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Ying Zhang, Yifan Wang, Xinyuan Zhang, Ruizhen Li, Yukun Chen, Qingjuan Meng
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the most active component in an environmental system. It can influence the chemical and structural characteristics of soil. In this work, three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) integrated with synchronous fluorescence were used to explore the interaction between soil-derived DOM and Pb(II) during the soil sorption process. According to the data of batch sorption experiments, the adsorbing capacities of soil, soil + 5 mL DOM, and soil + 10 mL DOM were 16...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bin Hu, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Jin Qian, Jun Hou, Xiaoai Cui, Nannan Zhang
Excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy combined with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) were applied to evaluate the effects of anthropogenic impoundment on the characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its heavy metal binding affinity. Three field-sampling cruises conducted in Hongze Lake from 2015 to 2016 were classified as early impoundment and late impoundment cruises according to the hydrological conditions. Five fluorescence components were derived from EEM-PARAFAC, including three humic-like components (C1C3) and two protein-like components (C4 and C5)...
September 7, 2017: Chemosphere
Piermaria Pinter, Rebecca Pittkowski, Johannes Soellner, Thomas Strassner
The synthesis and characterization of cyclometalated C^C* platinum(II) complexes with unique photophysical properties, aggregation induced enhancement of the quantum yields with a simultaneous decrease of phosphorescence lifetimes, is reported. Additionally, a change of emission color is induced by variation of the excitation wavelength. The aggregation behavior of these complexes is controlled by the steric demand of the substituents. The photophysical properties of these complexes are investigated through emission-excitation matrix analysis (EEM)...
September 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Nikolas Hagemann, Edisson Subdiaga, Silvia Orsetti, José María de la Rosa, Heike Knicker, Hans-Peter Schmidt, Andreas Kappler, Sebastian Behrens
Biochar, a material defined as charred organic matter applied in agriculture, is suggested as a beneficial additive and bulking agent in composting. Biochar addition to the composting feedstock was shown to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching during the composting process, and to result in a fertilizer and plant growth medium that is superior to non-amended composts. However, the impact of biochar on the quality and carbon speciation of the organic matter in bulk compost has so far not been the focus of systematic analyses, although these parameters are key to determine the long-term stability and carbon sequestration potential of biochar-amended composts in soil...
September 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
B G Fox, R M S Thorn, A M Anesio, D M Reynolds
Aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an essential role in biogeochemical cycling and transport of organic matter throughout the hydrological continuum. To characterise microbially-derived organic matter (OM) from common environmental microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy was employed. This work shows that bacterial organisms can produce fluorescent organic matter (FOM) in situ and, furthermore, that the production of FOM differs at a bacterial species level...
August 18, 2017: Water Research
Long-Ji Zhu, Yue Zhao, Yan-Ni Chen, Hong-Yang Cui, Yu-Quan Wei, Hai-Long Liu, Xiao-Meng Chen, Zi-Min Wei
Atrazine is widely used in agriculture. In this study, dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under four types of land use (forest (F), meadow (M), cropland (C) and wetland (W)) was used to investigate the binding characteristics of atrazine. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix-parallel factor (EEM-PARAFAC) analysis, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) and Stern-Volmer model were combined to explore the complexation between DOM and atrazine. The EEM-PARAFAC indicated that DOM from different sources had different structures, and humic-like components had more obvious quenching effects than protein-like components...
November 29, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Milad Rabbani Esfahani, Vasanta L Pallem, Holly A Stretz, Martha J M Wells
Knowledge of the interactions between gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) is significant in the development of detection devices for environmental sensing, studies of environmental fate and transport, and advances in antifouling water treatment membranes. The specific objective of this research was to spectroscopically investigate the fundamental interactions between citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (CT-GNPs) and DOM. Studies indicated that 30 and 50nm diameter GNPs promoted disaggregation of the DOM...
