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stretchable electronics

Akihito Miyamoto, Sungwon Lee, Nawalage Florence Cooray, Sunghoon Lee, Mami Mori, Naoji Matsuhisa, Hanbit Jin, Leona Yoda, Tomoyuki Yokota, Akira Itoh, Masaki Sekino, Hiroshi Kawasaki, Tamotsu Ebihara, Masayuki Amagai, Takao Someya
Thin-film electronic devices can be integrated with skin for health monitoring and/or for interfacing with machines. Minimal invasiveness is highly desirable when applying wearable electronics directly onto human skin. However, manufacturing such on-skin electronics on planar substrates results in limited gas permeability. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically investigate their long-term physiological and psychological effects. As a demonstration of substrate-free electronics, here we show the successful fabrication of inflammation-free, highly gas-permeable, ultrathin, lightweight and stretchable sensors that can be directly laminated onto human skin for long periods of time, realized with a conductive nanomesh structure...
July 17, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Xia Yang, Xiaotian Hu, Qingxia Wang, Jian Xiong, Hanjun Yang, Xiangchuan Meng, Licheng Tan, Lie Chen, Yiwang Chen
With recent emergence of wearable electronic devices, the flexible and stretchable transparent electrodes are the core components to realize innovative devices. Copper nanowires (CuNWs) network is commonly chosen because of its high conductivity and transparency. However, the junction resistances and low aspect ratios still limit its further stretchable performance. Herein, a large-scale stretchable semi-embedded CuNWs transparent conductive film (TCFs) was fabricated by electrolessly depositing Cu on the electrospun poly (4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) polymer template semi-embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yangyang Xin, Jian Zhou, Xuezhu Xu, Gilles Lubineau
There is an increasing demand for strain sensors with high sensitivity and high stretchability for new applications such as robotics or wearable electronics. However, for the available technologies, the sensitivity of the sensors varies widely. These sensors are also highly nonlinear, making reliable measurement challenging. Here we introduce a new family of sensors composed of a laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper embedded in an elastomer. A roll-to-roll pressing of these sensors activates a pre-defined fragmentation process, which results in a well-controlled, fragmented microstructure...
July 21, 2017: Nanoscale
Minpyo Kang, Jejung Kim, Bongkyun Jang, Youngcheol Chae, Jae-Hyun Kim, Jong-Hyun Ahn
The development of input device technology in a conformal and stretchable format is important for the advancement of various wearable electronics. Herein, we report a capacitive touch sensor with good sensing capabilities in both contact and noncontact modes, enabled by the use of graphene and a thin device geometry. This device can be integrated with highly deformable areas of the human body, such as the forearms and palms. This touch sensor detects multiple touch signals in acute recordings and recognizes the distance and shape of the approaching objects before direct contact is made...
July 24, 2017: ACS Nano
Rupesh K Mishra, Lee J Hubble, Aida Martín, Rajan Kumar, Abbas Barfidokht, Jayoung Kim, Mustafa M Musameh, Ilias L Kyratzis, Joseph Wang
A flexible glove-based electrochemical biosensor with highly stretchable printed electrode system has been developed as a wearable point-of-use screening tool for defense and food security applications. This disposable-mechanically robust "lab-on-a-glove" integrates a stretchable printable enzyme-based biosensing system and active surface for swipe sampling on different fingers, and is coupled with a compact electronic interface for electrochemical detection and real-time wireless data transmission to a smartphone device...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
Shideh Kabiri Ameri, Rebecca Ho, Hongwoo Jang, Li Tao, Youhua Wang, Liu Wang, David M Schnyer, Deji Akinwande, Nanshu Lu
Tattoo-like epidermal sensors are an emerging class of truly wearable electronics owing to their thinness and softness. While most of them are based on thin metal films, silicon membrane, or nanoparticle-based printable inks, we report a sub-micron thick, multimodal electronic tattoo sensors that are made of graphene. The graphene electronic tattoo (GET) is designed with filamentary serpentines and fabricated by a cost- and time-effective "wet transfer, dry patterning" method. It has a total thickness of 463 ± 30 nm, an optical transparency of ~85%, and a stretchability of more than 40%...
