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stretchable electronics

Kai Guo, Xianfu Wang, Lintong Hu, Tianyou Zhai, Huiqiao Li, Neng Yu
Fiber supercapacitors have attracted tremendous attention as promising power source candidates for next generation of wearable electronics, which are flexible, stretchable, and washable. Although asymmetric fiber supercapacitors with a high energy density have been achieved, their stretchability is no more than 200%, and they still face mechanical instability and unreliable waterproof structure. This work develops a highly integrated structure for waterproof, highly stretchable and asymmetric fiber-shaped supercapacitor, which is assembled by integrating a helix-shaped asymmetric fiber supercapacitor into a bifunctional polymer...
May 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gang Ge, Yichen Cai, Qiuchun Dong, Yizhou Zhang, Jinjun Shao, Wei Huang, Xiaochen Dong
High-performance stretchable and wearable electronic skins (E-skins) with high sensitivity and a large sensing range are urgently required with the rapid development of the Internet of things and artificial intelligence. Herein, a reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polyaniline wrapped sponge is prepared via rGO coating and the in situ synthesis of polyaniline nanowires (PANI NWs) on the backbones of sponge for the fabrication of pressure sensors. From the as-prepared flexible sensor, tunable sensitivity (0.042 to 0...
May 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Zhiyuan Liu, Dianpeng Qi, Wan Ru Leow, Jiancan Yu, Michele Xiloyannnis, Leonardo Cappello, Yaqing Liu, Bowen Zhu, Ying Jiang, Geng Chen, Lorenzo Masia, Bo Liedberg, Xiaodong Chen
Stretchable strain sensors, as the soft mechanical interface, provide the key mechanical information of the systems for healthcare monitoring, rehabilitation assistance, soft exoskeletal devices, and soft robotics. Stretchable strain sensors based on 2D flat film have been widely developed to monitor the in-plane force applied within the plane where the sensor is placed. However, to comprehensively obtain the mechanical feedback, the capability to detect the out-of-plane force, caused by the interaction outside of the plane where the senor is located, is needed...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
My Duyen Ho, Yiyi Liu, Dashen Dong, Yunmeng Zhao, Wenlong Cheng
Percolation networks of one-dimensional (1D) building blocks (e.g., metallic nanowires or carbon nanotubes) represent the mainstream strategy to fabricate stretchable conductors. One of the inherent limitations is the control over junction resistance between 1D building blocks in natural and strained states of conductors. Herein, we report highly stretchable transparent strain-insensitive conductors using fractal gold (F-Au) nanoframework based on a one-pot templateless wet chemistry synthesis method. The monolayered F-Au nanoframework (∼20 nm in thickness) can be obtained from the one-pot synthesis without any purification steps involved and can be transferred directly to arbitrary substrates like polyethylene terephthalate, food-wrap, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and ecoflex...
May 16, 2018: Nano Letters
Jin-Hyeon Yun, Alexander Y Polyakov, Kyu-Cheol Kim, Yeon Tae Yu, Donghyun Lee, In-Hwan Lee
We propose stretchable plasmonic templates of Au and Au/SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) to improve the luminescence of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs). These templates are highly flexible and consist of polymer-metal NP composites that facilitate the luminescence enhancement by localized surface plasmons (LSPs) due to coupling with metal NP. This template also prevents the degradation of carrier transport properties for perovskite light-emitting diodes by embedding metal NPs in polymer. The luminescence of PNC film on the template with Au NPs decreases by 21% compared to PNC films on the reference (polymer film without metal NPs), while it increases by 54% for the templates with Au/SiO2 NPs...
May 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Sun Hong Kim, Sungmook Jung, In Seon Yoon, Chihak Lee, Youngsu Oh, Jae-Min Hong
Printing technology can be used for manufacturing stretchable electrodes, which represent essential parts of wearable devices requiring relatively high degrees of stretchability and conductivity. In this work, a strategy for fabricating printable and highly stretchable conductors are proposed by transferring printed Ag ink onto stretchable substrates comprising Ecoflex elastomer and tough hydrogel layers using a water-soluble tape. The elastic modulus of the produced hybrid film is close to that of the hydrogel layer, since the thickness of Ecoflex elastomer film coated on hydrogel is very thin (30 µm)...