August 10, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Afeng Zhang, Xu Zhou, Ming Li, Haiming Wu
Biochar amendment in soil has the potential to sequester carbon, improve soil quality and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in agriculture, but the impact of biochar amendments on dissolved organic matter (DOM) properties of soils in the fertilized agro-ecosystem has received little research attention. This study performed a long-term field experiment to assess the influence of biochar amendments (different addition rate: 4 t ha(-1) and 8 t ha(-1)) on DOM characteristics in soils in wheat-maize rotation system in Loess Plateau of China by exploiting fluorescence excitation-emission spectrophotometry and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC)...
November 2017: Chemosphere
Jenna L Luek, Kaitlyn E Thompson, Randolph K Larsen, Andrew Heyes, Michael Gonsior
Sulfate reduction plays an important role in altering dissolved organic matter (DOM) in estuarine and coastal sediments, although its role in the production of optically active chromophoric DOM (CDOM) and a subset of fluorescent DOM (FDOM) has not been previously investigated in detail. Freshwater sediment slurries were incubated anaerobically with added sulfate and acetate to promote sulfate-reducing bacteria. Ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) absorbance and 3-dimensional excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra were measured over a five weeks anaerobic dark incubation period...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gongduan Fan, Zhaoyue Su, Rujing Lin, Zhuwu Jiang, Renxing Xu, Shumin Wang
In order to gain the run parameters of the combined process of coagulation/in situ chlorination/ultrafiltration (UF) so that the system can remove as much organic contaminants as possible without serious membrane fouling, the impacts of operation conditions in coagulation and pre-chlorination unit on organics removal and membrane fouling rate were investigated in a pilot-scale test. The characteristics of organics in UF influent were examined by using the method of excitation emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs) to find out fouling behavior of different natural organic matter (NOM) compositions to UF membrane...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Technology
Tzuhua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Akira Nabeshima, Luis A Córdova, Florence Loi, Emmanuel Gibon, Laura Lu, Karthik Nathan, Eemeli Jämsen, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman
Excessive production of wear particles from total joint replacements (TJRs) induces chronic inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and consequent bone loss (periprosthetic osteolysis). This inflammation and bone remodeling are critically regulated by the transcription factor NF-κB. We previously demonstrated that inhibition of NF-κB signaling by using the decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) mitigates polyethylene wear particle-induced bone loss using in vitro and in vivo models. However, the mechanisms of NF-κB decoy ODN action, and in particular its impact on systemic macrophage recruitment, remain unknown...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
I S Muskens, S J H Diederen, J T Senders, A H Zamanipoor Najafabadi, W R van Furth, A M May, T R Smith, A L Bredenoord, M L D Broekman
BACKGROUND: Surgical innovation is different from the introduction of novel pharmaceuticals. To help address this, in 2009 the IDEAL Collaboration (Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term follow-up) introduced the five-stage framework for surgical innovation. To evaluate the framework feasibility for novel neurosurgical procedure introduction, two innovative surgical procedures were examined: the endoscopic endonasal approach for skull base meningiomas (EEMS) and the WovenEndobridge (WEB device) for endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms...
