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stretchable electronics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335296/controlled-mechanical-cracking-of-metal-films-deposited-on-polydimethylsiloxane-pdms
#1
Andreas Polywka, Luca Stegers, Oliver Krauledat, Thomas Riedl, Timo Jakob, Patrick Görrn
Stretchable large area electronics conform to arbitrarily-shaped 3D surfaces and enables comfortable contact to the human skin and other biological tissue. There are approaches allowing for large area thin films to be stretched by tens of percent without cracking. The approach presented here does not prevent cracking, rather it aims to precisely control the crack positions and their orientation. For this purpose, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is hardened by exposure to ultraviolet radiation (172 nm) through an exposure mask...
September 9, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306203/highly-stretchable-superhydrophobic-composite-coating-based-on-self-adaptive-deformation-of-hierarchical-structures
#2
Xin Hu, Changyu Tang, Zhoukun He, Hong Shao, Keqin Xu, Jun Mei, Woon-Ming Lau
With the rapid development of stretchable electronics, functional textiles, and flexible sensors, water-proof protection materials are required to be built on various highly flexible substrates. However, maintaining the antiwetting of superhydrophobic surface under stretching is still a big challenge since the hierarchical structures at hybridized micro-nanoscales are easily damaged following large deformation of the substrates. This study reports a highly stretchable and mechanically stable superhydrophobic surface prepared by a facile spray coating of carbon black/polybutadiene elastomeric composite on a rubber substrate followed by thermal curing...
March 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268297/hydrogel-reinforced-polypyrrole-electroactuator
#3
Yongchen Wang, Bingxi Yan, Yu Wu, Liang Guo
Robust electroactuators that are lightweight, power-efficient and capable of generating high forces at a low actuation voltage are of great demand in the design of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) for biomedical applications. In this work, electroactive composite films of alginate hydrogel and polypyrrole/polyethylene glycol (PPy/PEG) are synthesized and characterized as actuators for driving an implantable insulin micropump. A porous and flexible alginate hydrogel back layer is used to mechanically reinforce the PPy/PEG film by enhancing the actuator's resistance to its generated tension but without increase of its overall rigidness...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252937/highly-flexible-and-self-healable-thermal-interface-material-based-on-boron-nitride-nanosheets-and-a-dual-cross-linked-hydrogel
#4
Hongbo Jiang, Zifeng Wang, Huiyuan Geng, Xiufeng Song, Haibo Zeng, Chunyi Zhi
The booming growth of flexible and stretchable electronic devices with increasing power and multifunctionalities calls for novel highly efficient thermal interface materials (TIMs) with versatile functions, such as high deformability and self-healing ability, whereas traditional metallic-based or grease-based ones could hardly provide. Herein, we report a highly flexible and self-healable dual-cross-linked hydrogel-based nanocomposite filled with hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets fabricated by in situ polymerization of acrylic acid (AA)...
March 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252138/stretchable-electronic-skin-based-on-silver-nanowire-composite-fiber-electrodes-for-sensing-pressure-proximity-and-multidirectional-strain
#5
Yin Cheng, Ranran Wang, Haitao Zhai, Jing Sun
Electronic skin (E-skin) has been attracting great research interest and effort due to its potential applications in wearable health monitoring, smart prosthetics, robot skins and so on. To expand its applications, two key challenges lie in the realization of device stretchability, and independent sensing of pressure and multidirectional lateral strain. Here we made a combination of rational device structure and artfully engineered sensing materials to fulfill the mentioned demands. The as-prepared E-skin took a simple orthogonal configuration to enable both capacitive mode for pressure sensing and resistive mode for multidirectional strain sensing, independently...
March 2, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247998/all-printed-flexible-and-stretchable-electronics
#6
Mohammed G Mohammed, Rebecca Kramer
A fully automated additive manufacturing process that produces all-printed flexible and stretchable electronics is demonstrated. The printing process combines soft silicone elastomer printing and liquid metal processing on a single high-precision 3D stage. The platform is capable of fabricating extremely complex conductive circuits, strain and pressure sensors, stretchable wires, and wearable circuits with high yield and repeatability.
March 1, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244157/from-flatland-to-spaceland-higher-dimensional-patterning-with-two-dimensional-materials
#7
REVIEW
Po-Yen Chen, Muchun Liu, Zhongying Wang, Robert H Hurt, Ian Y Wong
The creation of three-dimensional (3D) structures from two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial building blocks enables novel chemical, mechanical or physical functionalities that cannot be realized with planar thin films or in bulk materials. Here, we review the use of emerging 2D materials to create complex out-of-plane surface topographies and 3D material architectures. We focus on recent approaches that yield periodic textures or patterns, and present four techniques as case studies: (i) wrinkling and crumpling of planar sheets, (ii) encapsulation by crumpled nanosheet shells, (iii) origami folding and kirigami cutting to create programmed curvature, and (iv) 3D printing of 2D material suspensions...
