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Reservoir computing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429276/enhancing-thermal-stability-of-a-highly-concentrated-insulin-formulation-with-pluronic-f-127-for-long-term-use-in-microfabricated-implantable-devices
#1
Jason Li, Michael K Chu, Brian Lu, Sako Mirzaie, Kuan Chen, Claudia R Gordijo, Oliver Plettenburg, Adria Giacca, Xiao Yu Wu
Development of highly concentrated formulations of protein and peptide drugs is a major challenge due to increased susceptibility to aggregation and precipitation. Numerous drug delivery systems including implantable and wearable controlled-release devices require thermally stable formulations with high concentrations due to limited device sizes and long-term use. Herein we report a highly concentrated insulin gel formulation (up to 80 mg/mL, corresponding to 2200 IU/mL), stabilized with a non-ionic amphiphilic triblock copolymer (i...
April 20, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426843/understanding-the-risks-and-harms-of-management-of-incidental-thyroid-nodules-a-review
#2
Jenny K Hoang, Xuan V Nguyen
Importance: Incidental thyroid nodules are defined as nodules originally detected in a patient with no thyroid-related clinical symptoms, examination findings, or suspected thyroid disease. Medical imaging for diseases in the neck, chest, and spine is a common source of incidental thyroid nodules. They are easily detected but poorly characterized. The next step is to decide whether the incidental thyroid nodule should be further evaluated with ultrasonography. Observations: Indiscriminate workup of incidental thyroid nodules with ultrasonography is not cost-effective and is potentially harmful...
April 20, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424703/immune-responses-to-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-why-do-they-fail-to-protect-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
REVIEW
Juan I Moliva, Joanne Turner, Jordi B Torrelles
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is the current leading cause of death due to a single infectious organism. Although curable, the broad emergence of multi-, extensive-, extreme-, and total-drug resistant strains of M.tb has hindered eradication efforts of this pathogen. Furthermore, computational models predict a quarter of the world's population is infected with M.tb in a latent state, effectively serving as the largest reservoir for any human pathogen with the ability to cause significant morbidity and mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415170/variational-calculation-of-transport-coefficients-in-diffusive-lattice-gases
#4
Chikashi Arita, P L Krapivsky, Kirone Mallick
A diffusive lattice gas is characterized by the diffusion coefficient depending only on the density. The Green-Kubo formula for diffusivity can be represented as a variational formula, but even when the equilibrium properties of a lattice gas are analytically known, the diffusion coefficient can be computed only in the exceptional situation when the lattice gas is gradient. In the general case, minimization over an infinite-dimensional space is required. We propose an approximation scheme based on minimizing over finite-dimensional subspaces of functions...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413743/real-time-fluoroscopic-and-c-arm-computed-tomography-evaluation-of-ommaya-reservoir-integrity
#5
Adrienne M Moraff, Melanie Hayden Gephart, Larry M Shuer, Jeremy J Heit
We describe a case of a 24-year-old patient with relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia involving the central nervous system. After placement of an Ommaya reservoir for intrathecal chemotherapy administration, the patient developed progressive headache, nausea, and drowsiness and was found to have an enlarging subdural collection underlying the Ommaya. To exclude leakage of the Ommaya system into the subdural space, real-time fluoroscopic and C-arm computed tomographic evaluation of the Ommaya reservoir was performed after iodinated contrast injection into the reservoir...
March 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405657/a-triple-synergistic-strategy-for-combinational-photo-radiotherapy-and-multi-modality-imaging-based-on-hyaluronic-acid-hybridized-polyaniline-coated-ws2-nanodots
#6
Jinping Wang, Xiaojuan Pang, Xiaoxiao Tan, Yilin Song, Li Liu, Qing You, Qi Sun, Fengping Tan, Nan Li
In this study, we report a strategy for integrating hyaluronic acid (HA), polyaniline (PANI), WS2 nanodots (WS2), and chlorin e6 (Ce6) into a single nanoplatform (HA-WS2@PANI/Ce6) for fluorescence, photoacoustic, and computed tomography multi-modality imaging-guided trimodal photothermal/radiation/photodynamic combination therapy of tumors. The WS2 nanodot core is used as the radiosensitizer with the PANI shell as the hyperthermal agent and the photosensitizer reservoir. HA and Ce6 were adsorbed on the outer shell for tumor targeting and photodynamic therapy, respectively...
