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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651199/aberration-corrected-stem-by-means-of-diffraction-gratings
#1
Martin Linck, Peter A Ercius, Jordan S Pierce, Benjamin J McMorran
In the past 15 years, the advent of aberration correction technology in electron microscopy has enabled materials analysis on the atomic scale. This is made possible by precise arrangements of multipole electrodes and magnetic solenoids to compensate the aberrations inherent to any focusing element of an electron microscope. Here, we describe an alternative method to correct for the spherical aberration of the objective lens in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a passive, nanofabricated diffractive optical element...
June 12, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650612/superionic-conductivity-of-sm3-pr3-and-nd3-triple-doped-ceria-through-bulk-and-surface-two-step-doping-approach
#2
Yanyan Liu, Liangdong Fan, Yixiao Cai, Wei Zhang, Baoyuan Wang, Bin Zhu
Sufficiently high oxygen ion conductivity of electrolyte is critical for good performance of low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs). Notably, material conductivity, reliability and manufacture cost are the major barriers hindering LT-SOFC commercialization. Generally, surface properties control the physical and chemical functionalities of materials. Hereby, we report a Sm3+, Pr3+ and Nd3+ triple-doped ceria, exhibiting the highest ionic conductivity among reported doped-ceria oxides, 0.125 S cm-1 at 600 oC...
June 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650497/extreme-ultraviolet-resist-materials-for-sub-7-nm-patterning
#3
Li Li, Xuan Liu, Shyam Pal, Shulan Wang, Christopher K Ober, Emmanuel P Giannelis
Continuous ongoing development of dense integrated circuits requires significant advancements in nanoscale patterning technology. As a key process in semiconductor high volume manufacturing (HVM), high resolution lithography is crucial in keeping with Moore's law. Currently, lithography technology for the sub-7 nm node and beyond has been actively investigated approaching atomic level patterning. EUV technology is now considered to be a potential alternative to HVM for replacing in some cases ArF immersion technology combined with multi-patterning...
June 26, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650143/coupled-carbonization-strategy-towards-advanced-hard-carbon-for-high-energy-sodium-ion-battery
#4
Huimin Zhang, Hai Ming, Wenfeng Zhang, Gaoping Cao, Yusheng Yang
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are expected to be a promising commercial alternative to lithium-ion batteries for grid electricity storage due to their potential low cost in the near future. Up to the present, the anode material still remains a great challenge for the application of SIBs, especially at room temperature. The graphite has an obvious limitation to store larger radius sodium ions (Na+) in comparison with lithium ions (Li+), while the hard carbon with large interlayer distance can demonstrate a relatively high storage capability and durable cycle life...
June 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649968/real-time-polymer-nanocomposites-based-physical-nanosensors-theory-and-modelling
#5
Stefano Bellucci, Yuri Shunin, Viktor Gopejenko, Tamara Lobanova-Shunina, Natalya Burlutskaya, Yuri Zhukovskii
Functionalized CNTs and GNRs nanostructures, serving as the basis for the creation of physical pressure and temperature nanosensors, are considered as tools for ecological monitoring and medical applications. Fragments of nanocarbon inclusions with different morphologies, presenting a disordered system, are regarded as models for nanocomposite materials based on carbon nanoсluster suspension in dielectric polymer environments (e.g., epoxy resins). We have formulated the approach of conductivity calculations for carbon-based polymer nanocomposites using the effective media cluster approach, disordered systems theory and conductivity mechanisms analysis, and obtained the calibration dependences...
June 26, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649794/inverse-opal-scaffolds-and-their-biomedical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Yu Shrike Zhang, Chunlei Zhu, Younan Xia
Three-dimensional porous scaffolds play a pivotal role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine by functioning as biomimetic substrates to manipulate cellular behaviors. While many techniques have been developed to fabricate porous scaffolds, most of them rely on stochastic processes that typically result in scaffolds with pores uncontrolled in terms of size, structure, and interconnectivity, greatly limiting their use in tissue regeneration. Inverse opal scaffolds, in contrast, possess uniform pores inheriting from the template comprised of a closely packed lattice of monodispersed microspheres...
