risk factors (and 36% [95% CI: 17-52%] for lung cancer). In this article, we focus on the reasons why epidemiology is often unable to account for the whole burden of environmental carcinogens...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903044/he4-level-in-ascites-may-assess-the-ovarian-cancer-chemotherapeutic-effect
#20
Duanyang Liu, Dan Kong, Jing Li, Lei Gao, Di Wu, Yu Liu, Weiwei Yang, Lei Zhang, Jiang Zhu, Xiaoming Jin
BACKGROUND: The clinical treatment of ovarian cancer with ascites is problematic. The main reasons for treatment failure are the susceptibility to intraperitoneal metastasis and chemotherapeutic drug resistance. The purpose and significance of this study is to evaluate which marker might evaluate treatment efficacy and improve the cure rate. RESULTS: This study compared a no chemotherapy group with a chemotherapy group regarding the determination of carbohydrate antigen 125 and human epididymis protein 4 in ovarian cancer ascitic supernatants and cross-analyzed routine serum carbohydrate antigen 125 levels...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
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