April 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400061/nonlinear-model-predictive-control-of-managed-pressure-drilling
#7
Anirudh Nandan, Syed Imtiaz
A new design of nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC) is proposed for managed pressure drilling (MPD) system. The NMPC is based on output feedback control architecture and employs offset-free formulation proposed in [1]. NMPC uses active set method for computing control inputs. The controller implements an automatic switching from constant bottom hole pressure (CBHP) regulation to flow control mode in the event of a reservoir kick. In the flow control mode the controller automatically raises the bottom hole pressure setpoint, and thereby keeps the reservoir fluid flow to the surface within a tunable threshold...
April 8, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388198/direct-cavity-detection-of-majorana-pairs
#8
Matthieu C Dartiailh, Takis Kontos, Benoit Douçot, Audrey Cottet
No experiment could directly test the particle-antiparticle duality of Majorana fermions, so far. However, this property represents a necessary ingredient towards the realization of topological quantum computing schemes. Here, we show how to complete this task by using microwave techniques. The direct coupling between a pair of overlapping Majorana bound states and the electric field from a microwave cavity is extremely difficult to detect due to the self-adjoint character of Majorana fermions which forbids direct energy exchanges with the cavity...
March 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379566/lncfunnet-an-integrated-computational-framework-for-identification-of-functional-long-noncoding-rnas-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle-cells
#9
Jiajian Zhou, Suyang Zhang, Huating Wang, Hao Sun
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key regulators of diverse cellular processes. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing have allowed for an unprecedented discovery of novel lncRNAs. To identify functional lncRNAs from thousands of candidates for further functional validation is still a challenging task. Here, we present a novel computational framework, lncFunNet (lncRNA Functional inference through integrated Network) that integrates ChIP-seq, CLIP-seq and RNA-seq data to predict, prioritize and annotate lncRNA functions...
April 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341032/normal-ranges-of-left-atrial-strain-by-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Faraz Pathan, Nicholas D'Elia, Mark T Nolan, Thomas H Marwick, Kazuaki Negishi
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the assessment of myocardial function have facilitated the direct measurement of atrial function using speckle-tracking echocardiography. Currently, normal reference ranges for atrial function using speckle-tracking echocardiography are based on a few initial studies, with variations among modestly sized (n = 100-350) studies. METHODS: The authors searched the PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases for the key terms "left atrial/atrial/atrium" and "strain/function/deformation/stiffness" and "speckle tracking/Velocity Vector Imaging/edge tracking...
January 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323163/cerebrospinal-and-interstitial-fluid-transport-via-the-glymphatic-pathway-modeled-by-optimal-mass-transport
#11
Vadim Ratner, Yi Gao, Hedok Lee, Rena Elkin, Maiken Nedergaard, Helene Benveniste, Allen Tannenbaum
The glymphatic pathway is a system which facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the glymphatic pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system is most active during deep wave sleep general anesthesia. By using paramagnetic tracers administered into CSF of rodents, we previously showed the utility of MRI in characterizing a macroscopic whole brain view of glymphatic transport but we have yet to define and visualize the specific flow patterns...
March 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304038/size-and-shape-effects-on-the-thermodynamic-properties-of-nanoscale-volumes-of-water
#12
Bjørn A Strøm, Jean-Marc Simon, Sondre K Schnell, Signe Kjelstrup, Jianying He, Dick Bedeaux
Small systems are known to deviate from the classical thermodynamic description, among other things due to their large surface area to volume ratio compared to corresponding big systems. As a consequence, extensive thermodynamic properties are no longer proportional to the volume, but are instead higher order functions of size and shape. We investigate such functions for second moments of probability distributions of fluctuating properties in the grand-canonical ensemble, focusing specifically on the volume and surface terms of Hadwiger's theorem, explained in Klain, Mathematika, 1995, 42, 329-339...
March 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292699/improved-method-for-effective-rock-microporosity-estimation-using-x-ray-microtomography
#13
H E Cid, G Carrasco-Núñez, V C Manea
Petrophysical analysis using X-ray microtomography provides key textural and compositional information, useful to investigate porous media characteristics of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. Several approaches, used for rock porosity estimation from tomography data, rely mainly on visual or mathematical segmentation algorithms that attempt to obtain thresholding values to segment a phase solved by pixel analysis resolution. Therefore, porosity is evaluated using only pores above pixel resolution (macroporosity), and dismiss pores sized less than the pixel resolution (microporosity) that can be essential to characterize permeability conditions of geothermal reservoirs...