May 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Shuting Wang, Guoqiang Guo, Xiaoxuan Lu, Shaomin Ji, Guoxin Tan, Liang Gao
Tough and stretchable conductive hydrogels are desirable for the emerging field of wearable and implanted electronics. Unfortunately, most existing conductive hydrogels have low mechanical strength. Current strategies to enhance mechanical properties include employing tough host gel matrices or introducing specific interaction between conductive polymer and host gel matrices. However, these strategies often involve additional complicated processes. Here, a simple yet effective soaking treatment is employed to concurrently enhance mechanical and conductive properties, both of which can be facilely tailored by controlling the soaking duration...
May 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Song Zhang, Michael U Ocheje, Shaochuan Luo, Dakota Ehlenberg, Benjamin Appleby, Daniel Weller, Dongshan Zhou, Simon Rondeau-Gagné, Xiaodan Gu
The understanding of the structure-mechanical property relationship for semiconducting polymers is essential for the application of flexible organic electronics. Herein pseudo free-standing tensile testing, a technique that measures the mechanical property of thin films floating on the surface of water, is used to obtain the stress-strain behaviors of two semiconducting polymers, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(2,5-bis(2-decyltetradecyl)-3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)diketopyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione-alt-thienovinylthiophene (DPP-TVT) donor-acceptor (D-A) polymer...
May 11, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Ozgur Atalay
The electronic textile area has gained considerable attention due to its implementation of wearable devices, and soft sensors are the main components of these systems. In this paper, a new sensor design is presented to create stretchable, capacitance-based strain sensors for human motion tracking. This involves the use of stretchable, conductive-knit fabric within the silicone elastomer matrix, as interdigitated electrodes. While conductive fabric creates a secure conductive network for electrodes, a silicone-based matrix provides encapsulation and dimensional-stability to the structure...
May 10, 2018: Materials
Joseph B Andrews, Kunal Mondal, Taylor Neumann, Jorge A Cardenas, Justin Wang, Dishit P Parekh, Yiliang Lin, Peter Ballentine, Michael D Dickey, Aaron D Franklin
Flexible and stretchable electronics are poised to enable many unique applications that cannot be realized with traditional, rigid devices. One of the most promising options for low-cost stretchable transistors are printed carbon nanotubes (CNTs). However, a major limiting factor in stretchable CNT devices is the lack of a stable and versatile contact material that forms both the interconnects and contact electrodes. In this work, we introduce the use of eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn) liquid metal for electrical contacts to printed CNT channels...
May 9, 2018: ACS Nano
Zhilong Song, Zhao Huang, Jingyao Liu, Zhixiang Hu, Jianbing Zhang, Guangzu Zhang, Fei Yi, Shenglin Jiang, Jiabiao Lian, Jia Yan, Jianfeng Zang, Huan Liu
Stretchable gas sensors that accommodate the shape and motion characteristics of human body are indispensable to a wearable or attachable smart sensing system. However, these gas sensors usually have poor response and recovery kinetics when operated at room temperature, especially suffer from humidity interference and mechanical robustness issues. Here, we demonstrate the first fully stretchable gas sensors which are operated at room temperature with enhanced stability against humidity. We created a crumpled quantum dot (QD) sensing layer on elastomeric substrate with flexible graphene as electrodes...
May 8, 2018: ACS Sensors
Jun Shintake, Vito Cacucciolo, Dario Floreano, Herbert Shea
Advances in soft robotics, materials science, and stretchable electronics have enabled rapid progress in soft grippers. Here, a critical overview of soft robotic grippers is presented, covering different material sets, physical principles, and device architectures. Soft gripping can be categorized into three technologies, enabling grasping by: a) actuation, b) controlled stiffness, and c) controlled adhesion. A comprehensive review of each type is presented. Compared to rigid grippers, end-effectors fabricated from flexible and soft components can often grasp or manipulate a larger variety of objects...
May 7, 2018: Advanced Materials
Yongkuk Lee, Connor Howe, Saswat Mishra, Dong Sup Lee, Musa Mahmood, Matthew Piper, Youngbin Kim, Katie Tieu, Hun-Soo Byun, James P Coffey, Mahdis Shayan, Youngjae Chun, Richard M Costanzo, Woon-Hong Yeo
Recent wearable devices offer portable monitoring of biopotentials, heart rate, or physical activity, allowing for active management of human health and wellness. Such systems can be inserted in the oral cavity for measuring food intake in regard to controlling eating behavior, directly related to diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, existing devices using plastic circuit boards and rigid sensors are not ideal for oral insertion. A user-comfortable system for the oral cavity requires an ultrathin, low-profile, and soft electronic platform along with miniaturized sensors...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Younghoon Lee, Seung Hee Cha, Yong-Woo Kim, Dukhyun Choi, Jeong-Yun Sun
Human-machine interfaces have benefited from the advent of wireless sensor networks and the internet of things, but rely on wearable/attachable electronics exhibiting stretchability, biocompatibility, and transmittance. Limited by weight and volume, wearable devices should be energy efficient and even self-powered. Here, we report practical approaches for obtaining a stably self-cleanable, transparent and attachable ionic communicator based on triboelectric nanogenerators. The communicator can be easily applied on human skin due to softness and chemically anchored robust layers...
