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Lu Wang, Xiurong Chen, Hualin Wang, Yuying Zhang, Qingjie Tang, Jiahui Li
Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in different proportions of activated sludge extracts, which was from the treatment of the synthetic wastewater containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The nutrients, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), were removed over 45% and 90%, respectively. The maximum reduction amount of ecotoxicity and total organic carbon (TOC) occurred in the 100% sludge group on the 8th day (68%; 86.2 mg L(-1)). The variations of Excitation-emission matrix spectra (EEMs) and TOC indicated that extracellular organic matters (EOM) produced by algae led to TOC increase in the medium...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Lingzhan Miao, Chao Wang, Jun Hou, Peifang Wang, Yanhui Ao, Yi Li, Yu Yao, Bowen Lv, Yangyang Yang, Guoxiang You, Yi Xu, Qihao Gu
The growing production and application of CuO nanoparticles increase the chance that these particles will be released into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and interact with microorganisms. However, the toxicity response mechanism of biofilm to NP exposure may be different from that of activated sludge due to the denser and stronger microbial aggregate structure of biofilm. Thus, in this study, the response to CuO NPs of wastewater biofilm collected from a rotating biological contactor was investigated. Short-term exposure (24h) to CuO NPs led to a great loss in cell viability, and SEM-EDS images revealed that the nano-CuO aggregates were not transformed to Cu-S species in the biofilm samples...
November 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Dan Cai, Xiuhong Yang, Shizhong Wang, Yuanqing Chao, J L Morel, Rongliang Qiu
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) released from forest leaf litter is potentially effective for the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), yet the inherent mechanism remains insufficiently elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of DOM derived from Pinus elliottii and Schima superba leaf litter on the degradation of phenanthrene by the phenanthrene degrading bacterium Sphingobium sp. Phe-1. DOM from different origins and at a large range of concentrations enhanced the degradation rate of phenanthrene...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Zhongbo Zhou, Xiang He, Minghao Zhou, Fangang Meng
Chemical cleaning is an essential process for the permeability recovery of fouled membranes, which is highly related to the interactions between chemicals and bio-macromolecules in fouling layers. In this study, three bio-macromolecules (i.e., effluent biopolymers (i.e., 0.45 μm-100 kDa) from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and dextran) were exposed to different chemicals (i.e., NaClO, H2O2, NaOH, and HCl) with varied concentrations to understand the changes in their properties and functional groups...
November 2, 2016: Water Research
Xiaoshu Li, Haibao Wang, Yanghua Tian, Shanshan Zhou, Xiaohu Li, Kai Wang, Yongqiang Yu
Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM). Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM) of the limbic system networks...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Na Wu, Dong Wei, Yongfang Zhang, Weiying Xu, Tao Yan, Bin Du, Qin Wei
The objective of this study was to compare the release of soluble microbial products (SMP) from activated sludge (AS) and aerobic granular sludge (AGS) in the absence and presence of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). Data implied that NH4(+)-N removal efficiencies remarkably decreased to 53.8% and 36.4% after the addition of 2,4-DCP, respectively. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) implied that three major components (tryptophan protein-like, humic-like and fulvic-like substances) were identified in SMP without the addition of 2,4-DCP...
November 3, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Tomáš Raček, Jana Pazúriková, Radka Svobodová Vařeková, Stanislav Geidl, Aleš Křenek, Francesco Luca Falginella, Vladimír Horský, Václav Hejret, Jaroslav Koča
BACKGROUND: The concept of partial atomic charges was first applied in physical and organic chemistry and was later also adopted in computational chemistry, bioinformatics and chemoinformatics. The electronegativity equalization method (EEM) is the most frequently used approach for calculating partial atomic charges. EEM is fast and its accuracy is comparable to the quantum mechanical charge calculation method for which it was parameterized. Several EEM parameter sets for various types of molecules and QM charge calculation approaches have been published and new ones are still needed and produced...