June 26, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649638/a-cubesat-centrifuge-for-long-duration-milligravity-research
#7
REVIEW
Erik Asphaug, Jekan Thangavelautham, Andrew Klesh, Aman Chandra, Ravi Nallapu, Laksh Raura, Mercedes Herreras-Martinez, Stephen Schwartz
We advocate a low-cost strategy for long-duration research into the 'milligravity' environment of asteroids, comets and small moons, where surface gravity is a vector field typically less than 1/1000 the gravity of Earth. Unlike the microgravity environment of space, there is a directionality that gives rise, over time, to strangely familiar geologic textures and landforms. In addition to advancing planetary science, and furthering technologies for hazardous asteroid mitigation and in situ resource utilization, simplified access to long-duration milligravity offers significant potential for advancing human spaceflight, biomedicine and manufacturing...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649171/injectable-scaffolds-preparation-and-application-in-dental-and-craniofacial-regeneration
#8
Bei Chang, Neelam Ahuja, Chi Ma, Xiaohua Liu
Injectable scaffolds are appealing for tissue regeneration because they offer many advantages over pre-formed scaffolds. This article provides a comprehensive review of the injectable scaffolds currently being investigated for dental and craniofacial tissue regeneration. First, we provide an overview of injectable scaffolding materials, including natural, synthetic, and composite biomaterials. Next, we discuss a variety of characteristic parameters and gelation mechanisms of the injectable scaffolds. The advanced injectable scaffolding systems developed in recent years are then illustrated...
January 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. R, Reports: a Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649113/american-av-edgar-dale-and-the-information-age-classroom
#9
Charles R Acland
This article demonstrates how the influential scholar Edgar Dale, alongside a generation of educational technologists, helped build an essential place for AV materials and pedagogical methods in the American classroom. It also shows that, for decades, the Payne Fund philanthropy supported multimedia research agendas that shaped ideas about teaching and technology, far beyond involvement in their famed studies on motion pictures and children in the 1930s. With his writings and research programs, Dale advanced concepts of media experience and systematicity, which came to be understood as common sense to the information society...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649021/k-edge-eliminated-material-decomposition-method-for-dual-energy-x-ray-ct
#10
Tiao Zhao, Liang Li, Zhiqiang Chen
In medical dual-energy CT, projection-domain decomposition is typically used to process the acquired two projection datasets. However, when a high atomic-number contrast-agent is introduced, its K-edge discontinuity challenges this method. In this work, we take advantage of the fact that the contrast agent and its solvent are known in advance and propose to first decompose the attenuation coefficient functions of the contrast agent and its solvent to estimate the attenuation contribution of the K-shell photoelectric...
June 17, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648720/an-engineered-home-environment-for-untethered-data-telemetry-from-nonhuman-primates
#11
Marc P Powell, William R Britz, James S Harper Iii, David A Borton
BACKGROUND: Wireless neural recording technologies now provide untethered access to large populations of neurons in the nonhuman primate brain. Such technologies enable long-term, continuous interrogation of neural circuits and importantly open the door for chronic neurorehabilitation platforms. For example, by providing continuous consistent closed loop feedback from a brain machine interface, the nervous system can leverage plasticity to integrate more effectively into the system than would be possible in short experimental sessions...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647961/-analysis-of-maternal-deaths-in-shanghai-from-1996-to-2015
#12
M Qin, R Zhu, L Du, J Lu, H Q Xu, L P Zhu
Objective: To analyze the trend of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and cause of death in Shanghai from 1996 to 2015. Methods: To collect the material about the maternal death and the maternal death audit from 1996 to 2015, and to analyze the MMR, the cause of death and the result of the maternal death audit of Shanghai from 1996 to 2015 retrospectively. Results: (1) The change of MMR: the MMR in Shanghai decreased from 28.84 per 100 000 live births in 1996 to 6.66 per 100 000 live births in 2015. (2) The characteristic of maternal death: the proportion of Shanghai citizens was 27...
June 25, 2017: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646759/free-standing-graphene-vanadium-oxide-composite-as-binder-free-electrode-for-asymmetrical-supercapacitor
#13
Lingjuan Deng, Yihong Gao, Zhanying Ma, Guang Fan
Preparation of free-standing electrode materials with three-dimensional network architecture has emerged as an effective strategy for acquiring advanced portable and wearable power sources. Herein, graphene/vanadium oxide (GR/V2O5) free-standing monolith composite has been prepared via a simple hydrothermal process. Flexible GR sheets acted as binder to connect the belt-like V2O5 for assembling three-dimensional network architecture. The obtained GR/V2O5 composite can be reshaped into GR/V2O5 flexible film which exhibits more compact structure by ultrasonication and vacuum filtration...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646678/bioengineering-for-intestinal-organoid-cultures
#14
REVIEW
Ge-Ah Kim, Jason R Spence, Shuichi Takayama
Recent advances allow access to human cell-based intestinal organoids that recreate human physiology to levels not possible with conventional 2D cell cultures. Despite their huge potential, there are many challenges that remain. This review will cover recent bioengineering approaches to improve organoid maturation, scale up, reproducibility and analysis. The first section covers the advances in engineering the culture environment, followed by the section on tools for micro-manipulation and analysis of organoids...
