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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205576/investigation-of-me4n-scf3-as-a-stable-solid-safe-reservoir-for-s-cf2-as-a-surrogate-for-thiophosgene
#1
Thomas Scattolin, Maoping Pu, Franziska Schoenebeck
While thiophosgene finds widespread usage on a multi-ton scale, its fluorinated counterpart S=CF2 is essentially unexplored in synthesis. Using experimental reactivity tests, ReactIR and computational techniques, we herein showcase that the solid (Me4N)SCF3 functions as a safe reservoir for S=CF2. A key feature is that the reactive electrophile is not simply released over time, but instead is liberated under activation with a protic nucleophile. The reactivity of S=CF2 is mild, allowing large-scale and late-stage synthetic applications without special reaction control...
December 4, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197514/mathematical-analysis-of-the-transmission-dynamics-of-the-liver-fluke-opisthorchis-viverrini
#2
Christine Bürli, Helmut Harbrecht, Peter Odermatt, Somphou Sayasone, Nakul Chitnis
We develop and analyse two population-based models of the transmission dynamics of the worm parasite Opisthorchis viverrini. The life cycle of O. viverrini includes humans, cats and dogs as definitive hosts; and snails and fish as intermediate hosts. The first model has only one definitive host (humans) while the second model has two additional hosts: the reservoir hosts, cats and dogs. We define reproduction numbers and endemic equilibrium points for the two models. We use prevalence data for the five hosts from two islands in Lao People's Democratic Republic to estimate distributions of parameter values...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196846/the-availability-of-water-associated-with-glycogen-during-dehydration-a-reservoir-or-raindrop
#3
Roderick F G J King, Ben Jones, John P O'Hara
PURPOSE: This study evaluated whether glycogen-associated water is a protected entity not subject to normal osmotic homeostasis. An investigation into practical and theoretical aspects of the functionality of this water as a determinant of osmolality, dehydration, and glycogen concentration was undertaken. METHODS: In vitro experiments were conducted to determine the intrinsic osmolality of glycogen-potassium phosphate mixtures as would be found intra-cellularly at glycogen concentrations of 2% for muscle and 5 and 10% for liver...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186875/distribution-and-inferred-evolutionary-characteristics-of-a-chimeric-ssdna-virus-associated-with-intertidal-marine-isopods
#4
Kalia S I Bistolas, Ryan M Besemer, Lars G Rudstam, Ian Hewson
Aquatic invertebrates are common reservoirs of a rapidly expanding group of circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses. This study identified and explored the phylogenetic relationship between novel CRESS-DNA viral genotypes associated with Pacific intertidal isopods Idotea wosnesenskii, Idotea resecata, and Gnorimosphaeroma oregonensis. One genotype associated with I. wosnesenskii, IWaV278, shared sequence similarity and genomic features with Tombusviridae (ssRNA) and Circoviridae (ssDNA) genomes and was putatively assigned to the Cruciviridae clade comprising chimeric viruses...
November 26, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142017/modelling-the-effects-of-phylogeny-and-body-size-on-within-host-pathogen-replication-and-immune-response
#5
Soumya Banerjee, Alan S Perelson, Melanie Moses
Understanding how quickly pathogens replicate and how quickly the immune system responds is important for predicting the epidemic spread of emerging pathogens. Host body size, through its correlation with metabolic rates, is theoretically predicted to impact pathogen replication rates and immune system response rates. Here, we use mathematical models of viral time courses from multiple species of birds infected by a generalist pathogen (West Nile Virus; WNV) to test more thoroughly how disease progression and immune response depend on mass and host phylogeny...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093684/porcine-stomach-smooth-muscle-force-depends-on-history-effects
#6
André Tomalka, Mischa Borsdorf, Markus Böl, Tobias Siebert
The stomach serves as food reservoir, mixing organ and absorption area for certain substances, while continually varying its position and size. Large dimensional changes during ingestion and gastric emptying of the stomach are associated with large changes in smooth muscle length. These length changes might induce history-effects, namely force depression (FD) following active muscle shortening and force enhancement (FE) following active muscle stretch. Both effects have impact on the force generating capacity of the stomach, and thus functional relevance...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079915/-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-patients-with-autoimmune-diseases
#7
REVIEW
S Blaas
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia plays an increasing role in patients with autoimmune disorders, due to more intensive immunosuppressive therapy. Humans seem to be the most important pathogen reservoir. Diseases are probably caused by airborne new infections. Cough, subfebrile temperature and dyspnea on exertion are the leading symptoms. In addition to imaging, in particular high-resolution computed tomography, pathogen detection by staining methods or molecular genetic methods plays the decisive role. Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is the most important medication for treatment...