2016: Journal of Cheminformatics
Márcia Soares Mattos Vaz, Mário Sérgio Vaz da Silva, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira, Jonas da Silva Mota, Débora Regina Hoff Brait, Luciana Noia Borges de Carvalho, Juliana Miron Vani, Claudia Rodrigues Berno, Flávio Henrique Souza Araújo, Márcio Eduardo de Barros
This study evaluates the toxicological, genotoxic, mutagenic and apoptotic potential of an in vivo assay from Echinodorus macrophyllus extract (EEM). The acute toxicity test used 02 groups (n = 5) of female Wistar rats: negative control group (saline) and experimental group (2000 mg/kg b.w. EEM), both orally administered (gavage) at single doses and monitored for 14 days. To assess the genotoxic, mutagenic and apoptotic potential, 50 male Swiss mice were divided into 5 groups (n = 10): Group I: negative control (saline solution 0...
October 25, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Supriya Kumari, Neelam Mangwani, Surajit Das
Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to evaluate the interaction of biofilm associated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of a marine bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes NP103 with lead [Pb(II)]. EEM fluorescence spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of one protein-like fluorophore in the EPS of P. pseudoalcaligenes NP103. Stern-Volmer equation indicated the existence of only one binding site (n=0...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Zhongbo Zhou, Yiting Tan, Yeyuan Roger Xiao, David C Stuckey
The distribution, composition and morphological structure of sub-visible particles and colloids (0.01-10 µm) in the supernatant of a lab-scale submerged anaerobic membrane reactor (SAnMBR), and their role in membrane fouling, was investigated. Photometric analysis showed that the supernatant and membrane foulants were dominated by particles and colloids (0.45-10 µm), which accounted for over 90% of the total organics (proteins and polysaccharides). Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra and monosaccharide analysis showed that these particles and colloids were rich in fluorescent proteins, rhamnose, ribose and arabinose, all of which could be related to cellular and extracellular substances...
October 26, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Patrycja Boguta, Piotr M Pieczywek, Zofia Sokołowska
The main aim of this study was the application of excitation-emission fluorescence matrices (EEMs) combined with two decomposition methods: parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to study the interaction mechanisms between humic acids (HAs) and Zn(II) over a wide concentration range (0-50 mg·dm(-3)). The influence of HA properties on Zn(II) complexation was also investigated. Stability constants, quenching degree and complexation capacity were estimated for binding sites found in raw EEM, EEM-PARAFAC and EEM-NMF data using mathematical models...
October 22, 2016: Sensors
Eun-Ah Kim, Ha Kyung Lee, Jung Hyun Choi
This study investigated the effects of the freezing and thawing that accompany the warming process on the composition of the soil organic matter in the dissolved and colloidal fractions. Temperate soil samples were incubated in a refrigerator at 2 °C for 4 weeks and compared with those frozen at -20 °C in the second week followed by thawing at 2 °C to study a freeze-thaw effect with minimal effect from the thawing temperature. The freeze-thaw group was compared with those incubated at 25 °C in the last week to investigate a warming effect after thawing...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lena Nadarevic
People typically remember emotionally negative words better than neutral words. Two experiments are reported that investigate whether emotionally enhanced memory (EEM) for negatively arousing words is based on a storage or retrieval advantage. Participants studied non-word-word pairs that either involved negatively arousing or neutral target words. Memory for these target words was tested by means of a recognition test and a cued-recall test. Data were analysed with a multinomial model that allows the disentanglement of storage and retrieval processes in the present recognition-then-cued-recall paradigm...
