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stretchable electronics

Zhuocheng Yan, Taisong Pan, Guang Yao, Feiyi Liao, Zhenlong Huang, Hulin Zhang, Min Gao, Yin Zhang, Yuan Lin
Recent progresses on the Kirigami-inspired method provide a new idea to assemble three-dimensional (3D) functional structures with conventional materials by releasing the prestrained elastomeric substrates. In this paper, highly stretchable serpentine-like antenna is fabricated by a simple and quick "Cut-Transfer-Release" method for assembling stretchable 3D functional structures on an elastomeric substrate with a controlled shape. The mechanical reliability of the serpentine-like 3D stretchable antenna is evaluated by the finite element method and experiments...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Michael D Bartlett, Navid Kazem, Matthew J Powell-Palm, Xiaonan Huang, Wenhuan Sun, Jonathan A Malen, Carmel Majidi
Soft dielectric materials typically exhibit poor heat transfer properties due to the dynamics of phonon transport, which constrain thermal conductivity (k) to decrease monotonically with decreasing elastic modulus (E). This thermal-mechanical trade-off is limiting for wearable computing, soft robotics, and other emerging applications that require materials with both high thermal conductivity and low mechanical stiffness. Here, we overcome this constraint with an electrically insulating composite that exhibits an unprecedented combination of metal-like thermal conductivity, an elastic compliance similar to soft biological tissue (Young's modulus < 100 kPa), and the capability to undergo extreme deformations (>600% strain)...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xiaowei Zhang, Shaojun Guo, Yanchao Han, Jing Li, Erkang Wang
We report a simple, low-cost, and brand-new electrochemical lithography technique for replicating the template pattern with high resolution at ∼2 μm. The developed method is that the electroactive material is first deposited on the patterned conductive template by the electrochemical technique and then peeled by an adhesive tape/material. The resulting film with the precise pattern shows excellent mechanical and electronic properties and promises high prospect in designing flexible electronics. This interesting approach can be performed at ambient conditions and easily generalized to pattern various electroactive materials covering metal, alloy, nonmetal, salt, oxide, and composite on different types of substrates in several seconds to a few minutes, making the mass production of flexible/rigid/stretchable patterned thin films quite possible...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Dinesh K Patel, Amir Hosein Sakhaei, Michael Layani, Biao Zhang, Qi Ge, Shlomo Magdassi
Stretchable UV curable (SUV) elastomers can be stretched by up to 1100% and are suitable for digital light processing (DLP) based 3D printing technology. DLP printing of these SUV elastomers enables the direct creation of highly deformable complex 3D hollow structures such as balloons, soft actuators, grippers, and Bucky ball electronical switches.
February 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
Huan-Shen Liu, Bo-Cheng Pan, Guey-Sheng Liou
Stretchable conductors based on silver nanowires (AgNWs) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have been studied extensively for many years. However, it is still difficult to achieve high transparency with low resistance due to the low attractive force between AgNWs and PDMS. In this paper, we report an effective method to transfer AgNWs into PDMS by using substrates which have a hydrophobic surface, and successfully prepared stretchable AgNW/PDMS electrodes having high transparency and low sheet resistance at the same time...
February 3, 2017: Nanoscale
Hyunjin Moon, Habeom Lee, Jinhyeong Kwon, Young Duk Suh, Dong Kwan Kim, Inho Ha, Junyeob Yeo, Sukjoon Hong, Seung Hwan Ko
Transparent and stretchable energy storage devices have attracted significant interest due to their potential to be applied to biocompatible and wearable electronics. Supercapacitors that use the reversible faradaic redox reaction of conducting polymer have a higher specific capacitance as compared with electrical double-layer capacitors. Typically, the conducting polymer electrode is fabricated through direct electropolymerization on the current collector. However, no research have been conducted on metal nanowires as current collectors for the direct electropolymerization, even though the metal nanowire network structure has proven to be superior as a transparent, flexible, and stretchable electrode platform because the conducting polymer's redox potential for polymerization is higher than that of widely studied metal nanowires such as silver and copper...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mohamed Tarek Ghoneim, Muhammad Mustafa Hussain
A highly manufacturable deep reactive ion etching based process involving a hybrid soft/hard mask process technology shows high aspect ratio complex geometry Lego-like silicon electronics formation enabling free-form (physically flexible, stretchable, and reconfigurable) electronic systems.
