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advanced materials

Dimitar Popmintchev, Benjamin R Galloway, Ming-Chang Chen, Franklin Dollar, Christopher A Mancuso, Amelia Hankla, Luis Miaja-Avila, Galen O'Neil, Justin M Shaw, Guangyu Fan, Skirmantas Ališauskas, Giedrius Andriukaitis, Tadas Balčiunas, Oliver D Mücke, Audrius Pugzlys, Andrius Baltuška, Henry C Kapteyn, Tenio Popmintchev, Margaret M Murnane
Recent advances in high-order harmonic generation have made it possible to use a tabletop-scale setup to produce spatially and temporally coherent beams of light with bandwidth spanning 12 octaves, from the ultraviolet up to x-ray photon energies >1.6  keV. Here we demonstrate the use of this light for x-ray-absorption spectroscopy at the K- and L-absorption edges of solids at photon energies near 1 keV. We also report x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in the water window spectral region (284-543 eV) using a high flux high-order harmonic generation x-ray supercontinuum with 10^{9}  photons/s in 1% bandwidth, 3 orders of magnitude larger than has previously been possible using tabletop sources...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Xiulin Fan, Jie Yue, Fudong Han, Ji Chen, Tao Deng, Xiuquan Zhou, Singyuk Hou, Chunsheng Wang
Room temperature all solid-state Na-S batteries (ASNSBs) using sulfide solid electrolytes are a promising next-generation battery technology due to the high energy, enhanced safety, and earth abundant resources of both sodium and sulfur. Currently, the sulfide electrolyte ASNSBs are fabricated by simple cold-pressing process leaving with high residential stress. Even worse, the large volume change of S/Na2S during charge/discharge cycles induces additional stress, seriously weakening the less-contacted interfaces among the solid electrolyte, active materials and the electron conductive agent that are formed in the cold-pressing process...
March 16, 2018: ACS Nano
Srabanti Ghosh, Laurence Ramos, Hynd Remita
Materials are the key roadblocks for the commercialization of energy conversion devices in fuel cells and solar cells. Significant research has focused on tuning the intrinsic properties of materials at the nanometer scale. The soft template mediated controlled fabrication of advanced nanostructured materials is attracting considerable interest due to the promising applications of these materials in catalysis and electrocatalysis. Swollen hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystals (SLCs) consist of oil-swollen surfactant-stabilized 1D, 2D or 3D nanometric assemblies regularly arranged in an aqueous solvent...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Wenjiao Ren, Liqiang Xu, Lin Zhu, Xinye Wang, Xiaojian Ma, Debao Wang
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has attracted increasing attention owning to its high energy density and the abundance of sulfur. However, its commercialization is still restricted owing to the low conductivity of sulfur, large volume expansion and severe polysulfide-shuttle effect. To address these problems, here we reported a simple template-free solvothermal method combined with subsequent calcination method to prepare cobalt-doped VN yolk-shell nanospheres encapsulated in thin layer of nitrogen-doped carbon (Co-VN@C) composite as an ideal sulfur hosts for the first time...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Daniel Amgar, Tal Binyamin, Vladimir Uvarov, Lioz Etgar
One of the most attractive features of perovskite materials is their chemical flexibility. Due to innovative chemical compositions of perovskites, their optical and structural properties, and functionalities have become more advanced, enabling better solar performance in photovoltaics, as well as robustness and excellent properties in the nanoscale for optoelectronics. The quest for novel perovskite compositions in the nano-scale is significantly important. This paper reports on a mixed-cation system of RbxCs1-xPbX3 (where X = Cl or Br) nanoparticles...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Ekaterina A Dolgopolova, Allison M Rice, Corey R Martin, Natalia B Shustova
In this review, we highlight how recent advances achieved in the fields of photochemistry and photophysics of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) could be applied towards the engineering of next generation MOF-based sensing devices. In addition to high surface area and structural tunability, which are crucial for efficient sensor development, progress in the field of MOF-based sensors could rely on the combination of MOF light-harvesting ability, understanding energy transfer processes within a framework, and application of MOF-based photocatalysis towards sensing enhancement...
March 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Linda W Samia, Ann O'Sullivan, Kate Cole Fallon, AbouEl-Makarim Aboueissa, Kenneth W Hepburn
Background and Objectives: The Savvy Advanced psychoeducation program was designed for previously trained caregivers of persons living with dementia to refine their problem-solving and planning skills and enhance their sense of self-efficacy as dementia progressed for the care recipient. Implementation, feasibility, participant satisfaction, and perceived program benefits were also evaluated. Research Design and Methods: A total of 100 dementia family caregivers participated in the 12-month evaluation of Savvy Advanced...