November 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065882/frequency-of-g6pd-mediterranean-in-individuals-with-and-without-malaria-in-southern-pakistan
#8
Bushra Moiz, Haroon Muhammad Arshad, Ahmed Raheem, Hasan Hayat, Najia Karim Ghanchi, M Asim Beg
BACKGROUND: Pakistan has an estimated annual burden of 1.5 million malaria cases. The current situation calls for an effective malaria control and eradication programme in this country. Currently, primaquine is an attractive option for eliminating reservoirs of Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites and killing gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. However, this drug causes haemolysis in individuals who are glucose-6-phosphate (G6PD) deficient. It is important to map G6PD deficiency and malaria distribution in Pakistan to design an effective malaria eradication regimen...
October 24, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036481/identification-of-the-direct-regulon-of-ntca-during-early-acclimation-to-nitrogen-starvation-in-the-cyanobacterium-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#9
Joaquín Giner-Lamia, Rocío Robles-Rengel, Miguel A Hernández-Prieto, M Isabel Muro-Pastor, Francisco J Florencio, Matthias E Futschik
In cyanobacteria, nitrogen homeostasis is maintained by an intricate regulatory network around transcription factor NtcA. Although mechanisms controlling NtcA activity appear to be well understood, its regulon remains poorly defined. To determine the NtcA regulon during the early stages of nitrogen starvation for the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation, followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq), in parallel with transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). Through combining these methods, we determined 51 genes activated and 28 repressed directly by NtcA...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031250/communication-relaxation-limited-electronic-currents-in-extended-reservoir-simulations
#10
Daniel Gruss, Alex Smolyanitsky, Michael Zwolak
Open-system approaches are gaining traction in the simulation of charge transport in nanoscale and molecular electronic devices. In particular, "extended reservoir" simulations, where explicit reservoir degrees of freedom are present, allow for the computation of both real-time and steady-state properties but require relaxation of the extended reservoirs. The strength of this relaxation, γ, influences the conductance, giving rise to a "turnover" behavior analogous to Kramers turnover in chemical reaction rates...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020980/identification-of-76-novel-b1-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamases-through-large-scale-screening-of-genomic-and-metagenomic-data
#11
Fanny Berglund, Nachiket P Marathe, Tobias Österlund, Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Stathis Kotsakis, Carl-Fredrik Flach, D G Joakim Larsson, Erik Kristiansson
BACKGROUND: Metallo-β-lactamases are bacterial enzymes that provide resistance to carbapenems, the most potent class of antibiotics. These enzymes are commonly encoded on mobile genetic elements, which, together with their broad substrate spectrum and lack of clinically useful inhibitors, make them a particularly problematic class of antibiotic resistance determinants. We hypothesized that there is a large and unexplored reservoir of unknown metallo-β-lactamases, some of which may spread to pathogens, thereby threatening public health...
October 12, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018390/ego-depletion-in-real-time-an-examination-of-the-sequential-task-paradigm
#12
Madeleine M Arber, Michael J Ireland, Roy Feger, Jessica Marrington, Joshua Tehan, Gerald Tehan
Current research into self-control that is based on the sequential task methodology is currently at an impasse. The sequential task methodology involves completing a task that is designed to tax self-control resources which in turn has carry-over effects on a second, unrelated task. The current impasse is in large part due to the lack of empirical research that tests explicit assumptions regarding the initial task. Five studies test one key, untested assumption underpinning strength (finite resource) models of self-regulation: Performance will decline over time on a task that depletes self-regulatory resources...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980132/qualitative-and-quantitative-metals-liberation-assessment-for-characterization-of-various-waste-printed-circuit-boards-for-recycling
#13
Anshu Priya, Subrata Hait
Metals liberation and composition are decisive attributes in characterization of e-waste for metal recycling. Though end-of-life printed circuit board (PCB) is an integral part of e-waste as secondary resource reservoir, yet no standardized procedure exists for metals liberation and dissolution for its characterization. Thus, the paper aims at assessment of metals liberation upon comminution employing scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) followed by comparative assessment of the existing United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) digestion procedures, viz...
October 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968589/quantification-of-pore-size-distribution-in-reservoir-rocks-using-mri-logging-a-case-study-of-south-pars-gas-field
#14
Jalal Neshat Ghojogh, Mohammad Esmaili, Behrooz Noruzi-Masir, Puyan Bakhshi
Pore size distribution (PSD) is an important factor for controlling fluid transport through porous media. The study of PSD can be applicable in areas such as hydrocarbon storage, contaminant transport, prediction of multiphase flow, and analysis of the formation damage by mud infiltration. Nitrogen adsorption, centrifugation method, mercury injection, and X-ray computed tomography are commonly used to measure the distribution of pores. A core sample is occasionally not available because of the unconsolidated nature of reservoirs, high cost of coring operation, and program limitations...
