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stretchable electronics

Jie Xu, Sihong Wang, Ging-Ji Nathan Wang, Chenxin Zhu, Shaochuan Luo, Lihua Jin, Xiaodan Gu, Shucheng Chen, Vivian R Feig, John W F To, Simon Rondeau-Gagné, Joonsuk Park, Bob C Schroeder, Chien Lu, Jin Young Oh, Yanming Wang, Yun-Hi Kim, He Yan, Robert Sinclair, Dongshan Zhou, Gi Xue, Boris Murmann, Christian Linder, Wei Cai, Jeffery B-H Tok, Jong Won Chung, Zhenan Bao
Soft and conformable wearable electronics require stretchable semiconductors, but existing ones typically sacrifice charge transport mobility to achieve stretchability. We explore a concept based on the nanoconfinement of polymers to substantially improve the stretchability of polymer semiconductors, without affecting charge transport mobility. The increased polymer chain dynamics under nanoconfinement significantly reduces the modulus of the conjugated polymer and largely delays the onset of crack formation under strain...
January 6, 2017: Science
Wei Liu, Min-Sang Song, Biao Kong, Yi Cui
Energy-storage technologies such as lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors have become fundamental building blocks in modern society. Recently, the emerging direction toward the ever-growing market of flexible and wearable electronics has nourished progress in building multifunctional energy-storage systems that can be bent, folded, crumpled, and stretched while maintaining their electrochemical functions under deformation. Here, recent progress and well-developed strategies in research designed to accomplish flexible and stretchable lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors are reviewed...
January 2017: Advanced Materials
Yinji Ma, Matt Pharr, Liang Wang, Jeonghyun Kim, Yuhao Liu, Yeguang Xue, Rui Ning, Xiufeng Wang, Ha Uk Chung, Xue Feng, John A Rogers, Yonggang Huang
Managing the mechanical mismatch between hard semiconductor components and soft biological tissues represents a key challenge in the development of advanced forms of wearable electronic devices. An ultralow modulus material or a liquid that surrounds the electronics and resides in a thin elastomeric shell provides a strain-isolation effect that enhances not only the wearability but also the range of stretchability in suitably designed devices. The results presented here build on these concepts by (1) replacing traditional liquids explored in the past, which have some nonnegligible vapor pressure and finite permeability through the encapsulating elastomers, with ionic liquids to eliminate any possibility for leakage or evaporation, and (2) positioning the liquid between the electronics and the skin, within an enclosed, elastomeric microfluidic space, but not in direct contact with the active elements of the system, to avoid any negative consequences on electronic performance...
December 27, 2016: Small
Le Cai, Suoming Zhang, Jinshui Miao, Zhibin Yu, Chuan Wang
This paper reports intrinsically stretchable thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated logic circuits directly printed on elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. The printed devices utilize carbon nanotubes and a type of hybrid gate dielectric comprising PDMS and barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles. The BaTiO3/PDMS composite simultaneously provides high dielectric constant, superior stretchability, low leakage, as well as good printability and compatibility with the elastomeric substrate. Both TFTs and logic circuits can be stretched beyond 50% strain along either channel length or channel width directions for thousands of cycles while showing no significant degradation in electrical performance...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
Yewang Su, Xuecheng Ping, Ki Jun Yu, Jung Woo Lee, Jonathan A Fan, Bo Wang, Ming Li, Rui Li, Daniel V Harburg, YongAn Huang, Cunjiang Yu, Shimin Mao, Jaehoun Shim, Qinglin Yang, Pei-Yin Lee, Agne Armonas, Ki-Joong Choi, Yichen Yang, Ungyu Paik, Tammy Chang, Thomas J Dawidczyk, Yonggang Huang, Shuodao Wang, John A Rogers
Scissoring in thick bars suppresses buckling behavior in serpentine traces that have thicknesses greater than their widths, as detailed in a systematic set of analytical and experimental studies. Scissoring in thick copper traces enables elastic stretchability as large as ≈350%, corresponding to a sixfold improvement over previously reported values for thin geometries (≈60%).
December 22, 2016: Advanced Materials
Ge Qu, Justin J Kwok, Ying Diao
The solution printability of organic semiconductors (OSCs) represents a distinct advantage for materials processing, enabling low-cost, high-throughput, and energy-efficient manufacturing with new form factors that are flexible, stretchable, and transparent. While the electronic performance of OSCs is not comparable to that of crystalline silicon, the solution processability of OSCs allows them to complement silicon by tackling challenging aspects for conventional photolithography, such as large-area electronics manufacturing...