February 28, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241158/electronic-dura-mater-meddling-in-the-central-nervous-system
#8
Jocelyne Bloch, Stéphanie P Lacour, Grégoire Courtine
Importance: A growing number of neurologic treatments rely on neural implants capable of delivering electrical and chemical stimulation to targeted regions of the central nervous system for extended periods. Objective: To assess the potential of a novel class of multimodal neural implants, termed electronic dura mater or e-dura, to fulfill this need. Evidence Review: Results from preclinical applications of e-dura implants and clinical evidence...
February 20, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230918/single-crystal-flexible-electronics-enabled-by-3d-spalling
#9
Ning Li, Stephen Bedell, Huan Hu, Shu-Jen Han, Xiao Hu Liu, Katherine Saenger, Devendra Sadana
Flexible and stretchable electronics are becoming increasingly important in many emerging applications. Due to the outstanding electrical properties of single crystal semiconductors, there is great interest in releasing single crystal thin films and fabricating flexible electronics with these conventionally rigid materials. In this study the authors report a universal single crystal layer release process, called "3D spalling," extending beyond prior art. In contrast to the conventional way of removing blanket layers from their substrates, the new process reported here enables 3D control over the shape and thickness of the removed regions, allowing direct formation of arbitrarily shaped structures of released film and locally specified thickness for each region...
February 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226456/hydrogel-reinforced-polypyrrole-electroactuator
#10
Yongchen Wang, Bingxi Yan, Yu Wu, Liang Guo, Yongchen Wang, Bingxi Yan, Yu Wu, Liang Guo, Yongchen Wang, Liang Guo, Bingxi Yan, Yu Wu
Robust electroactuators that are lightweight, power-efficient and capable of generating high forces at a low actuation voltage are of great demand in the design of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) for biomedical applications. In this work, electroactive composite films of alginate hydrogel and polypyrrole/polyethylene glycol (PPy/PEG) are synthesized and characterized as actuators for driving an implantable insulin micropump. A porous and flexible alginate hydrogel back layer is used to mechanically reinforce the PPy/PEG film by enhancing the actuator's resistance to its generated tension but without increase of its overall rigidness...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225135/liquid-metal-enabled-microfluidics
#11
Khashayar Khoshmanesh, Shi-Yang Tang, Jiu Yang Zhu, Samira Schaefer, Arnan Mitchell, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Michael D Dickey
Several gallium-based liquid metal alloys are liquid at room temperature. As 'liquid', such alloys have a low viscosity and a high surface tension while as 'metal', they have high thermal and electrical conductivities, similar to mercury. However, unlike mercury, these liquid metal alloys have low toxicity and a negligible vapor pressure, rendering them much safer. In comparison to mercury, the distinguishing feature of these alloys is the rapid formation of a self-limiting atomically thin layer of gallium oxide over their surface when exposed to oxygen...
March 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220705/comparison-of-methods-for-determining-the-mechanical-properties-of-semiconducting-polymer-films-for-stretchable-electronics
#12
Daniel Rodriquez, Jae-Han Kim, Samuel E Root, Zhuping Fei, Pierre Boufflet, Martin Heeney, Taek-Soo Kim, Darren J Lipomi
This paper describes a comparison of two characterization techniques for determining the mechanical properties of thin-film organic semiconductors for applications in soft electronics. In the first method, the film is supported by water (film-on-water, FOW), and a stress-strain curve is obtained using a direct tensile test. In the second method, the film is supported by an elastomer (film-on-elastomer, FOE), and is subjected to three tests to reconstruct the key features of the stress-strain curve: the buckling test (tensile modulus), the onset of buckling (yield point), and the crack-onset strain (strain at fracture)...
March 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218920/a-non-volatile-organic-electrochemical-device-as-a-low-voltage-artificial-synapse-for-neuromorphic-computing
#13
Yoeri van de Burgt, Ewout Lubberman, Elliot J Fuller, Scott T Keene, Grégorio C Faria, Sapan Agarwal, Matthew J Marinella, A Alec Talin, Alberto Salleo
The brain is capable of massively parallel information processing while consuming only ∼1-100 fJ per synaptic event. Inspired by the efficiency of the brain, CMOS-based neural architectures and memristors are being developed for pattern recognition and machine learning. However, the volatility, design complexity and high supply voltages for CMOS architectures, and the stochastic and energy-costly switching of memristors complicate the path to achieve the interconnectivity, information density, and energy efficiency of the brain using either approach...
