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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521982/hydrophobization-and-smoothing-of-cellulose-nanofibril-films-by-cellulose-ester-coatings
#1
Pia Willberg-Keyriläinen, Jari Vartiainen, Jani Pelto, Jarmo Ropponen
The Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), also referred to as nanocellulose, is one of the most studied bio-based material in recent year, which has good potential in the future for packaging applications due to its excellent mechanical strength and oxygen barrier properties. In the future, CNF films may also find new applications for example in printed electronics, if the surface smoothness of CNF films can be improved. One way to improve surface smoothness is to use thin coating solutions with zero porosity, such as molar mass controlled cellulose ester coatings...
August 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521210/selective-thermal-transformation-of-old-computer-printed-circuit-boards-to-cu-sn-based-alloy
#2
Ali Shokri, Farshid Pahlevani, Ivan Cole, Veena Sahajwalla
This study investigates, verifies and determines the optimal parameters for the selective thermal transformation of problematic electronic waste (e-waste) to produce value-added copper-tin (Cu-Sn) based alloys; thereby demonstrating a novel new pathway for the cost-effective recovery of resources from one of the world's fastest growing and most challenging waste streams. Using outdated computer printed circuit boards (PCBs), a ubiquitous component of e-waste, we investigated transformations across a range of temperatures and time frames...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520985/warning-statements-and-safety-practices-among-manufacturers-and-distributors-of-electronic-cigarette-liquids-in-the-united-states
#3
Pebbles Fagan, Pallav Pokhrel, Thaddeus A Herzog, Mignonne C Guy, Kari-Lyn K Sakuma, Dennis R Trinidad, Kevin Cassel, Dorothy Jorgensen, Tania Lynch, Jamie Q Felicitas-Perkins, Sherilyn Palafox, Faith Hamamura, Sarah Maloney, Kaylah Degree, Kymberle Sterling, Eric Moolchan, Mark S Clanton, Thomas Eissenberg
Introduction.: Prior to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) regulation of electronic cigarettes and warning statements related to nicotine addiction, there was no critical examination of manufacturer/distributor voluntary practices that could potentially inform FDA actions aimed to protect consumers. This study examined the content of warning statements and safety characteristics of electronic cigarette liquid bottles using a national sample. Methods.: Research staff randomly selected four electronic cigarette liquid manufacturers/distributors from four U...
May 18, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520481/on-the-origins-of-the-electronic-cigarette-british-american-tobacco-s-project-ariel-1962-1967
#4
Stephan Risi
Electronic cigarettes are advertised as the latest technological gadget-the smoking equivalent of smart phones. I challenge this sense of novelty by tracing their history to the 1960s, when researchers at British American Tobacco first recognized that smokers' brains were dependent on nicotine. This discovery enabled British American Tobacco to develop a novel kind of smoking device under the codename "Ariel" between 1962 and 1967. Whereas filters were meant to eliminate specific harmful constituents of tobacco smoke, Project Ariel tried to reduce smoking to its alkaloid essence: nicotine...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512579/the-impact-of-electronic-reading-devices-on-reading-speed-and-comfort-in-patients-with-decreased-vision
#5
Henry L Feng, Daniel B Roth, Howard F Fine, Jonathan L Prenner, Kunjal K Modi, William J Feuer
Background/Aims. To evaluate the impact of back-illuminated and nonilluminated electronic reading devices on reading speed and comfort in patients with decreased vision. Methods. A prospective study involving a convenience sample of 167 patients at a single retina practice from January 2011 to December 2012. Participants were asked to read five different excerpts on five different media in a randomly assigned order. Media included a printed book at 12-point font (12PF), iPad2 at 12PF, iPad2 at 18-point font (18PF), Kindle2 at 12PF, and Kindle2 at 18PF...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511666/barriers-and-facilitators-of-access-to-maternal-services-for-women-with-disabilities-scoping-review-protocol
#6
Doreen Mheta, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson
BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) emphasises the increasing equitable coverage of quality health care and provision of integrated services as means of reducing maternal mortality. Despite so much effort being placed on improved access to maternity health care, studies show that women with disabilities are being systemically excluded from the mainstream maternal health services. The proposed scoping review aims to map literature on the barriers and facilitators of access to maternal services for women with disabilities...
May 16, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505403/prediction-of-the-wetting-behavior-of-active-and-hole-transport-layers-for-printed-flexible-electronic-devices-using-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#7
Rahul Bhowmik, Rajiv J Berry, Michael F Durstock, Benjamin J Leever
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to predict the wetting behavior of materials typical of active and hole-transport layers in organic electronics by evaluating their contact angles and adhesion energies. The active layer (AL) here consists of a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM), whereas the hole-transport layer (HTL) consists of a blend of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Simulations of the wetting of these surfaces by multiple solvents show that formamide, glycerol, and water droplet contact angle trends correlate with experimental values...