December 20, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Mei Ying Teo, Nara Kim, Seyoung Kee, Bong Seong Kim, Geunjin Kim, Soonil Hong, Suhyun Jung, Kwanghee Lee
Stretchable conductive materials have received great attention owing to their potential for realizing next-generation stretchable electronics. However, the simultaneous achievement of excellent mechanical stretchability and high electrical conductivity as well as cost-effective fabrication has been a significant challenge. Here, we report a highly stretchable and highly conducting polymer that was obtained by incorporating an ionic liquid. When 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate (EMIM TCB) was added to an aqueous conducting polymer solution of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), it was found that EMIM TCB acts not only as a secondary dopant but also as a plasticizer for PEDOT:PSS, resulting in a high conductivity of >1000 S cm(-1) with stable performance at tensile strains up to 50% and even up to 180% in combination with the prestrained substrate technique...
December 27, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Setareh Mohajer, Masoud Rezaei, Seyed Fakhreddin Hosseini
This study was conducted with the aim of improving the physico-chemical properties of fish gelatin (FG) based films. For this purpose, FG was blended with agar (AG) in different compositions to acquire biodegradable films (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50 & 0:100, FG:AG). The obtained results showed that the AG addition strongly increased the film rigidity and resistance to fracture, while reducing the film stretchability, mainly at 50FG: 50AG ratio. AG incorporation greatly reduced the water vapor permeability (WVP) and solubility of gelatin films, as this decline for the blend film with a 50:50 ratio of biopolymers has been about 41% and 66%, respectively (p<0...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Rajib Mandal, Rebecca J Anthony
Nanocrystalline silicon is widely known as an efficient and tunable optical emitter and is attracting great interest for applications such as light-emitting devices (LEDs), electronic displays, sensors, and solar-photovoltaics. To date, however, luminescent silicon nanocrystals have been used exclusively in traditional rigid devices, leaving a gap in knowledge regarding how they behave on elastomeric substrates. The present study shows how the optical and structural/morphological properties of plasma-synthesized silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) change when they are deposited on stretchable substrates made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yin Huang, Ning Zheng, Zhiqiang Cheng, Ying Chen, Bingwei Lu, Tao Xie, Xue Feng
Flexible and stretchable electronics offer a wide range of unprecedented opportunities beyond conventional rigid electronics. Despite their vast promise, a significant bottleneck lies in the availability of a transfer printing technique to manufacture such devices in a highly controllable and scalable manner. Current technologies usually rely on manual stick-and-place and do not offer feasible mechanisms for precise and quantitative process control, especially when scalability is taken into account. Here, we demonstrate a spatioselective and programmable transfer strategy to print electronic microelements onto a soft substrate...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Takao Someya, Zhenan Bao, George G Malliaras
Plastic bioelectronics is a research field that takes advantage of the inherent properties of polymers and soft organic electronics for applications at the interface of biology and electronics. The resulting electronic materials and devices are soft, stretchable and mechanically conformable, which are important qualities for interacting with biological systems in both wearable and implantable devices. Work is currently aimed at improving these devices with a view to making the electronic-biological interface as seamless as possible...
December 14, 2016: Nature
Changsoon Choi, Jae Myeong Lee, Shi Hyeong Kim, Seon Jeong Kim, Jiangtao Di, Ray H Baughman
Twistable and stretchable fiber-based electrochemical devices having high performance are needed for future applications, including emerging wearable electronics. Weavable fiber redox supercapacitors and strain sensors are here introduced, which comprise a dielectric layer sandwiched between functionalized buckled carbon nanotube electrodes. On the macroscopic scale, the sandwiched core rubber of the fiber acts as a dielectric layer for capacitive strain sensing and as an elastomeric substrate that prevents electrical shorting and irreversible structural changes during severe mechanical deformations...
December 14, 2016: Nano Letters
Mina Rajabi, Niclas Roxhed, Reza Zandi Shafagh, Tommy Haraldson, Andreas Christin Fischer, Wouter van der Wijngaart, Göran Stemme, Frank Niklaus
This paper demonstrates flexible and stretchable microneedle patches that combine soft and flexible base substrates with hard and sharp stainless steel microneedles. An elastomeric polymer base enables conformal contact between the microneedle patch and the complex topography and texture of the underlying skin, while robust and sharp stainless steel microneedles reliably pierce the outer layers of the skin. The flexible microneedle patches have been realized by magnetically assembling short stainless steel microneedles into a flexible polymer supporting base...