March 12, 2018: Gerontologist
Qing Mao, Robert Chin, Weiwei Xie, Yuqing Deng, Wenwei Zhang, Huixin Xu, Rebecca Yu Zhang, Quan Shi, Erin E Peters, Natali Gulbahce, Zhenyu Li, Fang Chen, Radoje Drmanac, Brock A Peters
BACKGROUND: Amniocentesis is a common procedure, the primary purpose of which is to collect cells from the fetus to allow testing for abnormal chromosomes, altered chromosomal copy number, or a small number of genes that have small single- to multibase defects. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of generating an accurate whole-genome sequence of a fetus from either the cellular or cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of an amniotic sample. METHODS: cfDNA and DNA isolated from the cell pellet of 31 amniocenteses were sequenced to approximately 50× genome coverage by use of the Complete Genomics nanoarray platform...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Tenyu Hino, Chiaki Yokota, Kunihiro Nishimura, Michikazu Nakai, Suzuka Kato, Kazuyo Kuwabara, Hidehiro Takekawa, Takuro Arimizu, Shinya Tomari, Shinichi Wada, Hideyuki Ohnishi, Kazunori Toyoda, Tomonori Okamura, Kazuo Minematsu
BACKGROUND: Advancing school-based education is a promising means to spread knowledge pertaining to stroke. The aim of the current study was to clarify whether stroke lessons provided by schoolteachers could deliver stroke knowledge to children (aged 9-11 years) and their parents, at a similar level to when taught by medical staff. METHODS: Schoolteachers conducted lessons on stroke for school children using the educational materials we prepared (i.e., the teacher group; 1051 children and 719 parents)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Alejandro A Gru, Jinah Kim, Melissa Pulitzer, Joan Guitart, Maxime Battistella, Gary S Wood, Lorenzo Cerroni, Werner Kempf, Rein Willemze, Joya Pawade, Christiane Querfeld, Andras Schaffer, Laura Pincus, Michael Tetzlaff, Madeleine Duvic, Julia Scarisbrick, Pierluigi Porcu, Aaron R Mangold, David J Dicaudio, Michi Shinohara, Eric K Hong, Bethany Horton, Youn H Kim
This pathology PILOT study aims to define the role and feasibility of centralized pathology review in a cohort of 75 patients from different centers in the United States and Europe using digital slide scanning. The pathologic material from 75 patients who had been diagnosed with mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome and were clinically staged as IIb or above was retrieved from 11 participating centers. Each pathology reviewer was provided with the pathologic diagnosis (by the referring pathologist), and the following list of histopathologic criteria (presence or absence) from the initial report: epidermotropism, folliculotropism (FT), large cell transformation, syringotropism, and granulomas...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Cristina Rodríguez-Seco, Lydia Cabau, Anton Vidal-Ferran, Emilio Palomares
Over hundreds of new organic semiconductor molecules have been synthesized as hole transport materials (HTMs) for perovskite solar cells. However, to date, the well-known N2 , N2 , N2' , N2' , N7 , N7 , N7' , octakis-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9,9-spirobi-[9,9'-spirobi[9 H-fluorene]-2,2',7,7'-tetramine (spiro-OMeTAD) is still the best choice for the best perovskite device performance. Nevertheless, there is a consensus that spiro-OMeTAD by itself is not stable enough for long-term stable devices, and its market price makes its use in large-scale production costly...
