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Lung pneumatocele in infants

Jogender Kumar, Kanya Mukhopadhyay, Anmol Bhatia
Pneumatoceles are thin-walled, air-filled cystic lesions developing within the lung parenchyma. It used to be a relatively common entity in the presurfactant era when preterm babies were ventilated at an unacceptably high positive pressure for respiratory distress syndrome. Pneumatocele formation is a very rare complication of pneumonia in neonates. We here report a case of extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) neonate who developed large bilateral pneumatoceles after staphylococcal pneumonia. Hereby, we present a case of an ELBW infant with bilateral massive pneumatoceles who underwent successful percutaneous catheter drainage to decompress these pneumatoceles...
January 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Mohammed Al-Ghafri, Said Al-Hanshi, Suad Al-Ismaily
Pulmonary pneumatocele is a thin-walled, gas-filled space within the lung that usually occurs in association with bacterial pneumonia and is usually transient. The majority of pneumatoceles resolve spontaneously without active intervention, but in some cases they might lead to pneumothorax with subsequent hemodynamic instability. We report two cases presented to the pediatric intensive care unit at the Royal Hospital, Oman with pneumatoceles. The first was a 14-day-old baby who underwent surgical repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support following surgery...
July 2015: Oman Medical Journal
Zarmina Ehsan, Jaimie D Nathan, Carolyn M Kercsmar
INTRODUCTION: We report an unusual finding of pneumatocele in an infant. CASE REPORT: A previously well four month old presented with worsening respiratory distress over 6 weeks. He had no antecedent signs or symptoms of respiratory infection. Chest radiograph demonstrated a lucent hemithorax concerning for tension pneumothorax. Urgent needle decompression was performed. Chest CT showed a persistent dominant macrocyst on the left. Thoracotomy revealed a large cystic lesion necessitating a left lower lobectomy...
December 2015: Pediatric Pulmonology
Tugba Sismanlar, Ayse Tana Aslan, Matthias Griese
Chronic interstitial lung diseases are rare in childhood and can present with a wide spectrum of histological abnormalities and radiological-clinical phenotypes. A 17-month-old female infant with malnutrition, recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, and failure to thrive since 3 months of age was diagnosed as surfactant protein C deficiency. Diffuse, giant, and life-threatening pneumatoceles developed during the course. They were treated with empiric drug treatment and oxygen support, and resolved rapidly...
July 2015: Pediatric Pulmonology
Greg D Sacks, Katherine Chung, Kevin Jamil, Meena Garg, James C Y Dunn, Daniel A DeUgarte
Acquired neonatal lung lesions including pneumatoceles, cystic bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and pulmonary interstitial emphysema can cause extrinsic mediastinal compression, which may impair pulmonary and cardiac function. Acquired lung lesions are typically managed medically. Here we report a case series of three extremely premature infants with acquired lung lesions. All three patients underwent aggressive medical management and ultimately required tube thoracostomies. These interventions were unsuccessful and emergency thoracotomies were performed in each case...
May 2014: Pediatric Surgery International
Shailesh M Prabhu, Subhasis Roy Choudhury, Ravi S Solanki, Gurucharan S Shetty, Surenderkumar Agarwala
BACKGROUND: Chest tube insertion in congenital cystic lung lesions is an important problem in children with acute respiratory distress having a cystic lucent lesion on chest radiograph. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the imaging findings and complications in cases of congenital cystic lung lesions with chest tube insertion and suggest the role of appropriate imaging for management of these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chest radiographs and CT scans of children with congenital cystic lung lesions who had inadvertent chest tube insertion preoperatively were retrospectively reviewed for imaging appearances and complications...
January 2013: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
A Dzian, I Fúčela, J Hamžík, Z Huťka, P Stiegler
Lung pneumatoceles are characterized by a thin-walled air-filled cavity present in lung parenchyma. Mostly they are the result of acute bronchopneumonia after spontaneous drainage of altered lung parenchyma with subsequent development and progression of cavities due to ventile mechanism. This disease is more prevalent in infants and young children, it is rather rare in adults. In the present case report, videothoracoscopy resection of lung pneumatocele of the right lower lobe was performed a 43-years old man...
