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Bin Hua, John Yang, Fengjing Liu, Guocheng Zhu, Baolin Deng, Jingdong Mao
Characterization of dissolved organic matter/nitrogen (DOM/DON) is critical in water quality assessment and nutrient management in watershed or ecosystem. This study was to investigate the link between DOM/DON and its source using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Water samples were collected from various aquatic systems in a watershed located in central Missouri, including rural watershed with various land use and land cover (LULC), landfill, and constructed wetland...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Qianyi Zhang, Evan G R Davies, James R Bolton, Yang Liu
Monochloramine (NH2 Cl) is widely used for secondary disinfection by water utilities. However, Edmonton field stormwater sampling results have shown that NH2 Cl, because of its long-lasting property, can cause stormwater contamination through outdoor potable water uses during the summer season. To protect water sources, it is important to understand NH2 Cl dissipation mechanisms in stormwater. Natural organic matter (NOM) is the dominant species that contributes to NH2 Cl decay in stormwater. In this research, it is proposed that NOM reacted with both NH2 Cl and free chlorine through rapid and long-term reactions during NH2 Cl dissipation...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Georgina Shillito, Thomas B J Hall, Dan Preston, Philipp Traber, Lingjun Wu, Katherine Reynolds, Raphael Horvath, Xue Zhong Sun, Nigel T Lucas, James D Crowley, Michael W George, Stephan Kupfer, Keith C Gordon
The ground and excited state photophysical properties of a series of fac-[Re(L)(CO)3 (α-diimine)]n+ complexes, where L = Br- , Cl- , 4-dimethylaminopyridine (dmap) and pyridine (py) have been extensively studied utilizing numerous electronic and vibrational spectroscopic techniques in conjunction with a suite of quantum computational methods. The α-diimine ligand consists of 1,10-phenanthroline with the highly electron donating triphenylamine (TPA) appended in the 5 position. This gives rise to intra-ligand charge-transfer (ILCT) states lying lower in energy than the conventional metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) state, the energies of which are red and blue-shifted, respectively, as the ancillary ligand, L becomes more electron withdrawing...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Quang Viet Ly, Jin Hur
This study assessed the relative contributions of different constitutes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) with two different sources (i.e., urban river and effluent) to membrane fouling on three types of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes via excitation emission matrix - parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Two polyethersulfone membranes with different pore sizes and one regenerated cellulose membrane were used as representative hydrophobic (HPO) and hydrophilic (HPI) UF membranes, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Na Li, Dong Wei, Qunqun Sun, Xiao Han, Bin Du, Qin Wei
In this study, methylene blue (MB) wastewater was biotreated by anaerobic granular sludge (AnGS), and the fluorescent components of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and complexation mechanism were evaluated. Based on the experimental data, the sorption of MB by both live and inactivated AnGS followed the pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption isotherm conformed well to the Langmuir model. It was shown that the difference in the sorption of live and inactivated AnGS was not significant, indicating that the sorption is mainly a physical-chemical process and metabolically mediated diffusion is negligible...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Nicolas M Peleato, Raymond L Legge, Robert C Andrews
The use of fluorescence data coupled with neural networks for improved predictability of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) was investigated. Novel application of autoencoders to process high-dimensional fluorescence data was related to common dimensionality reduction techniques of parallel factors analysis (PARAFAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). The proposed method was assessed based on component interpretability as well as for prediction of organic matter reactivity to formation of DBPs...
February 21, 2018: Water Research
Stuart C Painter, Dan J Lapworth, E Malcolm S Woodward, Silke Kroeger, Chris D Evans, Daniel J Mayor, Richard J Sanders
The flow of terrestrial carbon to rivers and inland waters is a major term in the global carbon cycle. The organic fraction of this flux may be buried, remineralized or ultimately stored in the deep ocean. The latter can only occur if terrestrial organic carbon can pass through the coastal and estuarine filter, a process of unknown efficiency. Here, data are presented on the spatial distribution of terrestrial fluorescent and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (FDOM and CDOM, respectively) throughout the North Sea, which receives organic matter from multiple distinct sources...