June 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646521/enhancing-perovskite-electrocatalysis-of-solid-oxide-cells-through-controlled-growth-of-nanoparticles
#15
Bin Hua, Meng Li, Yi-Fei Sun, Jian-Hui Li, Jing-Li Luo
Perovskite oxides have received a great deal of attentions as promising electrodes in both solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOECs) because of their reasonable reactivity, impurity tolerance, tunable property, etc. Particular explorations are still required for advancing the perovskite electrodes, which normally suffer from slow kinetics in electrocatalysis. In the past decades, several experimental studies have developed new classes of perovskites with advanced characteristics and electrode kinetics at technical levels...
June 24, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644614/role-of-the-protein-corona-derived-from-human-plasma-in-cellular-interactions-between-nanoporous-human-serum-albumin-particles-and-endothelial-cells
#16
Mikhail Valeryevich Zyuzin, Yan Yan, Raimo Hartmann, Katelyn T Gause, Moritz Nazarenus, Jiwei Cui, Frank Caruso, Wolfgang J Parak
The presence of a protein corona on various synthetic nanomaterials has been shown to strongly influence how they interact with cells. However, it is unclear if the protein corona also exists on protein particles, and if so, its role in particle-cell interactions. In this study, pure human serum albumin (HSA) particles were fabricated via mesoporous silica particle templating. Our data reveal that various serum proteins adsorbed on the particles. The presence of a corona from human plasma was shown to decrease particle binding to cell membrane, increase the residence time of particles in early endosomes, and reduce the amount of internalized particles within the first hours of cell exposure to particles...
June 23, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643930/moving-towards-precision-orthodontics-an-evolving-paradigm-shift-in-the-planning-and-delivery-of-customized-orthodontic-therapy
#17
REVIEW
A H Jheon, S Oberoi, R C Solem, S Kapila
Advances in precision medicine portend similar progress in orthodontics and will be increasingly harnessed to achieve customized treatment approaches and enhance treatment efficiencies. Our goal is to provide a background on emerging advances in computer technologies and biomedicine and highlight their current and likely future applications to precision orthodontics. A review of orthodontically relevant technologies and advances in pertinent biological research was undertaken. Innovations in computer hardware and software, and 3D imaging technologies offer the ability for customized treatment and biomechanical planning that will be more fully realized within the next few decades...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643452/emerging-nanotechnology-and-advanced-materials-for-cancer-radiation-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Guosheng Song, Liang Cheng, Yu Chao, Kai Yang, Zhuang Liu
Radiation therapy (RT) including external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and internal radioisotope therapy (RIT) has been widely used for clinical cancer treatment. However, owing to the low radiation absorption of tumors, high doses of ionizing radiations are often needed during RT, leading to severe damages to normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Meanwhile, the RT efficacies are limited by different mechanisms, among which the tumor hypoxia-associated radiation resistance is a well-known one, as there exists hypoxia inside most solid tumors while oxygen is essential to enhance radiation-induced DNA damages...
June 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643429/advances-and-challenges-in-metal-sulfides-selenides-for-next-generation-rechargeable-sodium-ion-batteries
#19
REVIEW
Zhe Hu, Qiannan Liu, Shu-Lei Chou, Shi-Xue Dou
Rechargeable sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), as the most promising alternative to commercial lithium-ion batteries, have received tremendous attention during the last decade. Among all the anode materials for SIBs, metal sulfides/selenides (MXs) have shown inspiring results because of their versatile material species and high theoretical capacity. They suffer from large volume expansion, however, which leads to bad cycling performance. Thus, methods such as carbon modification, nanosize design, electrolyte optimization, and cut-off voltage control are used to obtain enhanced performance...
June 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642348/confined-in-fiber-solidification-and-structural-control-of-silicon-and-silicon-germanium-microparticles
#20
Alexander Gumennik, Etgar C Levy, Benjamin Grena, Chong Hou, Michael Rein, Ayman F Abouraddy, John D Joannopoulos, Yoel Fink
Crystallization of microdroplets of molten alloys could, in principle, present a number of possible morphological outcomes, depending on the symmetry of the propagating solidification front and its velocity, such as axial or spherically symmetric species segregation. However, because of thermal or constitutional supercooling, resulting droplets often only display dendritic morphologies. Here we report on the crystallization of alloyed droplets of controlled micrometer dimensions comprising silicon and germanium, leading to a number of surprising outcomes...
June 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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