July 18, 2017: ACS Nano
Peng-Fei Cao, Bingrui Li, Tao Hong, Kunyue Xing, Dmitry Nikolaevich Voylov, Shiwang Cheng, Panchao Yin, Alexander M Kisliuk, Shannon M Mahurin, Alexei P Sokolov, Tomonori Saito
Polymer membranes with the capability to process a massive volume of gas are especially attractive for practical applications of gas separation. Although much effort has been devoted to develop novel polymer membranes with increased selectivity, the overall gas-separation performance and lifetime of membrane are still negatively affected by the weak mechanical performance, low plasticization resistance and poor physical aging tolerance. Recently, elastic polymer membranes with tunable mechanical properties have been attracting significant attention due to their tremendous potential applications...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Timothy F O'Connor, Matthew E Fach, Rachel Miller, Samuel E Root, Patrick P Mercier, Darren J Lipomi
This communication describes a glove capable of wirelessly translating the American Sign Language (ASL) alphabet into text displayable on a computer or smartphone. The key components of the device are strain sensors comprising a piezoresistive composite of carbon particles embedded in a fluoroelastomer. These sensors are integrated with a wearable electronic module consisting of digitizers, a microcontroller, and a Bluetooth radio. Finite-element analysis predicts a peak strain on the sensors of 5% when the knuckles are fully bent...
2017: PloS One
Masayoshi Imanishi, Daisuke Kajiya, Tomoyuki Koganezawa, Ken-Ichi Saitow
The realization of room-temperature processes is an important factor in the development of flexible electronic devices composed of organic materials. In addition, a simple and cost-effective process is essential to produce stable working devices and to enhance the performance of a smart material for flexible, wearable, or stretchable-skin devices. Here, we present a soft friction transfer method for producing aligned polymer films; a glass substrate was mechanically brushed with a velvet fabric and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) solution was then spin-coated on the substrate...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Paul Le Floch, Xi Yao, Qihan Liu, Zhengjing Wang, Guodong Nian, Yu Sun, Li Jia, Zhigang Suo
The emergence of stretchable electronics and its potential integration with textiles have highlighted a challenge: Textiles are wearable and washable, but electronic devices are not. Many stretchable conductors have been developed to enable wearable active textiles, but little has been done to make them washable. Here we demonstrate a new class of stretchable conductors that can endure wearing and washing conditions commonly associated with textiles. Such a conductor consists of a hydrogel, a dissolved hygroscopic salt, and a butyl rubber coating...
July 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Daniela Wirthl, Robert Pichler, Michael Drack, Gerald Kettlguber, Richard Moser, Robert Gerstmayr, Florian Hartmann, Elke Bradt, Rainer Kaltseis, Christian M Siket, Stefan E Schausberger, Sabine Hild, Siegfried Bauer, Martin Kaltenbrunner
Introducing methods for instant tough bonding between hydrogels and antagonistic materials-from soft to hard-allows us to demonstrate elastic yet tough biomimetic devices and machines with a high level of complexity. Tough hydrogels strongly attach, within seconds, to plastics, elastomers, leather, bone, and metals, reaching unprecedented interfacial toughness exceeding 2000 J/m(2). Healing of severed ionic hydrogel conductors becomes feasible and restores function instantly. Soft, transparent multilayered hybrids of elastomers and ionic hydrogels endure biaxial strain with more than 2000% increase in area, facilitating soft transducers, generators, and adaptive lenses...
June 2017: Science Advances
Tianlei Sun, Joshua I Scott, Ming Wang, R Joseph Kline, Guillermo Bazan, Brendan T O'Connor
Intrinsically stretchable semiconductors will facilitate the realization of seamlessly integrated stretchable electronics. However, to date demonstrations of intrinsically stretchable semiconductors have been limited. In this study, a new approach to achieve intrinsically stretchable semiconductors is introduced by blending a rigid high-performance donor-acceptor polymer semiconductor poly[4(4,4dihexadecyl4Hcyclopenta [1,2b:5,4b' ] dithiopen2yl) alt [1,2,5] thiadiazolo [3,4c] pyridine] (PCDTPT) with a ductile polymer semiconductor poly(3hexylthiophene) (P3HT)...
January 2017: Advanced Electronic Materials
Wenjun Zhu, Yang Zhang, Xiaoshuang Zhou, Jiang Xu, Zunfeng Liu, Ningyi Yuan, Jianning Ding
Linear stretchable supercapacitors have attracted much attention because they are well suited to applications in the rapidly expanding field of wearable electronics. However, poor conductivity of the electrode material, which limits the transfer of electrons in the axial direction of the linear supercapacitors, leads to a serious loss of capacity at high rates. To solve this problem, we use gold nanoparticles to decorate aligned multiwall carbon nanotube to fabricate stretchable linear electrodes. Furthermore, we have developed fine stretchable linear supercapacitors, which exhibited an extremely high elasticity up to 400% strain with a high capacitance of about 8...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Yaqing Liu, Zhiyuan Liu, Bowen Zhu, Jiancan Yu, Ke He, Wan Ru Leow, Ming Wang, Bevita K Chandran, Dianpeng Qi, Hong Wang, Geng Chen, Cai Xu, Xiaodong Chen
Animals possess various functional systems such as sensory, nervous, and motor systems, which show effective cooperation in order to realize complicated and intelligent behaviors. This inspires rational designs for the integration of individual electronic devices to exhibit a series of functions, such as sensing, memory, and feedback. Inspired by the fact that humans can monitor and memorize various body motions, a motion memory device is developed to mimic this biological process. In this work, mechanical hybrid substrates are introduced, in which rigid memory devices and stretchable strain sensors are integrated into a single module, which enables them to work cooperatively in the wearable state...
