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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161743/pharmacological-foundations-of-cannabis-chemovars
#1
Mark A Lewis, Ethan B Russo, Kevin M Smith
An advanced Mendelian Cannabis breeding program has been developed utilizing chemical markers to maximize the yield of phytocannabinoids and terpenoids with the aim to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. Cannabis is often divided into several categories based on cannabinoid content. Type I, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-predominant, is the prevalent offering in both medical and recreational marketplaces. In recent years, the therapeutic benefits of cannabidiol have been better recognized, leading to the promotion of additional chemovars: Type II, Cannabis that contains both Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and cannabidiol-predominant Type III Cannabis...
November 21, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161611/the-application-of-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry-to-metabolomics
#2
REVIEW
Xing Zhang, Kevin Quinn, Charmion Cruickshank-Quinn, Richard Reisdorph, Nichole Reisdorph
Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics is being increasingly utilized in various research fields including investigating human diseases, nutrition, industrial applications, and plant/natural products studies. Although new analytical approaches have enhanced the performance of metabolomic analyses, significant challenges associated with throughput, metabolome coverage, and compound identification still exist. Ion mobility mass spectrometry offers great potential for improving throughput and depth of coverage in metabolomics experiments...
November 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161603/-37-cl-compound-specific-isotope-analysis-and-assessment-of-functional-genes-for-monitoring-monochlorobenzene-mcb-biodegradation-under-aerobic-conditions
#3
Massimo Marchesi, Luca Alberti, Orfan Shouakar-Stash, Ilaria Pietrini, Francesca de Ferra, Giovanna Carpani, Ramon Aravena, Andrea Franzetti, Tatiana Stella
A laboratory approach was adopted in this study to explore the potential of (37)Cl-CSIA in combination with (13)C-CSIA and Biological Molecular Tools (BMTs) to estimate the occurrence of monochloroenzene (MCB) aerobic biodegradation. A new analytical method for (37)Cl-CSIA of MCB was developed in this study. This methodology using a GC-IRMS allowed to determine δ(37)Cl values within an internal error of ±0.3‰. Samples from a heavily MCB contaminated site were collected and MCB aerobic biodegradation microcosms with indigenous cultures in natural and enhanced conditions were set up...
November 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161511/a-customizable-flow-injection-system-for-automated-high-throughput-and-time-sensitive-ion-mobility-spectrometry-and-mass-spectrometry-measurements
#4
Daniel J Orton, Malak M Tfaily, Ronald J Moore, Brian L LaMarche, Xueyun Zheng, Thomas L Fillmore, Rosalie K Chu, Karl K Weitz, Matthew E Monroe, Ryan T Kelly, Richard D Smith, Erin Shammel Baker
To better understand disease conditions and environmental perturbations, multi-omic studies combining proteomic, lipidomic, and metabolomic analyses are vastly increasing in popularity. In a multi-omic study, a single sample is typically extracted in multiple ways and various analyses are performed using different instruments. Thus, one sample becomes many measurements, making high throughput and reproducible evaluations a necessity. One way to address the numerous samples and varying instrumental conditions is to utilize a flow injection analysis (FIA) system for rapid sample injection...
November 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161378/health-behaviours-as-a-predictor-of-quitting-hazardous-alcohol-use-in-the-stockholm-public-health-cohort
#5
Eleonor Säfsten, Yvonne Forsell, Mats Ramstedt, Maria R Galanti
Background: Adopting healthy behaviours may facilitate the transition from hazardous to non-hazardous use of alcohol, yet, longitudinal studies of health behaviours in relation to the cessation of hazardous alcohol use are rare. We addressed this question using data from a large population-based cohort of adults in Sweden (Stockholm Public Health Cohort). Methods: Participants from two sub-cohorts (inception in 2002 and 2010), with follow-up until the year 2014 were included...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161328/use-of-quantiferon%C3%A2-tb-gold-in-tube-culture-supernatants-for-measurement-of-antibody-responses
#6
Simon G Kimuda, Irene Andia-Biraro, Moses Egesa, Bernard S Bagaya, John G Raynes, Jonathan Levin, Alison M Elliott, Stephen Cose
QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-tube (QFT-GIT) supernatants may be important samples for use in assessment of anti-tuberculosis (TB) antibodies when only limited volumes of blood can be collected and when a combination of antibody and cytokine measurements are required. These analytes, when used together, may also have the potential to differentiate active pulmonary TB (APTB) from latent TB infection (LTBI). However, few studies have explored the use of QFT-GIT supernatants for investigations of antibody responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161306/comparison-of-methods-for-determining-the-effectiveness-of-antibacterial-functionalized-textiles
#7
Hajo Haase, Lisa Jordan, Laura Keitel, Claudia Keil, Boris Mahltig
Antimicrobial functionalization of textiles is important for various applications, such as protection of textile materials from decomposition, generation of more effective wound dressings, and the prevention of infections or malodors resulting from bacterial growth. In order to test the efficacy of new products, their antibacterial activity needs to be evaluated. At present, several different procedures are being used for this purpose, hindering comparisons among different studies. The present paper compares five of these assays using a sample panel of different textiles functionalized with copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) as antibacterial agents, and discusses the suitability of these methods for different analytical requirements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161291/declust-a-statistical-approach-for-obtaining-differential-expression-profiles-of-multiple-conditions
#8
Yoshimasa Aoto, Tsuyoshi Hachiya, Kazuhiro Okumura, Sumitaka Hase, Kengo Sato, Yuichi Wakabayashi, Yasubumi Sakakibara
High-throughput RNA sequencing technology is widely used to comprehensively detect and quantify cellular gene expression. Thus, numerous analytical methods have been proposed for identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between paired samples such as tumor and control specimens, but few studies have reported methods for analyzing differential expression under multiple conditions. We propose a novel method, DEclust, for differential expression analysis among more than two matched samples from distinct tissues or conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161021/recent-advances-in-solid-nano-pores-channel-analysis
#9
Zi Long, Shenshan Zhan, Pengcheng Gao, Yongqian Wang, Xiaoding Lou, Fan Xia
Inspired by the natural phenomenon that various types of transmembrane pores and ion channels in the range of 1-100 nm are found in each biological cell, playing crucial roles in various significant physiological activities such as maintaining cell osmotic balance and stabilizing cell volume, different biomimetic nanodevices (nano-pore/channel) with various characteristics have emerged as an attractive and powerful platform, and have been used for a wide range of applications. As the key components of any nano-pore/channel-based applications, the nano-pore/channel can be broadly sorted into two types, biological and solid state...
