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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441671/swimming-upstream-creating-a-culture-of-high-value-care
#1
Reshma Gupta, Christopher Moriates
As health system leaders strategize the best ways to encourage the transition toward value-based health care, the underlying culture-defined as a system of shared assumptions, values, beliefs, and norms existing within an environment-continues to shape clinician practice patterns. The current prevailing medical culture contributes to overtesting, overtreatment, and health care waste. Choosing Wisely lists, appropriateness criteria, and guidelines codify best practices, but academic medicine as a whole must recognize that faculty and trainees are all largely still operating within the same cultural climate...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438993/air-quality-health-and-climate-implications-of-china-s-synthetic-natural-gas-development
#2
Yue Qin, Fabian Wagner, Noah Scovronick, Wei Peng, Junnan Yang, Tong Zhu, Kirk R Smith, Denise L Mauzerall
Facing severe air pollution and growing dependence on natural gas imports, the Chinese government plans to increase coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) production. Although displacement of coal with SNG benefits air quality, it increases CO2 emissions. Due to variations in air pollutant and CO2 emission factors and energy efficiencies across sectors, coal replacement with SNG results in varying degrees of air quality benefits and climate penalties. We estimate air quality, human health, and climate impacts of SNG substitution strategies in 2020...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438920/conservation-of-biodiversity-as-a-strategy-for-improving-human-health-and-well-being
#3
REVIEW
A Marm Kilpatrick, Daniel J Salkeld, Georgia Titcomb, Micah B Hahn
The Earth's ecosystems have been altered by anthropogenic processes, including land use, harvesting populations, species introductions and climate change. These anthropogenic processes greatly alter plant and animal communities, thereby changing transmission of the zoonotic pathogens they carry. Biodiversity conservation may be a potential win-win strategy for maintaining ecosystem health and protecting public health, yet the causal evidence to support this strategy is limited. Evaluating conservation as a viable public health intervention requires answering four questions: (i) Is there a general and causal relationship between biodiversity and pathogen transmission, and if so, which direction is it in? (ii) Does increased pathogen diversity with increased host biodiversity result in an increase in total disease burden? (iii) Do the net benefits of biodiversity conservation to human well-being outweigh the benefits that biodiversity-degrading activities, such as agriculture and resource utilization, provide? (iv) Are biodiversity conservation interventions cost-effective when compared to other options employed in standard public health approaches? Here, we summarize current knowledge on biodiversity-zoonotic disease relationships and outline a research plan to address the gaps in our understanding for each of these four questions...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438909/interacting-effects-of-land-use-and-climate-on-rodent-borne-pathogens-in-central-kenya
#4
Hillary S Young, Douglas J McCauley, Rodolfo Dirzo, Charles L Nunn, Michael G Campana, Bernard Agwanda, Erik R Otarola-Castillo, Eric R Castillo, Robert M Pringle, Kari E Veblen, Daniel J Salkeld, Kristin Stewardson, Robert Fleischer, Eric F Lambin, Todd M Palmer, Kristofer M Helgen
Understanding the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on zoonotic disease risk is both a critical conservation objective and a public health priority. Here, we evaluate the effects of multiple forms of anthropogenic disturbance across a precipitation gradient on the abundance of pathogen-infected small mammal hosts in a multi-host, multi-pathogen system in central Kenya. Our results suggest that conversion to cropland and wildlife loss alone drive systematic increases in rodent-borne pathogen prevalence, but that pastoral conversion has no such systematic effects...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437184/control-of-mosquito-borne-diseases-in-northwestern-italy-preparedness-from-one-season-to-the-next
#5
Federica Verna, Paola Modesto, Maria Cristina Radaelli, Danila Raffaella Francese, Enrico Monaci, Rosanna Desiato, Carla Grattarola, Simone Peletto, Andrea Mosca, Giovanni Savini, Rosa Chianese, Vittorio Demicheli, Marino Prearo, Laura Chiavacci, Alessandra Pautasso, Cristina Casalone
INTRODUCTION: Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are spreading worldwide due to globalization and climate change, representing a threat for both humans and animals. Of great concern are the infections caused by viruses belonging to the Flavivirus genus as West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) transmitted by Culex sp. or Dengue virus and Zika virus (ZIKV), transmitted by Aedes sp. This work describes the surveillance protocol enforced in Piedmont (Northwestern Italy) to control MBDs spread, focusing on the activities performed on mosquitoes during the 2015 vector season...