May 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497480/effectiveness-of-portable-electronic-and-optical-magnifiers-for-near-vision-activities-in-low-vision-a-randomised-crossover-trial
#8
John J Taylor, Rachel Bambrick, Andrew Brand, Nathan Bray, Michelle Dutton, Robert A Harper, Zoe Hoare, Barbara Ryan, Rhiannon T Edwards, Heather Waterman, Christine Dickinson
PURPOSE: To compare the performance of near vision activities using additional portable electronic vision enhancement systems (p-EVES), to using optical magnifiers alone, by individuals with visual impairment. METHODS: A total of 100 experienced optical aid users were recruited from low vision clinics at Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester, UK, to a prospective two-arm cross-over randomised controlled trial. Reading, performance of near vision activities, and device usage were evaluated at baseline; and at the end of each study arm (Intervention A: existing optical aids plus p-EVES; Intervention B: optical aids only) which was after 2 and 4 months...
May 12, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495033/clinical-applications-of-3-dimensional-printing-in-radiation-therapy
#9
Yizhou Zhao, Kathryn Moran, Mammo Yewondwossen, James Allan, Scott Clarke, Murali Rajaraman, Derek Wilke, Paul Joseph, James L Robar
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is suitable for the fabrication of complex radiotherapy bolus. Although investigated from dosimetric and feasibility standpoints, there are few reports to date of its use for actual patient treatment. This study illustrates the versatile applications of 3D printing in clinical radiation oncology through a selection of patient cases, namely, to create bolus for photon and modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT), as well as applicators for surface high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy...
May 8, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490554/feasibility-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-within-consultation-intervention-to-reduce-antibiotic-prescribing-for-children-presenting-to-primary-care-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infection-and-cough
#10
Peter S Blair, Sophie Turnbull, Jenny Ingram, Niamh Redmond, Patricia Jane Lucas, Christie Cabral, Sandra Hollinghurst, Padraig Dixon, Tim Peters, Jeremy Horwood, Paul Little, Nick A Francis, Anna Gilbertson, Catherine Jameson, Alastair D Hay
OBJECTIVE: To investigate recruitment and retention, data collection methods and the acceptability of a 'within-consultation' complex intervention designed to reduce antibiotic prescribing. DESIGN: Primary care feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 32 general practices in South West England recruiting children from October 2014 to April 2015. PARTICIPANTS: Children (aged 3 months to <12 years) with acute cough and respiratory tract infection (RTI)...
May 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486408/fabrication-of-a-novel-highly-sensitive-and-selective-immunosensor-for-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-a-based-on-an-effective-platform-of-electrosynthesized-gold-nanodendrites-chitosan-nanoparticles
#11
Rahim Sorouri, Hasan Bagheri, Abbas Afkhami, Jafar Salimian
In this work, a novel nanocomposite consisting of electrosynthesized gold nanodendrites and chitosan nanoparticles (AuNDs/CSNPs) has been prepared to fabricate an impedimetric immunosensor based on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for the rapid and sensitive immunoassay of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A). BoNT/A polyclonal antibody was immobilized on the nanocomposite-modified SPCE for the signal amplification. The structure of the prepared nanocomposite was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)...
May 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484352/population-attributable-fraction-for-cardiovascular-diseases-risk-factors-in-selected-countries-a-comparative-study
#12
Narges Pirani, Farzad Faraji Khiavi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death. The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases was reported to be 3,500 per 100,000. And it is predicted that these numbers will increase in the near future. By removing the main factors responsible for non-communicable diseases, cardiovascular disease can be prevented by 80%. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the population attributable fraction for cardiovascular diseases' risk factors in Iran, USA and Spain...
March 2017: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482543/self-assembly-of-glucose-oxidase-on-reduced-graphene-oxide-magnetic-nanoparticles-nanocomposite-based-direct-electrochemistry-for-reagentless-glucose-biosensor
#13
Saithip Pakapongpan, Rungtiva P Poo-Arporn
A novel approach of the immobilization of a highly selective and stable glucose biosensor based on direct electrochemistry was fabricated by a self-assembly of glucose oxidase (GOD) on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) covalently conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) modified on a magnetic screen-printed electrode (MSPE). The RGO-Fe3O4 nanocomposite has remarkable enhancement in large surface areas, is favorable environment for enzyme immobilization, facilitates electron transfer between enzymes and electrode surfaces and possesses superparamagnetism property...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482501/metallic-powder-bed-based-3d-printing-of-cellular-scaffolds-for-orthopaedic-implants-a-state-of-the-art-review-on-manufacturing-topological-design-mechanical-properties-and-biocompatibility
#14
REVIEW
X P Tan, Y J Tan, C S L Chow, S B Tor, W Y Yeong
Metallic cellular scaffold is one of the best choices for orthopaedic implants as a replacement of human body parts, which could improve life quality and increase longevity for the people needed. Unlike conventional methods of making cellular scaffolds, three-dimensional (3D) printing or additive manufacturing opens up new possibilities to fabricate those customisable intricate designs with highly interconnected pores. In the past decade, metallic powder-bed based 3D printing methods emerged and the techniques are becoming increasingly mature recently, where selective laser melting (SLM) and selective electron beam melting (SEBM) are the two representatives...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480788/cybersecurity-and-privacy-issues-for-socially-integrated-mobile-healthcare-applications-operating-in-a-multi-cloud-environment
#15
Jalal Al-Muhtadi, Basit Shahzad, Kashif Saleem, Wasif Jameel, Mehmet A Orgun
Social media has enabled information-sharing across massively large networks of people without spending much financial resources and time that are otherwise required in the print and electronic media. Mobile-based social media applications have overwhelmingly changed the information-sharing perspective. However, with the advent of such applications at an unprecedented scale, the privacy of the information is compromised to a larger extent if breach mitigation is not adequate. Since healthcare applications are also being developed for mobile devices so that they also benefit from the power of social media, cybersecurity privacy concerns for such sensitive applications have become critical...