March 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
K R P Kafka, S Papernov, S G Demos
Laser conditioning was investigated as a function of the temporal shape and duration of 351 nm nanosecond pulses for fused-silica substrates polished via magnetorheological finishing. The aim is to advance our understanding of the dynamics involved to enable improved control of the interaction of laser light with the material to optimize laser conditioning. Gaussian pulses that are temporally truncated at the intensity peak are observed to enhance laser conditioning, in comparison to a Gaussian pulse shape...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Takumi Hamasaki, Yuta Itoh, Yuichi Hiroi, Daisuke Iwai, Maki Sugimoto
Spatial augmented reality (SAR) pursues realism in rendering materials and objects. To advance this goal, we propose a hybrid SAR (HySAR) that combines a projector with optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST-HMD). In an ordinary SAR scenario with co-located viewers, the viewers perceive the same virtual material on physical surfaces. In general, the material consists of two components: a view-independent (VI) component such as diffuse reflection, and a view-dependent (VD) component such as specular reflection...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Yaqiong Long, Jing Yang, Xin Gao, Xuena Xu, Weiliu Fan, Jian Yang, Shifeng Hou, Yitai Qian
Transition metal sulfides/selenides are explored as advanced electrode materials for non-aqueous sodium-ion capacitors, using FeS2-xSex as an example. Solid solution of S/Se in FeS2-xSex allows it to combine the high capacity of FeS2 and the good diffusion kinetics of FeSe2 together, thereby exhibiting excellent cycle stability (~220 mAh g-1 after 6000 cycles at 2 A g-1) and superior rate capability (~210 mAh g-1 at 40 A g-1) within 0.8-3.0 V. These results are much better than those of FeS2 and FeSe2, confirming the advantages of S/Se solid solution as supported by EIS spectra, DFT calculations and electron conductivity...
March 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sandra Schulz, Manfred Maitz, Stefanie Hänsel, Lars D Renner, Carsten Werner
Advanced blood contacting biomaterials are designed to combine antiseptic and anticoagulant functionalities. Here, we present a new in vitro methodology for the analysis of bacterial adhesion and growth after the preceding human whole blood incubation of the tested materials. Poly(styrene) surfaces as well as thrombin-responsive and non-responsive poly(ethylene glycol)-heparin hydrogel coatings, with and without silver functionalization, were analyzed with this approach using freshly drawn human whole blood and various human pathogens (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli)...
March 15, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Wei Sun, Ju-Dong Luo, Hua Jiang, Dayue Darrel Duan
Tumor cells produce and secrete more nucleic acids, proteins and lipids than normal cells. These molecules are transported in the blood or around the cells in membrane-encapsulated exosomes. Tumor-derived or tumor-associated exosomes (usually 30-100 nm in diameter) contain abundant biological contents resembling those of the parent cells along with signaling messengers for intercellular communication involved in the pathogenesis, development, progression, and metastasis of cancer. As these exosomes can be detected and isolated from various body fluids, they have become attractive new biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Brianna Kim, Robyn Araujo, Marissa Howard, Ruben Magni, Lance Liotta, Alessandra Luchini
Mass spectrometry (MS) is the premier tool for discovering novel disease-associated protein biomarkers. Unfortunately, when applied to complex body fluid samples, MS has poor sensitivity for the detection of low abundance biomarkers (≪10 ng/mL), derived directly from the diseased tissue cells or pathogens. Areas covered: Herein we discuss the strengths and drawbacks of technologies used to concentrate low abundance analytes in body fluids, with the aim to improve the effective sensitivity for MS discovery...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Yan Li, Dewen Ye, Mingxi Li, Ming Ma, Ning Gu
The paper provides a brief overview of the use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in the areas of bone regenerative medicine. Reconstruction of bone defects caused by trauma, non-union, and bone tumour excision still faces many challenges despite the intense investigations and advancement in bone tissue engineering and bone regeneration over the past decades. IONPs have promising prospects in this field due to their controlled responsive characteristics in specific external magnetic fields and have been of great interest during the last few years...
March 14, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Chhabilal Regmi, Bhupendra Joshi, Schindra K Ray, Gobinda Gyawali, Ramesh P Pandey
Several photocatalytic nanoparticles are synthesized and studied for potential application for the degradation of organic and biological wastes. Although these materials degrade organic compounds by advance oxidation process, the exact mechanisms of microbial decontamination remains partially known. Understanding the real mechanisms of these materials for microbial cell death and growth inhibition helps to fabricate more efficient semiconductor photocatalyst for large-scale decontamination of environmental wastewater or industries and hospitals/biomedical labs generating highly pathogenic bacteria and toxic molecules containing liquid waste by designing a reactor...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Daniel Girma Mulat, Janka Dibdiakova, Svein Jarle Horn
Background: The emerging cellulosic bioethanol industry will generate huge amounts of lignin-rich residues that may be converted into biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) to increase the output of energy carriers from the biorefinery plants. The carbohydrates fraction of lignocellulosic biomass is degradable, whereas the lignin fraction is generally considered difficult to degrade during AD. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of biogas production by AD from hydrolysis lignin (HL), prepared by steam explosion (SE) and enzymatic saccharification of birch...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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