May 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Yuhki Toku, Keita Uchida, Yasuyuki Morita, Yang Ju
The market for wearable devices has increased considerably in recent years. According to this demand, flexible electronic circuit technology has become more important. The conventional bonding technology in electronic assembly depends on high-temperature processes such as reflow soldering, which result in undesired thermal damages and residual stress at a bonding interface. In addition, it exhibits poor compatibility with bendable or stretchable device applications. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement to attach electronic parts on printed circuit boards with good mechanical and electrical properties at room temperature...
May 4, 2018: Nanotechnology
Siwei Zhao, Peter Tseng, Jonathan Grasman, Yu Wang, Wenyi Li, Bradley Napier, Burcin Yavuz, Ying Chen, Laurel Howell, Javier Rincon, Fiorenzo G Omenetto, David L Kaplan
The increased need for wearable and implantable medical devices has driven the demand for electronics that interface with living systems. Current bioelectronic systems have not fully resolved mismatches between engineered circuits and biological systems, including the resulting pain and damage to biological tissues. Here, salt/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) aqueous two-phase systems are utilized to generate programmable hydrogel ionic circuits. High-conductivity salt-solution patterns are stably encapsulated within PEG hydrogel matrices using salt/PEG phase separation, which route ionic current with high resolution and enable localized delivery of electrical stimulation...
May 2, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ji-Hye Kim, Sungjun Kim, Ju-Hee So, Kyobum Kim, Hyung-Jun Koo
Eutectic gallium-indium alloy (EGaIn) liquid metal is highly conductive, moldable, and extremely deformable and has attracted significant attention for many applications, ranging from stretchable electronics to drug delivery. Even though EGaIn liquid metal is generally known to have low toxicity, the toxicity of the metal, rather than a salt form of Ga or In, has not been systematically studied yet. In this paper, we investigate the time-dependent concentration of the ions released from EGaIn liquid metal in an aqueous environment and their cytotoxicity to human cells...
May 1, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Linda M Guiney, Nikhita D Mansukhani, Adam E Jakus, Shay G Wallace, Ramille N Shah, Mark C Hersam
Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a thermally conductive yet electrically insulating two-dimensional layered nanomaterial that has attracted significant attention as a dielectric for high-performance electronics in addition to playing a central role in thermal management applications. Here, we report a high-content hBN-polymer nanocomposite ink, which can be 3D printed to form mechanically robust, self-supporting constructs. In particular, hBN is dispersed in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and 3D printed at room temperature through an extrusion process to form complex architectures...
April 30, 2018: Nano Letters
Anneng Yang, Yuanzhe Li, Chenxiao Yang, Ying Fu, Naixiang Wang, Li Li, Feng Yan
Flexible fabric biosensors can find promising applications in wearable electronics. However, high-performance fabric biosensors have been rarely reported due to many special requirements in device fabrication. Here, the preparation of organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) on Nylon fibers is reported. By introducing metal/conductive polymer multilayer electrodes on the fibers, the OECTs show very stable performance during bending tests. The devices with functionalized gates are successfully used as various biosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity...
April 30, 2018: Advanced Materials
Sihong Wang, Jin Young Oh, Jie Xu, Helen Tran, Zhenan Bao
Future electronics will take on more important roles in people's lives. They need to allow more intimate contact with human beings to enable advanced health monitoring, disease detection, medical therapies, and human-machine interfacing. However, current electronics are rigid, nondegradable and cannot self-repair, while the human body is soft, dynamic, stretchable, biodegradable, and self-healing. Therefore, it is critical to develop a new class of electronic materials that incorporate skinlike properties, including stretchability for conformable integration, minimal discomfort and suppressed invasive reactions; self-healing for long-term durability under harsh mechanical conditions; and biodegradability for reducing environmental impact and obviating the need for secondary device removal for medical implants...
April 25, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
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