July 6, 2017: Advanced Materials
Su-Ting Han, Haiyan Peng, Qijun Sun, Shishir Venkatesh, Kam-Sing Chung, Siu Chuen Lau, Ye Zhou, V A L Roy
Flexible sensors that efficiently detect various stimuli relevant to specific environmental or biological species have been extensively studied due to their great potential for the Internet of Things and wearable electronics applications. The application of flexible and stretchable electronics to device-engineering technologies has enabled the fabrication of slender, lightweight, stretchable, and foldable sensors. Here, recent studies on flexible sensors for biological analytes, ions, light, and pH are outlined...
July 3, 2017: Advanced Materials
Chien Lu, Wen-Ya Lee, Chien-Chung Shih, Min-Yu Wen, Wen-Chang Chen
A stretchable and mechanical robust field-effect transistor is essential for soft wearable electronics. To realize stretchable transistors, elastic dielectrics with small current hysteresis, high elasticity, and high dielectric constants are the critical factor for low-voltage-driven devices. Here, we demonstrate the polar elastomer consisting of poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP):poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP). Owing to the high dielectric constant of PVDF-HFP, the device can be operated under less than 5 V and shows a linear-regime hole mobility as high as 0...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaodong Wu, Yangyang Han, Xinxing Zhang, Canhui Lu
Flexible and stretchable electronics are highly desirable for next generation devices. However, stretchability and conductivity are fundamentally difficult to combine for conventional conductive composites, which restricts their widespread applications especially as stretchable electronics. Here, we innovatively develop a new class of highly stretchable and robust conductive composites via a simple and scalable structural approach. Briefly, carbon nanotubes are spray-coated onto a self-adhesive rubber film, followed by rolling up the film completely to create a spirally layered structure within the composites...
July 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yan Huang, Ming Zhong, Fukuan Shi, Xiaoying Liu, Zijie Tang, Yukun Wang, Yang Huang, Haoqing Hou, Xuming Xie, Chunyi Zhi
Stretchability and compressibility of supercapacitors is an essential element of modern electronics, such as flexible, wearable devices. Widely used polyvinyl alcohol-based electrolytes are neither very stretchable nor compressible, which fundamentally limits the realization of supercapacitors with high stretchability and compressibility. A new electrolyte that is intrinsically super-stretchable and compressible is presented. Vinyl hybrid silica nanoparticle cross-linkers were introduced into polyacrylamide hydrogel backbones to promote dynamic cross-linking of the polymer networks...
June 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Alla M Zamarayeva, Aminy E Ostfeld, Michael Wang, Jerica K Duey, Igal Deckman, Balthazar P Lechêne, Greg Davies, Daniel A Steingart, Ana Claudia Arias
Flexible and stretchable power sources represent a key technology for the realization of wearable electronics. Developing flexible and stretchable batteries with mechanical endurance that is on par with commercial standards and offer compliance while retaining safety remains a significant challenge. We present a unique approach that demonstrates mechanically robust, intrinsically safe silver-zinc batteries. This approach uses current collectors with enhanced mechanical design, such as helical springs and serpentines, as a structural support and backbone for all battery components...
June 2017: Science Advances
Rui Yang, Jaesung Lee, Souvik Ghosh, Hao Tang, R Mohan Sankaran, Christian A Zorman, Philip X-L Feng
Emerging atomic layer semiconducting crystals such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are promising candidates for flexible electronics and strain-tunable devices due to their ultrahigh strain limits (up to ∼20-30%) and strain-tunable bandgaps. However, high strain levels, controllable isotropic and anisotropic biaxial strains in single- and few-layer MoS2 on device-oriented flexible substrates permitting convenient and fast strain tuning, remain unexplored. Here, we demonstrate a "blown-bubble" bulge technique for efficiently applying large strains to atomic layer MoS2 devices on a flexible substrate...
July 6, 2017: Nano Letters
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