November 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161018/self-powered-biosensors
#10
Matteo Grattieri, Shelley D Minteer
Self-powered electrochemical biosensors utilize biofuel cells as a simultaneous power source and biosensor, which simplifies the biosensor system, because it no longer requires a potentiostat, power for the potentiostat, and/or power for the signaling device. This Review article is focused on detailing the advances in the field of self-powered biosensors and discussing their advantages and limitations compared to other types of electrochemical biosensors. The review will discuss self-powered biosensors formed from enzymatic biofuel cells, organelle-based biofuel cells, and microbial fuel cells...
November 21, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160901/dietary-advanced-glycation-end-products-have-sex-and-age-dependent-effects-on-vertebral-bone-microstructure-and-mechanical-function-in-mice
#11
Svenja Illien-Jünger, Paolo Palacio-Mancheno, William F Kindschuh, Xue Chen, Grazyna E Sroga, Deepak Vashishth, James C Iatridis
Back pain is a leading cause of global disability that can arise from vertebral fracture and osteoporosis. While poor general health and obesity are among the strongest risk factors for back pain, there is remarkably little known about how diet influences spinal diseases. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are implicated in increased fracture risk, yet no studies investigated how dietary AGEs affect spinal health. We tested the hypothesis that high dietary AGE ingestion will diminish vertebral structure and function in a sex- and age-dependent manner...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160880/low-temperature-growth-of-gallium-oxide-thin-films-via-plasma-enhanced-atomic-layer-deposition
#12
Richard O'Donoghue, Julian Rechmann, Morteza Aghaee, Detlef Rogalla, Hans-Werner Becker, Mariadriana Creatore, Andreas Dirk Wieck, Anjana Devi
Herein we describe an efficient low temperature (60-160 °C) plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process for gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films using hexakis(dimethylamido)digallium [Ga(NMe2)3]2 with oxygen (O2) plasma on Si(100). The use of O2 plasma was found to have a significant improvement on the growth rate and deposition temperature when compared to former Ga2O3 processes. The process yielded the second highest growth rates (1.5 Å per cycle) in terms of Ga2O3 ALD and the lowest temperature to date for the ALD growth of Ga2O3 and typical ALD characteristics were determined...
November 21, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160870/engineering-high-performance-hairpin-stacking-circuits-for-logic-gate-operation-and-highly-sensitive-biosensing-assay-of-microrna
#13
Yueli Xing, Xinmin Li, Taixian Yuan, Wei Cheng, Dandan Li, Tianxiao Yu, Xiaojuan Ding, Shijia Ding
Recently, hairpin stacking circuits (HSC) based on toehold-mediated strand displacement have been engineered to detect nucleic acids and proteins. However, the three metastable hairpins in a HSC system can potentially react non-specifically in the absence of a catalyst, limiting its practical application. Here, we developed a unique hairpin design guideline to eliminate circuit leakage of HSC, and the high-performance HSC was successfully implemented on logic gate building and biosensing. We began by analyzing the sources of circuit leakage and optimizing the toehold lengths of hairpins in the HSC system based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique...