December 2012: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
Shu-Wing Ku, Tak-Ching Yu, Kam-Wai Chan
Pneumatoceles can develop as a complication of pneumonia. Air accumulation inside pneumatoceles can produce a pressure effect on surrounding structures. A 15-month-old girl who developed multiple tension pneumatoceles secondary to infection caused by pneumococcus is reported. The patient experienced severe cardiorespiratory compromise that was unresponsive to conservative treatment with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. The condition was successfully treated with computed tomography-guided percutaneous catheter placement using a pigtail catheter for decompression...
November 2011: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
S Said, K Salhab, S Muehlstedt, D Wahoff
Paramediastinal air cysts and pneumatoceles are known complications of chest trauma and mechanical ventilation. After an initial period of enlargement, these lesions tend to resolve completely with conservative management. We present a case of a premature newborn who developed an enlarging paramediastinal air cyst as a result of resuscitation around the time of delivery that ultimately required surgical excision via a right thoracotomy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in a neonate.
April 2012: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Biserka Cicak, Eva Verona, Iva Mihatov-Stefanović
Community-acquired bacterial pneumonias generally have a good prognosis, given a good response to the antibiotic treatment applied, and complications such as pleural effusion, empyema, abscess and necrotizing pneumonia with pneumatocele formation (cavitary necrosis) are rare. Although cavitary necrosis is manifested as a severe disease, most children show complete recovery even without surgical treatment and have normal chest radiographs at long term. A case is presented of an immunocompetent infant that developed necrotizing pneumonia with pneumatocele formation during treatment of bacterial pneumonia...
September 2010: Acta Clinica Croatica
Fernando Luiz Westphal, Luís Carlos de Lima, José Corrêa Lima Netto, Eugênio Tavares, Edson de Oliveira Andrade, Márcia dos Santos da Silva
OBJECTIVE: To describe the results of the surgical treatment of children with necrotizing pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the medical charts of 20 children diagnosed with necrotizing pneumonia and submitted to surgical treatment between March of 1997 and September of 2008 in the thoracic surgery departments of two hospitals in the city of Manaus, Brazil. We compiled data regarding age, gender, etiologic agent, indications for surgery, type of surgical resection performed, and postoperative complications...
November 2010: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Leon J Joseph, Ruben Bromiker, Ori Toker, Michael S Schimmel, Shmuel Goldberg, Elie Picard
Air leak syndrome represents a common set of complications of ventilated premature neonates and includes pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pulmonary interstitial emphysema, and pneumatocele. Unilateral intubation is an infrequently utilized treatment option. We report our experience of three cases of air leak syndrome in neonates, each treated with unilateral intubation, including two cases of recalcitrant pneumothorax. A review of the literature of similar neonatal cases is presented. In view of our experience and the review of the literature, we suggest that unilateral intubation is an efficient and relatively safe therapy in cases of neonatal air leak syndrome...
February 2011: American Journal of Perinatology
Nishith Kumar Jetley, Abdullah A Al-Hayani, Raja Mustafa Thiga
We describe the case of a child suffering from congenital cyanotic heart disease - double outlet right ventricle (DORV) with transposition of great vessels (TOGV). She underwent a left Blalock-Tausig (BT) shunt at one month of age followed by a Glen procedure with left pulmonary artery augmentation at six months. Following the second procedure she developed extensive cyst formation in the upper lobe of the left lung and pneumothorax. She was managed by intercostal drainage of the pneumothorax. The cysts were observed and on a CT scan X-rays taken at one month and six months no cysts were seen...