2016: PloS One
Hengyu Guo, Min-Hsin Yeh, Ying-Chih Lai, Yunlong Zi, Changsheng Wu, Zhen Wen, Chenguo Hu, Zhong Lin Wang
Recently, a self-charging power unit consisting of an energy harvesting device and an energy storage device set the foundation for building a self-powered wearable system. However, the flexibility of the power unit working under extremely complex deformations (e.g., stretching, twisting, and bending) becomes a key issue. Here, we present a prototype of an all-in-one shape-adaptive self-charging power unit that can be used for scavenging random body motion energy under complex mechanical deformations and then directly storing it in a supercapacitor unit to build up a self-powered system for wearable electronics...
November 22, 2016: ACS Nano
Huihui Zhang, Yan Qiao, Zhisong Lu
Textile-based supercapacitors have recently attracted much attention owing to their great potential as energy storage components in wearable electronics. However, fabrication of a high-performance, fully printed, and ultraflexible supercapacitor based on a single textile still remains a great challenge. Herein, a facile, low-cost, and textile-compatible method involving screen printing and transfer printing is developed to construct all-solid-state supercapacitors on a single silk fabric. The system exhibits a high specific capacitance of 19...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chunhui Wu, Jinting Jiu, Teppei Araki, Hirotaka Koga, Tsuyoshi Sekitani, Hao Wang, Katsuaki Suganuma
A biaxially wave-shaped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface was developed simply by using a taro leaf as the template. The resulting leaf-templated PDMS (L-PDMS) possesses a micro-sized curved interface structure, which is greatly beneficial for the exact embedding of a silver nanowire (AgNW) network conductive film covering the L-PDMS surface. The intrinsically curved AgNW/L-PDMS film surface, without any dangling nanowire, could prevent the fracture of AgNWs due to stretching stress even after cyclic stretching...
January 6, 2017: Nanotechnology
Ahyeon Koh, Daeshik Kang, Yeguang Xue, Seungmin Lee, Rafal M Pielak, Jeonghyun Kim, Taehwan Hwang, Seunghwan Min, Anthony Banks, Philippe Bastien, Megan C Manco, Liang Wang, Kaitlyn R Ammann, Kyung-In Jang, Phillip Won, Seungyong Han, Roozbeh Ghaffari, Ungyu Paik, Marvin J Slepian, Guive Balooch, Yonggang Huang, John A Rogers
Capabilities in health monitoring enabled by capture and quantitative chemical analysis of sweat could complement, or potentially obviate the need for, approaches based on sporadic assessment of blood samples. Established sweat monitoring technologies use simple fabric swatches and are limited to basic analysis in controlled laboratory or hospital settings. We present a collection of materials and device designs for soft, flexible, and stretchable microfluidic systems, including embodiments that integrate wireless communication electronics, which can intimately and robustly bond to the surface of the skin without chemical and mechanical irritation...
November 23, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
Ying Zhou, Reiko Azumi
Developments in the manufacturing technology of low-cost, high-quality carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are leading to increased industrial applications for this remarkable material. One of the most promising applications, CNT based transparent conductive films (TCFs), are an alternative technology in future electronics to replace traditional TCFs, which use indium tin oxide. Despite significant price competition among various TCFs, CNT-based TCFs have good potential for use in emerging flexible, stretchable and wearable optoelectronics...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
You Jun Fan, Xian Song Meng, Hua Yang Li, Shuang Yang Kuang, Lei Zhang, Ying Wu, Zhong Lin Wang, Guang Zhu
A stretchable porous nanocomposite (PNC) is reported based on a hybrid of a multiwalled carbon nanotubes network and a polydimethylsiloxane matrix for harvesting energy from mechanical interactions. The deformation-enabled energy-generating process makes the PNC applicable to various mechanical interactions, including pressing, stretching, bending, and twisting. It can be potentially used as an energy solution for wearable electronics.
November 21, 2016: Advanced Materials
Tran Quang Trung, Nae-Eung Lee
Stretchable electronic devices with intrinsically stretchable components have significant inherent advantages, including simple fabrication processes, a high integrity of the stacked layers, and low cost in comparison with stretchable electronic devices based on non-stretchable components. The research in this field has focused on developing new intrinsically stretchable components for conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. New methodologies and fabrication processes have been developed to fabricate stretchable devices with intrinsically stretchable components...
November 14, 2016: Advanced Materials
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