February 1, 2017: Small
Youngmin Kim, Sungwoo Jun, Byeong-Kwon Ju, Jong-Woong Kim
One of the most important aspects that we need to consider in the design of intrinsically stretchable electrodes is that most electronic devices that can be formed on them are not stretchable themselves. This discrepancy can induce severe stress singularities at the interfaces between stiff devices and stretchable electrodes, leading to catastrophic device delamination when the substrate is stretched. Here, we suggest a novel solution to this challenge, which involves introducing a photolithography-based rigid-island approach to fabricate the heterogeneous configuration of a silver nanowire (AgNW)/polymer composite structure...
February 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jun Yang, Qincui Ran, Dapeng Wei, Tai Sun, Leyong Yu, Xuefen Song, Lichun Pu, Haofei Shi, Chunlei Du
We demonstrate a highly stretchable electronic skin (E-skin) based on the facile combination of microstructured graphene nanowalls (GNWs) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The microstructure of the GNWs was endowed by conformally growing them on the unpolished silicon wafer without the aid of nanofabrication technology. Then a stamping transfer method was used to replicate the micropattern of the unpolished silicon wafer. Due to the large contact interface between the 3D graphene network and the PDMS, this type of E-skin worked under a stretching ratio of nearly 100%, and showed excellent mechanical strength and high sensitivity, with a change in relative resistance of up to 6500% and a gauge factor of 65...
January 31, 2017: Nanotechnology
Siliang Wang, Nishuang Liu, Jun Su, Luying Li, Fei Long, Zhengguang Zou, Xueliang Jiang, Yihua Gao
In large-scale applications of portable and wearable electronic devices, high-performance supercapacitors are important energy supply sources. However, since the reliability and stability of supercapacitors are generally destroyed by mechanical deformation and damage during practical applications, the stretchability and self-healability must be exploited for the supercapacitors. Preparing the highly stretchable and self-healable electrodes is still a challenge. Here, we report reduced graphene oxide fiber based springs as electrodes for stretchable and self-healable supercapacitors...
January 25, 2017: ACS Nano
Banseok You, Youngmin Kim, Byeong-Kwon Ju, Jong-Woong Kim
Realization of devices with enhanced stretchability and waterproof properties will significantly expand the reach of electronics. To this end, we herein fabricate an elastic transparent conductor that comprises silver nanowires (AgNWs) on a hydroxylated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate covered by polyurethane urea (PUU), which is fully compatible with both materials. Carboxylic acid groups of PUU was designed to form hydrogen bonds with the carbonyl groups of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) on the AgNW surface, resulting in an enhanced affinity of AgNWs for PUU...
February 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hyun Woo Cho, Bong June Sung
We investigate the glass transition and interfacial dynamics of single strand fibers of flexible polymers by employing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations along with a coarse grained model. While the polymer fiber has drawn significant attention due to its applicability in tissue engineering and stretchable electronics, its dynamic properties, especially the glass transition temperature (Tg), are yet to be understood at the molecular level. For example, there has been a controversy on the effect of the polymer fiber radius (R) on Tg: Tg decreased with a decrease in R for some polymer fibers, whereas Tg of other polymer fibers was not sensitive to R...
January 18, 2017: Soft Matter
Mingjie Liu, Vasilii I Artyukhov, Boris I Yakobson
Recent production of long carbyne chains, concurrent with advances in the synthesis of pure boron fullerenes and atom-thin layers, motivates an exploration of possible one-dimensional boron. By means of first-principles calculations, we find two isomers, two-atom wide ribbon and single-atom chain, linked by a tension-driven (negative-pressure) transformation. We explore the stability and unusual properties of both phases, demonstrating mechanical stiffness on par with the highest-performing known nanomaterials, and a phase transition between stable 1D metal and an antiferromagnetic semiconductor, with the phase boundary effectively forming a stretchable 1D Schottky junction...
January 30, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jie Xu, Sihong Wang, Ging-Ji Nathan Wang, Chenxin Zhu, Shaochuan Luo, Lihua Jin, Xiaodan Gu, Shucheng Chen, Vivian R Feig, John W F To, Simon Rondeau-Gagné, Joonsuk Park, Bob C Schroeder, Chien Lu, Jin Young Oh, Yanming Wang, Yun-Hi Kim, He Yan, Robert Sinclair, Dongshan Zhou, Gi Xue, Boris Murmann, Christian Linder, Wei Cai, Jeffery B-H Tok, Jong Won Chung, Zhenan Bao
Soft and conformable wearable electronics require stretchable semiconductors, but existing ones typically sacrifice charge transport mobility to achieve stretchability. We explore a concept based on the nanoconfinement of polymers to substantially improve the stretchability of polymer semiconductors, without affecting charge transport mobility. The increased polymer chain dynamics under nanoconfinement significantly reduces the modulus of the conjugated polymer and largely delays the onset of crack formation under strain...