November 2009: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Liao Wan-Hsiu, Lin Sheng-Hsiang, Wu Tsu-Tuan
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary pneumatoceles are thin-walled, air-filled cysts that develop within the lung. Most often, they occur as a sequela to acute pneumonia, commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, and are found more frequently in infants and young children. Adult tuberculous pulmonary pneumatoceles are seldom reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We reported a case of pulmonary tuberculosis with pneumatocele formation after antituberculous treatment. A 41-year-old man presented with fever and productive cough for 3 weeks...
2009: Cases Journal
N Hussain, T Noce, P Sharma, B Jagjivan, P Hegde, M Pappagallo, A Bhandari
OBJECTIVE: Pneumatoceles are gas-filled cysts within the lung parenchyma resulting mostly from ventilator-induced lung injury and air-leak in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome. The use of surfactant in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome has resulted in a decrease in the incidence of air-leak disease. Our aim was to study the incidence and clinical course of pneumatoceles in the surfactant era. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of infants born at < or =30 weeks gestational age was admitted to the University of Connecticut Health Center NICU from 1998 to 2007...
May 2010: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Wen-I Lee, Jing-Long Huang, Tzou-Yien Lin, Chuen Hsueh, Alex M Wong, Meng-Ying Hsieh, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Tang-Her Jaing
BACKGROUND: IL-12/23-interferon-gamma circuit enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis in macrophage to attack intracellular pathogens such as mycobacteria and salmonella. Defective ROS in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have increased susceptibility to these pathogens. However, patients with defective IL-12/23-interferon-gamma circuit rather than CGD are not recognized in Taiwan, endemic for tuberculosis and salmonella. AIM: The purpose of this study was to identify Taiwanese patients with defective IL-12/23-IFN-gamma circuit...
March 2009: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Thomas F Molnar, Andras Farkas, Jozsef Stankovics, Ors Peter Horvath
Lung resection for benign diseases in infants is an extremely difficult thoracic surgical decision. Paediatric patients with drainage resistant pneumothorax and/or pneumatocele due to destroyed lung pose an even more challenging task. We describe a parenchyma sparing method using a sealant-haemostatic complex foam (Tachosyl) developed originally for application in liver and kidney surgery. Both small patients with secondary pneumothorax were operated on successfully.
September 2008: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
A M Müller, E Mayer, R Schumacher, K M Müller, W Kamin
BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis of infantile pulmonary cysts comprises congenital cystic lesions (including foregut cysts) and pneumatoceles (i.e., pulmonary cysts of acquired, inflammatory or traumatic origin). CASE: We report the resection of a subpleural air-filled lung cyst of 4 cm in a former preterm (33rd week of pregnancy) at the age of 8 months that was first diagnosed 7 days postnatally by chest X-ray. Pneumatocele was diagnosed pathomorphologically...
July 2008: Der Pathologe
Carl-Christian Jackson, Marcos Bettolli, Claudio De Carli, Steven Rubin, Brian Sweeney
Traumatic pneumatoceles appear rarely after pulmonary parenchymal or bronchial disruption. Treatment is usually expectant with intervention reserved for complications, such as infection, expansion, or cardiopulmonary deterioration. A 17-day-old female was transferred to our NICU with a left-sided pneumatocele resulting from an intraparenchymal chest tube insertion. She was born at 30 weeks gestation and required a chest tube insertion for severe hydrops fetalis with respiratory failure and associated chylothoraces...
February 2008: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Nevin K Chinnan, Ashraf Im Shabaan, Muhammad Saeed, Wael A Samman
We discuss a case of severe pneumonia with pneumatoceles in a 2-month old infant. Despite peak and plateau airway pressures kept below 30 and 25 cmH(2)O, respectively, the infant developed bilateral pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum caused by pneumatocele rupture, necessitating bilateral intercostal drainage. Application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 10 cmH(2)O at FIO(2) of 0.7 worsened oxygenation, and transthoracic echocardiography showed right-to-left shunting of blood through the patent foramen ovale...
September 2006: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
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