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Martha J M Wells, Gene A Mullins, Katherine Y Bell, Allegra K Da Silva, Eileen M Navarrete
The Neuse River, North Carolina, U.S., exemplifies a typical de facto potable reuse scenario, where drinking water sources are located downstream of treated wastewater effluent discharges. The study results imply that planned potable water reuse, whether in an indirect or direct potable reuse scenario, might provide better control over water quality than the status quo conditions. Using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) measurements, anthropogenic influence of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge was observed in samples near the location of drinking water treatment plant (WTP) intakes, eight or more miles downstream of the WWTP, implying that anthropogenic compounds were not fully removed or degraded by natural processes in this reach of the river...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Weiwei Cai, Yu Liu
Although on-line chemical cleaning has been extensively employed for maintaining the MBR permeability, little attention has been given to the negative impacts of such prevalent membrane cleaning practice. This study thus comparatively investigated the potential release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from activated sludge upon the exposure to different kinds of frequently-used cleaning reagents, i.e. NaClO, H2O2, HCl and NaOH. It was found that NaClO at 50 and 80 mg L(-1) triggered significant release of DOM, while NaOH strongly promoted soluble nitrogen release...
November 8, 2017: Chemosphere
Isabel Durán Merás, Jaime Domínguez Manzano, Diego Airado Rodríguez, Arsenio Muñoz de la Peña
Within olive oils, extra virgin olive oil is the highest quality and, in consequence, the most expensive one. Because of that, it is common that some merchants attempt to take economic advantage by mixing it up with other less expensive oils, like olive oil or olive pomace oil. In consequence, the characterization and authentication of extra virgin olive oils is a subject of great interest, both for industry and consumers. This paper reports the potential of front-face total fluorescence spectroscopy combined with second-order chemometric methods for the detection of extra virgin olive oils adulteration with other olive oils...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
Chloé Martias, Marc Tedetti, François Lantoine, Léocadie Jamet, Cécile Dupouy
The eastern lagoon of New Caledonia (NC, Southwest Pacific), listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, hosts the world's second longest double-barrier coral reef. This lagoon receives river inputs, oceanic water arrivals, and erosion pressure from ultramafic rocks, enriched in nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co). The aim of this study was to characterize colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), as well as to determine its main sources and its possible relationships (through the use of Pearson correlation coefficients, r) with biogeochemical parameters, plankton communities and trace metals in the NC eastern lagoon...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Rachel N Oldfield, Kathryn A Johnston, Jeanette Limones, Caitlin Ghilarducci, Karlo M Lopez
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a copper-dependent amine oxidase enzyme that catalyzes the formation of crosslinkages of collagen and elastin in connective tissues by oxidative deamination of lysine. Using site-directed mutagenesis, Histidine 303 has been shown to be a key residue that acts as the necessary catalytic base for this enzyme to function properly. Histidine 303 was mutated to isoleucine to remove catalytic activity and to aspartate and glutamate, respectively, in order to provide alternate residues that could act as a general base that could maintain catalytic activity...
November 10, 2017: Protein Journal
Shasha Liu, Tianhui Zhao, Yuanrong Zhu, Xiaoxia Qu, Zhongqi He, John P Giesy, Wei Meng
Chemical properties of whole organic matter (OM) and its dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from three types of dominant macrophytes in Lake Dianchi were comparatively characterized using elemental analysis, UV, 3D-EEM and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and their implications for lakes were discussed. Ratios of C/N and C/P were least in the floating water hyacinth and submerged sago pondweed, while total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and phosphorus (TDP), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and phosphorus (DOP) were greatest in those species...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Mei Huang, Zhongwu Li, Bin Huang, Ninglin Luo, Qiu Zhang, Xiuqing Zhai, Guangming Zeng
The binding of Cd and Cu to dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from compost (CP) and rice straw (ST) was studied through an approach combining parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS). Both humic-like and protein-like substances have been observed in CP and ST. Comparing with the Cu, Cd exhibited a lower affinity to DOM, and the quenching curve of Cd failed to be fitted by the Ryan and Weber Model, indicating that the environmental risk caused by applying CP or ST to Cd-polluted soil should be considered...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
W Aibibula, J Cox, A-M Hamelin, Eem Moodie, A I Naimi, T McLinden, M B Klein, P Brassard
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of food insecurity (FI) on HIV viral load and CD4 count among people coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: This study was conducted using data from the Food Security & HIV-HCV Sub-Study of the Canadian Co-Infection Cohort study. FI was measured using the adult scale of Health Canada's Household Food Security Survey Module and was classified into three categories: food security, moderate food insecurity and severe food insecurity...