February 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Juan Hu, Jinggui Wu, Xiaojing Qu, Jianming Li
The objective of this work was to evaluate the variation in the amount and structure of humic acid (HA) after the application of organic wastes (OWs) in semiarid soil under plastic mulched drip irrigation, measured by elemental composition, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence, and carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13 C CPMAS NMR). The experiment involved chemical fertilizer combined with chicken manure (CM), sheep manure (SM), maize straw (MS), fodder grass (FG), and tree leaves (TL), while chemical fertilizer only was used as control (CK)...
February 22, 2018: Chemosphere
Liang Guo, Yiding Guo, Mei Sun, Mengchun Gao, Yangguo Zhao, Zonglian She
Using waste sludge internal carbon source for nitrogen removal in wastewater has drawn much attention, due to its economic advantages and sludge reduction. In this study, the performance of enhanced denitrification with waste sludge thermal hydrolysate and fermentation liquid as carbon sources at different SCOD/N (soluble chemical oxygen demand/NO3 - -N) was investigated. The optimum SCOD/N was 8 for sludge thermal hydrolysate and 7 for fermentation liquid, with NO3 - -N removal efficiency of 92.3 and 98.9%, respectively, and no NO2 - -N accumulation...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tao Wang, Zhenxing Huang, Wenquan Ruan, Mingxing Zhao, Youlian Shao, Hengfeng Miao
In this study, a full-scale internal circulation (IC) reactor coupled with an external circulation system was developed to treat high-strength leachate from a municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plant, in which anaerobic sludge granulation was intensively investigated. Results showed that the IC reactor achieved excellent treatment performance under high organic loading rates (OLR) of 21.06-25.16kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3 ∙day). The COD removal efficiency and biogas yield respectively reached 89...
February 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Yancheng Li, Yingmu Wang, Ziyuan Lin, Jiale Wang, Qiang He, Jian Zhou
Pulping wastewater still contains massive refractory organics after biotreatment, with high colority, low biodegradability, and lasting biotoxicity. To eliminate refractory organics in pulping wastewater, a methanotrophic co-metabolic system in a gas cycle Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (gcSBBR) seeded by soil at a ventilation opening of coal mine was quickly built on the 92nd day. The removal rate of COD, colority and TOC was 53.28%, 50.59% and 51.60%, respectively. Analysis of 3D-EEM indicated that glycolated protein-like, melanoidin-like or lignocellulose-like, and humic acid-like decreased by 7...
February 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Weijun Zhang, Rongna Song, Bingdi Cao, Xiaofang Yang, Dongsheng Wang, Xingmin Fu, Yao Song
The work evaluated the algae cells removal efficiency using titanium salt coagulants with different degree of polymerization (PTCs), and the algae cells aggregates and extracellular organic matter (EOM) under chemical flocculation were investigated. The results indicated that PTCs performed well in algae cells flocculation and separation. The main mechanism using PTCs of low alkalisation degree for algae flocculation was associated with charge neutralization, while adsorption bridging and sweep flocculation was mainly responsible for algae removal by PTCs of high alkalisation degree treatment...
February 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Liqiang Tan, Xiaoli Tan, Huiyang Mei, Yuejie Ai, Lu Sun, Guixia Zhao, Tasawar Hayat, Ahmed Alsaedi, Changlun Chen, Xiangke Wang
The coagulation behaviors of humic acid (HA) with Cs+ (10-500 mM), Sr2+ (0.8-10.0 mM) and Eu3+ (0.01-1.0 mM) at different pH values (2.8, 7.1 and 10.0) were acquired through a dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique combined with spectroscopic analysis and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The coagulation rate and the average hydrodynamic diameter (<Dh >) increased significantly as the concentration of nuclides increased. <Dh > could be scaled to time t as <Dh >∝ ta at higher Sr2+ concentrations, which shows that HA coagulation is consistent with the diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) model...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Peifei Ding, Weifeng Song, Ziheng Yang, Jingyi Jian
Bacillus vallismortis (B. vallismortis), an aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, was screened in a laboratory pilot study, to assess the interaction between the heavy metal Zn(II) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The influence of Zn(II) stress on EPS production, component variation, and sorption performance, was investigated. The characteristics of B. vallismortis EPS formed under stress were analyzed using FTIR, 3D-EEM and XPS. EPS was used as an adsorbent and the adsorption capacity and adsorption behavior of EPS formed with and without Zn(II) stress, were compared and assessed...