February 20, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198812/highly-stretchable-and-shape-controllable-three-dimensional-antenna-fabricated-by-cut-transfer-release-method
#14
Zhuocheng Yan, Taisong Pan, Guang Yao, Feiyi Liao, Zhenlong Huang, Hulin Zhang, Min Gao, Yin Zhang, Yuan Lin
Recent progresses on the Kirigami-inspired method provide a new idea to assemble three-dimensional (3D) functional structures with conventional materials by releasing the prestrained elastomeric substrates. In this paper, highly stretchable serpentine-like antenna is fabricated by a simple and quick "Cut-Transfer-Release" method for assembling stretchable 3D functional structures on an elastomeric substrate with a controlled shape. The mechanical reliability of the serpentine-like 3D stretchable antenna is evaluated by the finite element method and experiments...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193902/high-thermal-conductivity-in-soft-elastomers-with-elongated-liquid-metal-inclusions
#15
Michael D Bartlett, Navid Kazem, Matthew J Powell-Palm, Xiaonan Huang, Wenhuan Sun, Jonathan A Malen, Carmel Majidi
Soft dielectric materials typically exhibit poor heat transfer properties due to the dynamics of phonon transport, which constrain thermal conductivity (k) to decrease monotonically with decreasing elastic modulus (E). This thermal-mechanical trade-off is limiting for wearable computing, soft robotics, and other emerging applications that require materials with both high thermal conductivity and low mechanical stiffness. Here, we overcome this constraint with an electrically insulating composite that exhibits an unprecedented combination of metal-like thermal conductivity, an elastic compliance similar to soft biological tissue (Young's modulus < 100 kPa), and the capability to undergo extreme deformations (>600% strain)...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192908/beyond-conventional-patterns-new-electrochemical-lithography-with-high-precision-for-patterned-film-materials-and-wearable-sensors
#16
Xiaowei Zhang, Shaojun Guo, Yanchao Han, Jing Li, Erkang Wang
We report a simple, low-cost, and brand-new electrochemical lithography technique for replicating the template pattern with high resolution at ∼2 μm. The developed method is that the electroactive material is first deposited on the patterned conductive template by the electrochemical technique and then peeled by an adhesive tape/material. The resulting film with the precise pattern shows excellent mechanical and electronic properties and promises high prospect in designing flexible electronics. This interesting approach can be performed at ambient conditions and easily generalized to pattern various electroactive materials covering metal, alloy, nonmetal, salt, oxide, and composite on different types of substrates in several seconds to a few minutes, making the mass production of flexible/rigid/stretchable patterned thin films quite possible...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169466/highly-stretchable-and-uv-curable-elastomers-for-digital-light-processing-based-3d-printing
#17
Dinesh K Patel, Amir Hosein Sakhaei, Michael Layani, Biao Zhang, Qi Ge, Shlomo Magdassi
Stretchable UV curable (SUV) elastomers can be stretched by up to 1100% and are suitable for digital light processing (DLP) based 3D printing technology. DLP printing of these SUV elastomers enables the direct creation of highly deformable complex 3D hollow structures such as balloons, soft actuators, grippers, and Bucky ball electronical switches.
February 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155936/highly-transparent-agnw-pdms-stretchable-electrodes-for-elastomeric-electrochromic-devices
#18
Huan-Shen Liu, Bo-Cheng Pan, Guey-Sheng Liou
Stretchable conductors based on silver nanowires (AgNWs) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have been studied extensively for many years. However, it is still difficult to achieve high transparency with low resistance due to the low attractive force between AgNWs and PDMS. In this paper, we report an effective method to transfer AgNWs into PDMS by using substrates which have a hydrophobic surface, and successfully prepared stretchable AgNW/PDMS electrodes having high transparency and low sheet resistance at the same time...
February 3, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155913/ag-au-polypyrrole-core-shell-nanowire-network-for-transparent-stretchable-and-flexible-supercapacitor-in-wearable-energy-devices
#19
Hyunjin Moon, Habeom Lee, Jinhyeong Kwon, Young Duk Suh, Dong Kwan Kim, Inho Ha, Junyeob Yeo, Sukjoon Hong, Seung Hwan Ko
Transparent and stretchable energy storage devices have attracted significant interest due to their potential to be applied to biocompatible and wearable electronics. Supercapacitors that use the reversible faradaic redox reaction of conducting polymer have a higher specific capacitance as compared with electrical double-layer capacitors. Typically, the conducting polymer electrode is fabricated through direct electropolymerization on the current collector. However, no research have been conducted on metal nanowires as current collectors for the direct electropolymerization, even though the metal nanowire network structure has proven to be superior as a transparent, flexible, and stretchable electrode platform because the conducting polymer's redox potential for polymerization is higher than that of widely studied metal nanowires such as silver and copper...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145623/highly-manufacturable-deep-sub-millimeter-etching-enabled-high-aspect-ratio-complex-geometry-lego-like-silicon-electronics
#20
Mohamed Tarek Ghoneim, Muhammad Mustafa Hussain
A highly manufacturable deep reactive ion etching based process involving a hybrid soft/hard mask process technology shows high aspect ratio complex geometry Lego-like silicon electronics formation enabling free-form (physically flexible, stretchable, and reconfigurable) electronic systems.
February 1, 2017: Small
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