January 22, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290452/a-general-derivation-and-quantification-of-the-third-law-of-thermodynamics
#14
Lluís Masanes, Jonathan Oppenheim
The most accepted version of the third law of thermodynamics, the unattainability principle, states that any process cannot reach absolute zero temperature in a finite number of steps and within a finite time. Here, we provide a derivation of the principle that applies to arbitrary cooling processes, even those exploiting the laws of quantum mechanics or involving an infinite-dimensional reservoir. We quantify the resources needed to cool a system to any temperature, and translate these resources into the minimal time or number of steps, by considering the notion of a thermal machine that obeys similar restrictions to universal computers...
March 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208223/conceptualization-of-karstic-aquifer-with-multiple-outlets-using-a-dual-porosity-model
#15
Seiyed Mossa Hosseini, Behzad Ataie-Ashtiani
In this study, two conceptual models, the classic reservoir (CR) model and exchange reservoirs model embedded by dual porosity approach (DPR) are developed for simulation of karst aquifer functioning drained by multiple outlets. The performances of two developed models are demonstrated at a less developed karstic aquifer with three spring outlets located in Zagros Mountain in the south-west of Iran using 22-years of daily data. During the surface recharge, a production function based on water mass balance is implemented for computing the time series of surface recharge to the karst formations...
February 16, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192716/development-and-testing-of-a-fast-conceptual-river-water-quality-model
#16
Ingrid Keupers, Patrick Willems
Modern, model based river quality management strongly relies on river water quality models to simulate the temporal and spatial evolution of pollutant concentrations in the water body. Such models are typically constructed by extending detailed hydrodynamic models with a component describing the advection-diffusion and water quality transformation processes in a detailed, physically based way. This approach is too computational time demanding, especially when simulating long time periods that are needed for statistical analysis of the results or when model sensitivity analysis, calibration and validation require a large number of model runs...
April 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146480/prediction-performance-of-reservoir-computing-systems-based-on-a-diode-pumped-erbium-doped-microchip-laser-subject-to-optical-feedback
#17
Romain Modeste Nguimdo, Eric Lacot, Olivier Jacquin, Olivier Hugon, Guy Van der Sande, Hugues Guillet de Chatellus
Reservoir computing (RC) systems are computational tools for information processing that can be fully implemented in optics. Here, we experimentally and numerically show that an optically pumped laser subject to optical delayed feedback can yield similar results to those obtained for electrically pumped lasers. Unlike with previous implementations, the input data are injected at a time interval that is much larger than the time-delay feedback. These data are directly coupled to the feedback light beam. Our results illustrate possible new avenues for RC implementations for prediction tasks...
February 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144631/studying-vertical-microbiome-transmission-from-mothers-to-infants-by-strain-level-metagenomic-profiling
#18
Francesco Asnicar, Serena Manara, Moreno Zolfo, Duy Tin Truong, Matthias Scholz, Federica Armanini, Pamela Ferretti, Valentina Gorfer, Anna Pedrotti, Adrian Tett, Nicola Segata
The gut microbiome becomes shaped in the first days of life and continues to increase its diversity during the first months. Links between the configuration of the infant gut microbiome and infant health are being shown, but a comprehensive strain-level assessment of microbes vertically transmitted from mother to infant is still missing. We collected fecal and breast milk samples from multiple mother-infant pairs during the first year of life and applied shotgun metagenomic sequencing followed by computational strain-level profiling...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140632/what-is-morphological-computation-on-how-the-body-contributes-to-cognition-and-control
#19
Vincent C Müller, Matej Hoffmann
The contribution of the body to cognition and control in natural and artificial agents is increasingly described as "offloading computation from the brain to the body," where the body is said to perform "morphological computation." Our investigation of four characteristic cases of morphological computation in animals and robots shows that the "offloading" perspective is misleading. Actually, the contribution of body morphology to cognition and control is rarely computational, in any useful sense of the word...
2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124966/-a-case-of-bronchiolitis-obliterans-secondary-to-human-metapneumovirus-bronchiolitis
#20
Osman Yeşilbaş, Esra Şevketoğlu, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Mey Talip Petmezci, Elif Bato, Seda Balkaya, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Mert Ahmet Kuşkucu, Figen Palabıyık, Erkan Çakır
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), formerly classified in Paramyxoviridae family is now moved into Pneumoviridae, which was described as a novel family. It causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) usually in children younger than five years old. The recent epidemiological studies indicated that hMPV is the second most frequently detected virus in LRTIs of young children, following the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a chronic obstructive lung disease characterized by fibrosis of the distal respiratory airways...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
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