February 17, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Jiachun Yang, Li Zhang, Kechen Xu, Yongzhen Peng
This study combined spectroscopy techniques to assess the composition of refractory organics and highlighted the potential application of excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy within future monitoring of coal chemical wastewater treatment by the anammox process. The results showed that the anammox process could effectively degrade refractory organic substances, with fulvic-like, UV-humic acid, and Vis-humic acid component removal efficiencies of 43.61, 53.93, and 100%, respectively. In this study, EEM fluorescence spectroscopy was proven to be an effective method of assessing the removal of dissolved organic nitrogen during anammox treatment of mature coal chemical wastewater...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Susan Praise, Hiroaki Ito, Ying An, Kazuya Watanabe, Toru Watanabe
Changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics were investigated in two mountainous streams with closed-type sabo dams. Surface water was collected from four stations along the two mountainous streams and analyzed using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and excitation-emission fluorescence matrix (EEM) methods. Optical properties of DOM indicated an increase in molecular weight and aromaticity at stations near the sabo dams. Average spectral ratio values were low before and after the dam (i.e...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Simona Retelletti Brogi, Sun-Yong Ha, Kwanwoo Kim, Morgane Derrien, Yun Kyung Lee, Jin Hur
Sea ice contains a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM), which can be released into the ocean once it melts. In this study, Arctic sea ice DOM was characterized for its optical (fluorescence) properties as well as the molecular sizes and composition via size exclusion chromatography and Fourier transformation ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Ice cores were collected along with the underlying seawater samples in Cambridge Bay, an Arctic area experiencing seasonal ice formation...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Tahir Maqbool, Jinwoo Cho, Jin Hur
Spectroscopic techniques were used to examine the subtle changes in soluble microbial products (SMP) of batch activated sludge bioreactors working at different salinities (i.e., 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% NaCl). The changes in different fluorescent constituent were tracked by excitation-emission matrix combined with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC), and the sequential production was further identified by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). Greater enrichment of tryptophan-like component and large-sized biopolymer were found in SMP for higher saline bioreactors, suggesting the SMP sources from bound extracellular polymeric substances and excreted intercellular constituents...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Lu Liu, Junhui Chen, Phaik-Eem Lim, Dong Wei
The single cell oil (SCO) production by the mono and mixed culture of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was investigated using non-detoxified cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) as carbon source. The results suggested that the two strains were able to tolerate and even degrade some byproducts presented in the CBH, and the mixed culture approach enhanced the degradation of certain byproducts. Biomass (20.37 ± 0.38 g/L) and lipid yield (10.42 ± 1.21 g/L) of the mixed culture achieved in the batch culture were significantly higher than that of the mono-cultures (p < 0...
February 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Qing Ding, Hiroshi Yamamura, Hitoshi Yonekawa, Nobuhiro Aoki, Naoki Murata, Akira Hafuka, Yoshimasa Watanabe
Coagulation is often applied as a pre-treatment for membrane processes to reduce dissolved organic matter and to prevent membrane fouling. Biopolymers (BPs) have repeatedly been reported as major organic foulants, and coagulation conditions such as pH or dose have been optimised to minimise the remaining BPs. Optimisation however remains problematic because of the complex and heterogenetic nature of BP. In this study, the behaviour of several BP fractions in a coagulation process was investigated by excitation-emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) following liquid chromatography (LC)-fractionation...
February 2, 2018: Water Research
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