February 23, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435826/climate-change-and-simulation-of-cardiovascular-disease-mortality-a-case-study-of-mashhad-iran
#6
Mohammad Baaghideh, Fatemeh Mayvaneh
BACKGROUND: Weather and climate play a significant role in human health. We are accustomed to affects the weather conditions. By increasing or decreasing the environment temperature or change of seasons, some diseases become prevalent or remove. This study investigated the role of temperature in cardiovascular disease mortality of city of Mashhad in the current decade and its simulation in the future decades under conditions of climate change. METHODS: Cardiovascular disease mortality data and the daily temperatures data were used during (2004-2013) period...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432508/estimation-of-environmental-flow-incorporating-water-quality-and-hypothetical-climate-change-scenarios
#7
Bendangtola Walling, Shushobhit Chaudhary, C T Dhanya, Arun Kumar
Environmental flows (Eflow, hereafter) are the flows to be maintained in the river for its healthy functioning and the sustenance and protection of aquatic ecosystems. Estimation of Eflow in any river stretch demands consideration of various factors such as flow regime, ecosystem, and health of river. However, most of the Eflow estimation studies have neglected the water quality factor. This study urges the need to consider water quality criterion in the estimation of Eflow and proposes a framework for estimating Eflow incorporating water quality variations under present and hypothetical future scenarios of climate change and pollution load...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431264/intercomparison-of-methods-to-estimate-black-carbon-emissions-from-cookstoves
#8
Candela de la Sota, Moustapha Kane, Javier Mazorra, Julio Lumbreras, Issakha Youm, Mar Viana
Black carbon is the second largest contributor to climate change and also poses risks to human health. Despite the need for black carbon (BC) emissions estimates from residential biomass burning for cooking, quantitative data are still scarce. This scarcity is mainly due to the scattered location of the stoves, as well as relatively costly and complex analytical methods available. Two low cost and easy-to-use optical methods, a cell-phone based system and smoke stain reflectometry, where compared to elemental carbon (EC) concentrations by the Sunset OCEC Analyzer (TOT)...
April 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430140/-eat-as-if-you-could-save-the-planet-and-win-sustainability-integration-into-nutrition-for-exercise-and-sport
#9
Nanna Meyer, Alba Reguant-Closa
Today's industrial food production contributes significantly to environmental degradation. Meat production accounts for the largest impact, including greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use. While food production and consumption are important aspects when addressing climate change, this article focuses predominantly on dietary change that promotes both health for planet and people with focus on athletes. Healthy, sustainable eating recommendations begin to appear in various governmental guidelines. However, there remains resistance to the suggested reductions in meat consumption...
April 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429985/attitude-of-us-obstetricians-and-gynaecologists-to-global-warming-and-medical-waste
#10
Cassandra Thiel, Paula Duncan, Noe Woods
Objectives Global warming (or climate change) is a major public health issue, and health services are one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in high-income countries. Despite the scale of the health care sector's resource consumption, little is known about the attitude of physicians and their willingness to participate in efforts to reduce the environmental impact of health services. Methods A survey of 236 obstetricians and gynaecologists at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Western Pennsylvania, USA...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427454/cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-africa-current-and-future-challenges
#11
REVIEW
Sylvia Afriyie Squire, Una Ryan
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important causes of diarrhoeal illness. Adequate knowledge of the molecular diversity and geographical distribution of these parasites and the environmental and climatic variables that influence their prevalence is important for effective control of infection in at-risk populations, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of these parasites in Africa. Cryptosporidium is associated with moderate to severe diarrhoea and increased mortality in African countries and both parasites negatively affect child growth and development...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424507/heat-stress-in-dairy-cattle-alters-lipid-composition-of-milk
#12
Z Liu, V Ezernieks, J Wang, N Wanni Arachchillage, J B Garner, W J Wales, B G Cocks, S Rochfort
Heat stress, potentially affecting both the health of animals and the yield and composition of milk, occurs frequently in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions. A simulated acute heat stress experiment was conducted in controlled-climate chambers and milk samples collected before, during and after the heat challenge. Milk lipid composition, surveyed using LC-MS, showed significant changes in triacylglycerol (TAG) and polar lipid profiles. Heat stress (temperature-humidity index up to 84) was associated with a reduction in TAG groups containing short- and medium-chain fatty acids and a concomitant increase in those containing long-chain fatty acids...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421177/variation-in-population-vulnerability-to-heat-wave-in-western-australia
#13
Jianguo Xiao, Tony Spicer, Le Jian, Grace Yajuan Yun, Changying Shao, John Nairn, Robert J B Fawcett, Andrew Robertson, Tarun Stephen Weeramanthri