August 6, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
Minori Uchimiya, Joseph E Knoll, William F Anderson, Karen R Harris-Shultz
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a heat- and drought-tolerant crop that has promise to supplement corn (Zea mays L.) for biofuel production from fermentable sugars (for sweet cultivars) and lignocellulosic biomass. Quantitative relationships are lacking to predict the accumulation of primary (stem sugars) and secondary (organic acids, phenolics, and inorganic species) products that could either expand (as the value-added product) or limit (as the fermentation inhibitor) the market value of a cultivar...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sihai Hu, Yaoguo Wu, Na Yi, Shuai Zhang, Yuanjing Zhang, Xu Xin
Dissolved organic matter (DOM), as the most active organic carbon in the soil, has a coherent affinity with heavy metals from inherent and exogenous sources. Although the important roles of DOM in the adsorption of heavy metals in soil have previously been demonstrated, the heterogeneity and variability of the chemical constitution of DOM impede the investigation of its effects on heavy metal adsorption onto soil under natural conditions. Fresh DOM (FDOM) and degraded DOM (DDOM) from sugarcane rind were prepared, and their chemical properties were measured by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopes, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and molecular weight distribution (MWD)...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kelly R Munkittrick, Tim J Arciszewski
Since the publishing of the Kelly et al. papers (2009, 2010) describing elevated contaminants in snow near the Alberta oil sands, there has been a significant expansion of monitoring efforts, enhanced by $50M a year contributed by industry to a regional Joint Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM) program. In parallel to the intensification of research and monitoring efforts, including expansion of measured indicators, techniques for chemical analysis have also become more sensitive. Both factors contribute to the increased sensitivity and power, and improve our capacity to detect any change...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Poh-Kheng Ng, Showe-Mei Lin, Phaik-Eem Lim, Anicia Q Hurtado, Siew-Moi Phang, Yoon-Yen Yow, Zhongmin Sun
Many studies classifying Gracilaria species for the exploitation of agarophytes and the development of the agar industry were conducted before the prevalence of molecular tools, resulting in the description of many species based solely on their morphology. Gracilaria firma and G. changii are among the commercially important agarophytes from the western Pacific; both feature branches with basal constrictions that taper toward acute apices. In this study, we contrasted the morpho-anatomical circumscriptions of the two traditionally described species with molecular data from samples that included representatives of G...
2017: PloS One
Dong Fan, Lili Ding, Hui Huang, Mengtian Chen, Hongqiang Ren
Fluidized-bed Fenton coupled with ceramic membrane separation to treat the flax secondary effluent was investigated. The operating variables, including initial pH, dosage of H2O2 and Fe(0), air flow rate, TMP and pore size, were optimized. The distributions of DOMs in the treatment process were analyzed. Under the optimum condition (600mgL(-1)H2O2, 1.4gL(-1) Fe(0), pH=3, 300Lh(-1) air flow rate and 15psi TMP), the highest TOC and color removal efficiencies were 84% and 94% in the coupled reactor with 100nm ceramic membrane, reducing 39% of total iron with similar removal efficiency compared with Fluidized-bed Fenton...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Lixiao Ni, Danye Li, Shiyi Rong, Lili Su, Wei Zhou, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Shiyin Li, Kumud Acharya
This paper focuses on the characterization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are composed of soluble EPS (SL-EPS), loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS), and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) produced by Microcystis aeruginosa under the stress of linoleic acid (LA) and LA sustained-release microspheres. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry were used to characterize three forms of EPS while the content of polysaccharide and protein was tested, respectively...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
N L P Andrews, T Ferguson, A M M Rangaswamy, A R Bernicky, N Henning, A Dudelzak, O Reich, J A Barnes, H-P Loock
We present a fluorescence excitation-emission-matrix spectrometer with superior data acquisition rates over previous instruments. Light from a white light emitting diode (LED) source is dispersed onto a digital micromirror array (DMA) and encoded using binary n-size Walsh functions ("barcodes"). The encoded excitation light is used to irradiate the liquid sample and its fluorescence is dispersed and detected using a conventional array spectrometer. After exposure to excitation light encoded in n different ways, the 2-dimensional excitation-emission-matrix (EEM) spectrum is obtained by inverse Hadamard transformation...
August 4, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Shuang Liang, Li Lu, Fangang Meng
In this study, membrane filtration tests showed that the membrane rejection degree of difloxacin hydrochloride (DFHC) increased significantly in the presence of Suwannee River DOM or Aldrich humic acid (2-10 mg-C/L). Titration experiments showed that the excitation and emission of Peak R belonging to DFHC exhibited blue shifts by 5 nm and 10 nm, respectively, in the presence of DOM. The presence of DFHC can, in turn, lead to more significant overlapping of the fluorescence peaks of the Suwannee River DOM and Aldrich humic acid...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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