May 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474793/3d-printed-stretchable-tactile-sensors
#16
Shuang-Zhuang Guo, Kaiyan Qiu, Fanben Meng, Sung Hyun Park, Michael C McAlpine
The development of methods for the 3D printing of multifunctional devices could impact areas ranging from wearable electronics and energy harvesting devices to smart prosthetics and human-machine interfaces. Recently, the development of stretchable electronic devices has accelerated, concomitant with advances in functional materials and fabrication processes. In particular, novel strategies have been developed to enable the intimate biointegration of wearable electronic devices with human skin in ways that bypass the mechanical and thermal restrictions of traditional microfabrication technologies...
May 5, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474286/the-impact-of-3-d-models-versus-animations-on-perceptions-of-osteoporosis-and-treatment-motivation-a-randomised-trial
#17
Annie S K Jones, Justin Fernandez, Andrew Grey, Keith J Petrie
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disorder that disproportionately affects older women worldwide. Raising awareness regarding osteoporosis within this demographic is significant for health promotion. Initial evidence suggests that visualisations of illness and treatment can improve illness perceptions, increase treatment motivations and even promote health behaviours. We are yet to understand whether different visualisation mediums vary in their impact on perceptions and motivations...
May 4, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470263/eyeglasses-based-wireless-electrolyte-and-metabolite-sensor-platform
#18
Juliane R Sempionatto, Tatsuo Nakagawa, Adriana Pavinatto, Samantha T Mensah, Somayeh Imani, Patrick Mercier, Joseph Wang
The demand for wearable sensors has grown rapidly in recent years, with increasing attention being given to epidermal chemical sensing. Here, we present the first example of a fully integrated eyeglasses wireless multiplexed chemical sensing platform capable of real-time monitoring of sweat electrolytes and metabolites. The new concept has been realized by integrating an amperometric lactate biosensor and a potentiometric potassium ion-selective electrode into the two nose-bridge pads of the glasses and interfacing them with a wireless electronic backbone placed on the glasses' arms...
May 4, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469661/guinea-pigs-as-an-animal-model-for-sciatic-nerve-injury
#19
Malik Abu Rafee, Amarpal, Prakash Kinjavdekar, Hari Prasad Aithal, Sajad Ahmad Wani, Irfan Ahmad Bhat
The overwhelming use of rat models in nerve regeneration studies is likely to induce skewness in treatment outcomes. To address the problem, this study was conducted in 8 adult guinea pigs of either sex to investigate the suitability of guinea pig as an alternative model for nerve regeneration studies. A crush injury was inflicted to the sciatic nerve of the left limb, which led to significant decrease in the pain perception and neurorecovery up to the 4(th) weak. Lengthening of foot print and shortening of toe spread were observed in the paw after nerve injury...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466636/a-versatile-molecular-silver-ink-platform-for-printed-flexible-electronics
#20
Arnold Jason Kell, Chantal Paquet, Olga Mozenson, Iden Djavani-Tabrizi, Bhavana Deore, Xiangyang Liu, Gregory P Lopinski, Robert James, Khelifa Hettak, Jafar Shaker, Adrian Momciu, Julie Ferrigno, Olivier Ferrand, Jianxiong Hu, Sylvie Lafreniere, Patrick R L Malenfant
A silver molecular ink platform formulated for screen, inkjet and aerosol printing is presented. A simple formulation comprising silver neodecanoate, ethyl cellulose and solvent provides improved performance vs established inks yet with improved economics. Thin, screen printed traces with exceptional electrical (< 10 mΩ/□/mil or 12 μΩ·cm)) and mechanical properties are achieved following thermal or photonic sintering, the latter having never been demonstrated for silver salt based inks. Low surface roughness, sub-micron thicknesses and linewidths as narrow as 41 μm outperform commercial ink benchmarks based on flakes or nanoparticles...
May 3, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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