October 14, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Nazmiye Cemre Birben, Ayse Tomruk, Miray Bekbolet
Solar photocatalytic disinfection efficiency of novel visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysts was evaluated with the aim of assessing inactivation of Escherichia coli as the pathogen indicator organism present in drinking water. Influence of humic acid (HA) on the photocatalytic disinfection efficiency of the specified VLA TiO2 specimens i.e., N-doped, Se-doped, and Se-N co-doped TiO2 was also investigated. Photocatalytic disinfection efficiency was assessed by the enumeration of bacteria following selected irradiation periods...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
S García Ballesteros, M Costante, R Vicente, M Mora, A M Amat, A Arques, L Carlos, F S García Einschlag
In this work, analysis of excitation-emission-matrices (EEM) has been employed to gain further insight into the characterization of humic like substances (HLS) obtained from urban wastes (soluble bio-organic substances, SBOs). In particular, complexation of these substances with iron and changes along a photo-Fenton process have been studied. Recorded EEMs were decomposed by using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Three fluorescent components were identified by PARAFAC modeling of the entire set of SBO solutions studied...
September 29, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
N C Birben, M C Paganini, P Calza, M Bekbolet
This study aimed at investigating the photocatalytic degradation of humic acid (HA) as a representative of natural organic matter (NOM) by using Ce-doped ZnO as a novel material. Following photocatalysis, HA degradation was characterized by specified UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopic parameters as well as by the dissolved organic carbon (NPOC) content. Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) fluorescence features were also evaluated by using advanced techniques. Comparison of Ce-doped ZnO photocatalysis to TiO2 P-25 photocatalytic treatment of the HA samples was elucidated under similar experimental conditions...
September 8, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Lei Yu, Qing-Wen Tang, Yu-Jia Zhang, Rong-Ping Chen, Xin Liu, Wei-Chuan Qiao, Wen-Wei Li, Hong-Hua Ruan, Xin Song
In this work, the effect of cultivation factors on the flocculation efficiency (FE) of bioflocculant P-GS408 from Klebsiella oxytoca was optimized by the response surface methodology. The most significant factor, i.e. culture time, was determined by gray relational analysis. A total of 240 mg of purified P-GS408 was prepared from 1 liter of culture solution under the optimal conditions. GC-MS analysis results indicated that the polysaccharide of P-GS408 mainly contains Rhamnose and Galactose, and the existence of abundant hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino groups was evidenced by FTIR and XPS analyses...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhaokun Xiong, Jinyan Cao, Dan Yang, Bo Lai, Ping Yang
A coagulation-flocculation as pre-treatment combined with mFe/Cu/O3 (CF-mFe/Cu/O3) process was developed to degrade the pollutants in automobile coating wastewater (ACW). In coagulation-flocculation (CF) process, high turbidity removal efficiency (97.1%) and low COD removal efficiency (10.5%) were obtained under the optimal conditions using Al2(SO4)3·18H2O and CaO. The effluent of CF process (ECF) was further disposed by mFe/Cu/O3 process, and its key operating parameters were optimized by batch experiments...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Jie Fu, Wan-Ning Lee, Clark Coleman, Melissa Meyer, Jason Carter, Kirk Nowack, Ching-Hua Huang
A pilot study employing two parallel trains of two-stage biofiltration, i.e., a sand/anthracite (SA) biofilter followed by a biologically-active granular activated carbon (GAC) contactor, was conducted to test the efficiency, feasibility and stability of biofiltration for removing natural organic matter (NOM) after coagulation in a drinking water treatment plant. Results showed the biofiltration process could effectively remove turbidity (<0.1 NTU in all effluents) and NOM (>24% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), >57% of UV254, and >44% of SUVA254), where the SA biofilters showed a strong capacity for turbidity removal, while the GAC contactors played the dominant role in NOM removal...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Eemeli Jämsen, Vesa-Petteri Kouri, Mari Ainola, Stuart B Goodman, Dan C Nordström, Kari K Eklund, Jukka Pajarinen
Aseptic loosening and osteolysis of joint replacements are driven by macrophage-mediated inflammatory reactions to implant-derived wear debris, but many aspects of these events remain poorly characterized. To better understand the relationships among inflammatory and chemotactic mediators, macrophage phenotype and polarizing cytokines, osteoclast activity, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the pathogenesis of aseptic loosening, we determined how the relative expressions of these factors in the peri-implant tissues correlate to each other and to the life span of the implants using Pearson correlation...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
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