Heat waves (HWs) have killed more people in Australia than all other natural hazards combined. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency, duration, and intensity of HWs and leads to a doubling of heat-related deaths over the next 40 years. Despite being a significant public health issue, HWs do not attract the same level of attention from researchers, policy makers, and emergency management agencies compared to other natural hazards. The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors that might lead to population vulnerability to HW in Western Australia (WA)...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419386/association-between-salinity-and-hospital-admission-for-hypertension-an-ecological-case-control-study-in-the-mekong-delta-region-in-vietnam
#14
Mohammad Radwanur Rahman Talukder, Shannon Rutherford, Cordia Chu, Trung Hieu Nguyen, Dung Phung
Background: Drinking water in the Mekong Delta Region (MDR) is highly vulnerable to salinity intrusion and this problem is expected to increase with the projected climate change and sea level rise. Despite this, research on health effects of saline contaminated water is scarce in this region. This study examines the risk of hospital admission for hypertension in salinity-affected areas of the MDR. Methods: Cases and controls were obtained from national/provincial hospital admission records for 2013...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418737/public-health-emergency-response-in-taiwan
#15
Yi-Feng Su, Cheng-Hao Wu, Tsui-Feng Lee
In recent years, growth of international travel and trade, as well as climate change, has resulted in the frequent emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases such as Ebola, Zika, and MERS. In 2016, Taiwan used the Joint External Evaluation (JEE) tool to evaluate its public health emergency response capacities and understand important areas for improvement. This article presents Taiwan's disaster and public health emergency response organizational structure, real-time integrated information, response processes, and command center structure...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415000/changes-in-copper-toxicity-towards-diatom-communities-with-experimental-warming
#16
Soizic Morin, Anne Sophie Lambert, Elena Planes Rodriguez, Aymeric Dabrin, Marina Coquery, Stephane Pesce
Biological communities in aquatic environments most commonly face multiple stress, where natural and anthropogenic stressors often act jointly. Their interactions are most easily assessed using short cycle organisms such as periphytic diatoms. In this experiment, we analyzed the combined effects of copper exposure and warming on diatom successions over 6 weeks. Natural biofilm collected in winter was left to grow in mesocosms exposed or unexposed to realistic Cu concentrations at four different temperatures...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413725/trypanosoma-cruzi-reservoir-triatomine-vector-co-occurrence-networks-reveal-meta-community-effects-by-synanthropic-mammals-on-geographic-dispersal
#17
Carlos N Ibarra-Cerdeña, Leopoldo Valiente-Banuet, Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Christopher R Stephens, Janine M Ramsey
Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD) from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species' nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409088/city-scale-climate-change-policies-do-they-matter-for-wellbeing
#18
Rosemary Hiscock, Arja Asikainen, Jouni Tuomisto, Matti Jantunen, Erkki Pärjälä, Clive E Sabel
Climate change mitigation policies aim to reduce climate change through reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions whereas adaption policies seek to enable humans to live in a world with increasingly variable and more extreme climatic conditions. It is increasingly realised that enacting such policies will have unintended implications for public health, but there has been less focus on their implications for wellbeing. Wellbeing can be defined as a positive mental state which is influenced by living conditions...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407275/agriculturally-important-microbial-biofilms-present-status-and-future-prospects
#19
REVIEW
Kulandaivelu Velmourougane, Radha Prasanna, Anil Kumar Saxena
Microbial biofilms are a fascinating subject, due to their significant roles in the environment, industry, and health. Advances in biochemical and molecular techniques have helped in enhancing our understanding of biofilm structure and development. In the past, research on biofilms primarily focussed on health and industrial sectors; however, lately, biofilms in agriculture are gaining attention due to their immense potential in crop production, protection, and improvement. Biofilms play an important role in colonization of surfaces - soil, roots, or shoots of plants and enable proliferation in the desired niche, besides enhancing soil fertility...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398839/foundational-and-translational-research-opportunities-to-improve-plant-health
#20
Richard W Michelmore, Gitta Coaker, Rebecca Bart, Gwyn A Beattie, Andrew Bent, Toby Bruce, Duncan Cameron, Jeff Dangl, Savithramma Dinesh-Kumar, Robert Edwards, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Walter Gassmann, Jean Greenberg, Richard Harrison, Ping He, Jagger Harvey, Alisa Huffaker, Scot Hulbert, Roger Innes, Jonathan D Jones, Isgouhi Kaloshian, Sophien Kamoun, Fumiaki Katagiri, Jan E Leach, Wenbo Ma, John M McDowell, June Medford, Blake Meyers, Rebecca Nelson, Richard Peter Oliver, Yiping Qi, Diane Saunders, Michael Shaw, Prasanta Subudhi, Leslie Torrance, Brett M Tyler, John Walsh
This whitepaper reports the deliberations of a workshop focused on biotic challenges to plant health held in Washington, D.C. in September 2016. Ensuring health of food plants is critical to maintaining the quality and productivity of crops and for sustenance of the rapidly growing human population. There is a close linkage between food security and societal stability; however, global food security is threatened by the vulnerability of our agricultural systems to numerous pests, pathogens, weeds, and environmental stresses...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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