September 23, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954378/an-integrated-methodology-to-forecast-the-efficiency-of-nourishment-strategies-in-eroding-deltas
#15
Rafael J Bergillos, Alejandro López-Ruiz, Daniel Principal-Gómez, Miguel Ortega-Sánchez
Many deltas across the globe are retreating, and nearby beaches are undergoing strong erosion as a result. Among soft and prompt solutions, nourishments are the most heavily used. This paper presents an integrated methodology to forecast the efficiency of nourishment strategies by means of wave climate simulations, wave propagations with downscaling techniques, computation of longshore sediment transport rates and application of the one-line model. It was applied to an eroding deltaic beach (Guadalfeo, southern Spain), where different scenarios as a function of the nourished coastline morphology, input volume and grain size were tested...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944810/microfluidic-step-emulsification-in-axisymmetric-geometry
#16
I Chakraborty, J Ricouvier, P Yazhgur, P Tabeling, A M Leshansky
Biphasic step-emulsification (Z. Li et al., Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 1023) is a promising microfluidic technique for high-throughput production of μm and sub-μm highly monodisperse droplets. The step-emulsifier consists of a shallow (Hele-Shaw) microchannel operating with two co-flowing immiscible liquids and an abrupt expansion (i.e., step) to a deep and wide reservoir. Under certain conditions the confined stream of the disperse phase, engulfed by the co-flowing continuous phase, breaks into small highly monodisperse droplets at the step...
October 25, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933724/an-automatic-multi-target-independent-analysis-framework-for-non-planar-infrared-visible-registration
#17
Xinglong Sun, Tingfa Xu, Jizhou Zhang, Zishu Zhao, Yuankun Li
In this paper, we propose a novel automatic multi-target registration framework for non-planar infrared-visible videos. Previous approaches usually analyzed multiple targets together and then estimated a global homography for the whole scene, however, these cannot achieve precise multi-target registration when the scenes are non-planar. Our framework is devoted to solving the problem using feature matching and multi-target tracking. The key idea is to analyze and register each target independently. We present a fast and robust feature matching strategy, where only the features on the corresponding foreground pairs are matched...
July 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923777/an-improved-method-for-permeability-estimation-of-the-bioclastic-limestone-reservoir-based-on-nmr-data
#18
Xinmin Ge, Yiren Fan, Jianyu Liu, Li Zhang, Yujiao Han, Donghui Xing
Permeability is an important parameter in formation evaluation since it controls the fluid transportation of porous rocks. However, it is challengeable to compute the permeability of bioclastic limestone reservoirs by conventional methods linking petrophysical and geophysical data, due to the complex pore distributions. A new method is presented to estimate the permeability based on laboratory and downhole nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. We divide the pore space into four intervals by the inflection points between the pore radius and the transversal relaxation time...
October 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923058/a-model-of-plasmodium-vivax-concealment-based-on-plasmodium-cynomolgi-infections-in-macaca-mulatta
#19
Luis L Fonseca, Chester J Joyner, Mary R Galinski, Eberhard O Voit
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax can cause severe malaria. The total parasite biomass during infections is correlated with the severity of disease but not necessarily quantified accurately by microscopy. This finding has raised the question whether there could be sub-populations of parasites that are not observed in peripheral blood smears but continue to contribute to the increase in parasite numbers that drive pathogenesis. Non-human primate infection models utilizing the closely related simian malaria parasite Plasmodium cynomolgi hold the potential for quantifying the magnitude of possibly unobserved infected red blood cell (iRBC) populations and determining how the presence of this hidden reservoir correlates with disease severity...
September 18, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905430/archaea-s-layer-nanotube-from-a-black-smoker-in-complex-with-cyclo-octasulfur-s8-rings
#20
Matthew McDougall, Olga Francisco, Candice Harder-Viddal, Roy Roshko, Markus Meier, Jörg Stetefeld
Elemental sulfur exists primarily as an S80 ring and serves as terminal electron acceptor for a variety of sulfur-fermenting bacteria. Hyperthermophilic archaea from black smoker vents are an exciting research tool to advance our knowledge of sulfur respiration under extreme conditions. Here, we use a hybrid method approach to demonstrate that the proteinaceous cavities of the S-layer nanotube of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Staphylothermus marinus act as a storage reservoir for cyclo-octasulfur S8. Fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed and the method of multiconfigurational thermodynamic integration was employed to compute the absolute free energy for transferring a ring of elemental sulfur S8 from an aqueous bath into the largest hydrophobic cavity of a fragment of archaeal tetrabrachion...
September 14, 2017: Proteins
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