November 2, 2017: HIV Medicine
Liang Guo, Zengshuai Zhang, Mengchun Gao, Zonglian She, Yangguo Zhao, Yiding Guo, Jian Sun
To gain a better understanding of the influence on two-stage anaerobic digestion of waste sludge with thermophilic bacteria (TB) and alkyl polyglucose (APG) pretreatment, changing of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrate and protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and dissolved organic matters (DOM) were analyzed. The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was also used to investigate compositional and structural characteristics of DOM. The highest hydrogen and methane yield of TB pretreated sludge was 12...
October 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Sijia Li, Ya'nan Chen, Jiquan Zhang, Kaishan Song, Guangyi Mu, Caiyun Sun, Hanyu Ju, Meichen Ji
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a large group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have caused wide environmental pollution and ecological effects. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), which consists of complex compounds, was seen as a proxy of water quality. An attempt was made to understand the relationships of CDOM absorption parameters and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) components with PAHs under seasonal variation in the riverine, reservoir, and urban waters of the Yinma River watershed in 2016...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alexandria G Hounshell, Benjamin L Peierls, Christopher L Osburn, Hans W Paerl
There is increased focus on nitrogen (N)-containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a nutrient source supporting eutrophication in N-sensitive estuarine ecosystems. This is particularly relevant in watersheds undergoing urban and agricultural development, leading to increased dissolved organic N (DON) loading. To understand how this shift in N-loading influences estuarine phytoplankton production, nutrient addition bioassays were conducted in the N-limited Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina from 2014 to 2015...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Anu Mary Ealias, M P Saravanakumar
Protein Rich Solution (PRS) was prepared from the sewage sludge with ultrasonic assistance. With PRS, aluminium based nanosheet like materials (AlNs) were synthesised for the ultrasonic removal of Congo Red (CR) and Crystal Violet (CV) dyes. PRS was characterised by UV, EEM and NMR spectral analysis. AlNs were characterised by FTIR, XRD, TGA, BET, SEM, AFM, TEM and XPS analysis. The point of zero charge of AlNs was found to be 5.4. The BET analysis ensured that the average pore diameter and total pore volume of AlNs as 8...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Makoto Araki, Taishi Yonetsu, Tetsumin Lee, Tadashi Murai, Yoshihisa Kanaji, Eisuke Usui, Junji Matsuda, Masahiro Hoshino, Takayuki Niida, Masahiro Hada, Sadamitsu Ichijo, Rikuta Hamaya, Yoshinori Kanno, Mitsuaki Isobe, Tsunekazu Kakuta
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the association between chronological out-stent vessel remodeling and in-stent tissue characteristics of drug-eluting stent (DES) failure. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between serial vessel remodeling after DES implantation and neoatherosclerosis (NA) assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with DES failure. METHODS: Forty-eight patients with late and very late stent failure after DES implantation, who underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) at both the initial percutaneous coronary intervention and the time of stent failure and OCT imaging at the time of stent failure, were retrospectively investigated...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
Ju Hwan Lee, Yoo Na Hwang, Ga Young Kim, Eun Seok Shin, Sung Min Kim
The purpose of this study was to characterize cardiovascular tissue components and analyze the different tissue properties for predicting coronary vulnerable plaque from intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images. For this purpose, sequential IVUS image frames were obtained from human coronary arteries using 20 MHz catheters. The plaque regions between the intima and media-adventitial borders were manually segmented in all IVUS images. Tissue components of the plaque regions were classified into having fibrous tissue (FT), fibrofatty tissue (FFT), necrotic core (NC), or dense calcium (DC)...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Dong Wei, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Weiying Xu, Bin Du, Malik Saddam Khan, Qin Wei
In present study, the biosorption process of Cu(II) onto aerobic granular sludge-derived biochar was evaluated in the absence and presence of effluent organic matter (EfOM) by using batch and fluorescence approaches. It was found that EfOM gave rise to enhancement of Cu(II) removal efficiency onto biochar, and the sorption data were better fitted with pseudo-second order model and Freundlich equation, in despite of the absence and presence of EfOM. According to excitation-emission matrix (EEM), EfOM was mainly comprised by humic-like substances and fulvic-like substances and their intensities were reduced in the addition of biochar and Cu(II) from batch biosorption process...