November 21, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160867/protocols-and-characterization-data-for-2d-3d-and-slice-based-tumor-models-from-the-predect-project
#14
Ronald de Hoogt, Marta F Estrada, Suzana Vidic, Emma J Davies, Annika Osswald, Michael Barbier, Vítor E Santo, Kjersti Gjerde, Hanneke J A A van Zoggel, Sami Blom, Meng Dong, Katja Närhi, Erwin Boghaert, Catarina Brito, Yolanda Chong, Wolfgang Sommergruber, Heiko van der Kuip, Wytske M van Weerden, Emmy W Verschuren, John Hickman, Ralph Graeser
Two-dimensional (2D) culture of cancer cells in vitro does not recapitulate the three-dimensional (3D) architecture, heterogeneity and complexity of human tumors. More representative models are required that better reflect key aspects of tumor biology. These are essential studies of cancer biology and immunology as well as for target validation and drug discovery. The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) consortium PREDECT (www.predect.eu) characterized in vitro models of three solid tumor types with the goal to capture elements of tumor complexity and heterogeneity...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160851/development-of-an-impedimetric-aptasensor-for-the-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Peggy Reich, Regina Stoltenburg, Beate Strehlitz, Dieter Frense, Dieter Beckmann
In combination with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, aptamer-based biosensors are a powerful tool for fast analytical devices. Herein, we present an impedimetric aptasensor for the detection of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The used aptamer targets protein A, a surface bound virulence factor of S. aureus. The thiol-modified protein A-binding aptamer was co-immobilized with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol onto gold electrodes by self-assembly. Optimization of the ratio of aptamer to 6-mercapto-1-hexanol resulted in an average density of 1...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160831/a-novel-detection-method-of-human-serum-albumin-based-on-the-poly-thymine-templated-copper-nanoparticles
#16
Mingjian Chen, Xinying Xiang, Kefeng Wu, Hailun He, Hanchun Chen, Changbei Ma
In this work, we developed a facile fluorescence method for quantitative detection of human serum albumin (HSA) based on the inhibition of poly(thymine) (poly T)-templated copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in the presence of HSA. Under normal circumstances, poly T-templated CuNPs can display strong fluorescence with excitation/emission peaks at 340/610 nm. However, in the presence of HSA, it will absorb cupric ion, which will prevent the formation of CuNPs. As a result, the fluorescence intensity will become obviously lower in the presence of HSA...
November 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160759/sensitivity-enhancement-of-aminoglycosides-in-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry-by-post-column-addition-of-trace-sodium-acetate-in-methanol
#17
Daichi Asakawa, Masako Uemura, Takanori Sakiyama, Testuo Yamano
The development of a sensitive and accurate analytical method for monitoring aminoglycosides in food, environmental, and clinical samples is needed for many purposes. This study found that the responses of sodiated and protonated aminoglycosides in hydrophilic interaction chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry were enhanced upon addition of sodium acetate in methanol (5 mg L(-1) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL min(-1)) as a post-column reagent. The sensitivities of sodiated spectinomycin, kanamycin, gentamicins, neomycin, and amikacin were significantly higher than those of the protonated molecules...
November 21, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160617/exploring-the-enantiorecognition-mechanism-of-cinchona-alkaloid-based-zwitterionic-chiral-stationary-phases-and-the-basic-trans-paroxetine-enantiomers
#18
Roccaldo Sardella, Antonio Macchiarulo, Fabrizio Urbinati, Federica Ianni, Andrea Carotti, Michal Kohout, Wolfgang Lindner, Antal Péter, István Ilisz
The enantiomers of trans-paroxetine (the selectand) were separated on four chiral stationary phases incorporating either quinine [ZWIX(+), ZWIX(+A)] or quinidine [ZWIX(-), ZWIX(-A)] and (R,R)-aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid [in ZWIX(-), and ZWIX(+A)] or (S,S)- aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid [in ZWIX(+), and ZWIX(-A)] chiral selectors. The zwitterion nature of the phases is due to the presence of either (R,R)- or (S,S)-aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid in the selector structure bearing the quinuclidine moiety. ZWIX(+), ZWIX(-) phases are available on the market with the commercial names CHIRALPAK ZWIX(+) and CHIRALPAK ZWIX(-), respectively...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160568/nerve-detection-using-optical-spectroscopy-an-evaluation-in-four-different-models-in-human-and-swine-in-vivo-and-post-mortem
#19
Gerrit C Langhout, Torre M Bydlon, Marjolein van der Voort, Manfred Müller, Jeroen Kortsmit, Gerald Lucassen, Andrea J R Balthasar, Geert-Jan van Geffen, Thorsten Steinfeldt, Henricus J C M Sterenborg, Benno H W Hendriks, Theo J M Ruers
OBJECTIVE: Identification of peripheral nerve tissue is crucial in both surgery and regional anesthesia. Recently, optical tissue identification methods are presented to facilitate nerve identification in transcutaneous procedures and surgery. Optimization and validation of such techniques require large datasets. The use of alternative models to human in vivo, like human post mortem, or swine may be suitable to test, optimize and validate new optical techniques. However, differences in tissue characteristics and thus optical properties, like oxygen saturation and tissue perfusion are to be expected...
November 21, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160558/simpson-s-paradox-in-the-integrated-discrimination-improvement
#20
J Chipman, D Braun
The integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) is commonly used to compare two risk prediction models; it summarizes the extent a new model increases risk in events and decreases risk in non-events. The IDI averages risks across events and non-events and is therefore susceptible to Simpson's paradox. In some settings, adding a predictive covariate to a well calibrated model results in an overall negative (positive) IDI. However, if stratified by that same covariate, the strata-specific IDIs are positive (negative)...
December 10, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
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