January 6, 2017: Science
Wei Liu, Min-Sang Song, Biao Kong, Yi Cui
Energy-storage technologies such as lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors have become fundamental building blocks in modern society. Recently, the emerging direction toward the ever-growing market of flexible and wearable electronics has nourished progress in building multifunctional energy-storage systems that can be bent, folded, crumpled, and stretched while maintaining their electrochemical functions under deformation. Here, recent progress and well-developed strategies in research designed to accomplish flexible and stretchable lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors are reviewed...
January 2017: Advanced Materials
Yinji Ma, Matt Pharr, Liang Wang, Jeonghyun Kim, Yuhao Liu, Yeguang Xue, Rui Ning, Xiufeng Wang, Ha Uk Chung, Xue Feng, John A Rogers, Yonggang Huang
Managing the mechanical mismatch between hard semiconductor components and soft biological tissues represents a key challenge in the development of advanced forms of wearable electronic devices. An ultralow modulus material or a liquid that surrounds the electronics and resides in a thin elastomeric shell provides a strain-isolation effect that enhances not only the wearability but also the range of stretchability in suitably designed devices. The results presented here build on these concepts by (1) replacing traditional liquids explored in the past, which have some nonnegligible vapor pressure and finite permeability through the encapsulating elastomers, with ionic liquids to eliminate any possibility for leakage or evaporation, and (2) positioning the liquid between the electronics and the skin, within an enclosed, elastomeric microfluidic space, but not in direct contact with the active elements of the system, to avoid any negative consequences on electronic performance...
December 27, 2016: Small
Le Cai, Suoming Zhang, Jinshui Miao, Zhibin Yu, Chuan Wang
This paper reports intrinsically stretchable thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated logic circuits directly printed on elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. The printed devices utilize carbon nanotubes and a type of hybrid gate dielectric comprising PDMS and barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles. The BaTiO3/PDMS composite simultaneously provides high dielectric constant, superior stretchability, low leakage, as well as good printability and compatibility with the elastomeric substrate. Both TFTs and logic circuits can be stretched beyond 50% strain along either channel length or channel width directions for thousands of cycles while showing no significant degradation in electrical performance...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
Yewang Su, Xuecheng Ping, Ki Jun Yu, Jung Woo Lee, Jonathan A Fan, Bo Wang, Ming Li, Rui Li, Daniel V Harburg, YongAn Huang, Cunjiang Yu, Shimin Mao, Jaehoun Shim, Qinglin Yang, Pei-Yin Lee, Agne Armonas, Ki-Joong Choi, Yichen Yang, Ungyu Paik, Tammy Chang, Thomas J Dawidczyk, Yonggang Huang, Shuodao Wang, John A Rogers
Scissoring in thick bars suppresses buckling behavior in serpentine traces that have thicknesses greater than their widths, as detailed in a systematic set of analytical and experimental studies. Scissoring in thick copper traces enables elastic stretchability as large as ≈350%, corresponding to a sixfold improvement over previously reported values for thin geometries (≈60%).
December 22, 2016: Advanced Materials
Ge Qu, Justin J Kwok, Ying Diao
The solution printability of organic semiconductors (OSCs) represents a distinct advantage for materials processing, enabling low-cost, high-throughput, and energy-efficient manufacturing with new form factors that are flexible, stretchable, and transparent. While the electronic performance of OSCs is not comparable to that of crystalline silicon, the solution processability of OSCs allows them to complement silicon by tackling challenging aspects for conventional photolithography, such as large-area electronics manufacturing...
20, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Mei Ying Teo, Nara Kim, Seyoung Kee, Bong Seong Kim, Geunjin Kim, Soonil Hong, Suhyun Jung, Kwanghee Lee
Stretchable conductive materials have received great attention owing to their potential for realizing next-generation stretchable electronics. However, the simultaneous achievement of excellent mechanical stretchability and high electrical conductivity as well as cost-effective fabrication has been a significant challenge. Here, we report a highly stretchable and highly conducting polymer that was obtained by incorporating an ionic liquid. When 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate (EMIM TCB) was added to an aqueous conducting polymer solution of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), it was found that EMIM TCB acts not only as a secondary dopant but also as a plasticizer for PEDOT:PSS, resulting in a high conductivity of >1000 S cm(-1) with stable performance at tensile strains up to 50% and even up to 180% in combination with the prestrained substrate technique...
December 27, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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