October 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Mi-Hee Lee, Heon-Jae Jung, Sung-Han Kim, Sung-Uk An, Jung Hyun Choi, Hyo-Jin Lee, In-Ae Huh, Jin Hur
Due to recent weir construction on four major rivers in South Korea, sediment has accumulated in the river bottom near the weirs, which has in turn raised concerns over the quality of overlying water. In this study, the seasonal and spatial variations of sediment oxygen demand (SOD) and the influencing factors were explored using pore water chemistry for the weir-impounded rivers. Muddy and sandy sediment samples were taken from 24 different sites along the four major rivers in summer and autumn, 2016. The SOD was measured in a laboratory based on 10-hour incubation at in situ temperature...
October 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Chenghu Yang, Yangzhi Liu, Qiulin Cen, Yaxian Zhu, Yong Zhang
The heterogeneous adsorption behavior of commercial humic acid (HA) on pristine and functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was investigated by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and parallel factor (EEM- PARAFAC) analysis. The kinetics, isotherms, thermodynamics and mechanisms of adsorption of HA fluorescent components onto MWCNTs were the focus of the present study. Three humic-like fluorescent components were distinguished, including one carboxylic-like fluorophore C1 (λex/λem= (250, 310) nm/428nm), and two phenolic-like fluorophores, C2 (λex/λem= (300, 460) nm/552nm) and C3 (λex/λem= (270, 375) nm/520nm)...
October 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jibin Li, Jinglin Wei, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Haibao Liu, Bin Du, Qin Wei, Dong Wei
In present study, the characterization of soluble microbial products (SMP) was evaluated in a partial nitrification sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR). During the stable operation of SBBR, the NH4(+)-N removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation ratio were 96.70±0.41% and 93.77±1.04%, respectively. According to excitation-emission matrix (EEM), the intensities of protein-like substances were reduced under anoxic and aerobic phases, whereas humic-like substances had little change during the whole cycle...
October 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Xue-Mei Bai, Tie Liu, De-Long Liu, Yong-Ju Wei
A chemometrics-assisted excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence method was proposed for simultaneous determination of α-asarone and β-asarone in Acorus tatarinowii. Using the strategy of combining EEM data with chemometrics methods, the simultaneous determination of α-asarone and β-asarone in the complex Traditional Chinese medicine system was achieved successfully, even in the presence of unexpected interferents. The physical or chemical separation step was avoided due to the use of "mathematical separation"...
October 3, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Bing Wang, Chen Cai, Guomin Li, Huiling Liu
Utilization as dry mycelial fertilizer (DMF) produced from penicillin fermentation fungi mycelium (PFFM) with an acid-heating pretreatment is a potential way. To study the transformation and stability of water-extractable organic matter in DMF-amended soil via fluorescence regional integration (FRI) of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM), a soil experiment in pot was carried out. The results showed that residual penicillin (about 32 mg/kg) was almost degraded in the first 5 days, indicating that the drug pollution was in control...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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