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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813467/meat-consumption-reduction-in-italian-regions-health-co-benefits-and-decreases-in-ghg-emissions
#1
Sara Farchi, Manuela De Sario, Enrica Lapucci, Marina Davoli, Paola Michelozzi
INTRODUCTION: Animal agriculture has exponentially grown in recent decades in response to the rise in global demand for meat, even in countries like Italy that traditionally eat a Mediterranean, plant-based diet. Globalization related dietary changes are contributing to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases and to the global climate crisis, and are associated with huge carbon and water footprints. The objective of the study is to assess inequalities in health impacts and in attributable greenhouse gases-GHG emissions in Italy by hypothesizing different scenarios of reduction in red and processed meat consumption towards healthier consumption patterns more compliant with the recommendations of the Mediterranean food pyramid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810512/co-digestion-of-rice-straw-and-cow-dung-to-supply-cooking-fuel-and-fertilizers-in-rural-india-impact-on-human-health-resource-flows-and-climate-change
#2
Sophie Sfez, Steven De Meester, Jo Dewulf
Anaerobic digestion of cow dung with new feedstock such as crop residues to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming several issues faced by India. Anaerobic digestion provides biogas that can replace biomass cooking fuels and reduce indoor air pollution. It also provides digestate, a fertilizer that can contribute to compensate nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, it avoids the burning of rice straw in the fields which contributes to air pollution in India and climate change globally...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810204/characteristics-of-black-carbon-emissions-from-in-use-light-duty-passenger-vehicles
#3
Xuan Zheng, Shaojun Zhang, Ye Wu, K Max Zhang, Xian Wu, Zhenhua Li, Jiming Hao
Mitigating black carbon (BC) emissions from various combustion sources has been considered an urgent policy issue to address the challenges of climate change, air pollution and health risks. Vehicles contribute considerably to total anthropogenic BC emissions and urban BC concentrations. Compared with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, there is much larger uncertainty in BC emission factors for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPVs), in particular for gasoline LDPVs, which warrants further studies. In this study, we employed the dynamometer and the Aethalometer (AE-51) to measure second-by-second BC emissions from eight LDPVs by engine technology and driving cycle...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808479/a-multiscale-model-for-the-world-s-first-parasitic-disease-targeted-for-eradication-guinea-worm-disease
#4
Rendani Netshikweta, Winston Garira
Guinea worm disease (GWD) is both a neglected tropical disease and an environmentally driven infectious disease. Environmentally driven infectious diseases remain one of the biggest health threats for human welfare in developing countries and the threat is increased by the looming danger of climate change. In this paper we present a multiscale model of GWD that integrates the within-host scale and the between-host scale. The model is used to concurrently examine the interactions between the three organisms that are implicated in natural cases of GWD transmission, the copepod vector, the human host, and the protozoan worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis), and identify their epidemiological roles...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806483/mandate-for-the-nursing-profession-to-address-climate-change-through-nursing-education
#5
Jeanne Leffers, Ruth McDermott Levy, Patrice K Nicholas, Casey F Sweeney
PURPOSE: The adverse health effects from climate change demand action from the nursing profession. This article examines the calls to action, the status of climate change in nursing education, and challenges and recommendations for nursing education related to climate change and human health. ORGANIZING CONSTRUCT: Discussion paper. FINDINGS: The integration of climate change into nursing education is essential so that knowledge, skills, and insights critical for clinical practice in our climate-changing world are incorporated in curricula, practice, research, and policy...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806469/climate-change-effects-on-respiratory-health-implications-for-nursing
#6
Maureen George, Jean-Marie Bruzzese, Lea Ann Matura
PURPOSE: Greenhouse gases are driving climate change. This article explores the adverse health effects of climate change on a particularly vulnerable population: children and adults with respiratory conditions. APPROACH: This review provides a general overview of the effects of increasing temperatures, extreme weather, desertification, and flooding on asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and respiratory infections. We offer suggestions for future research to better understand climate change hazards, policies to support prevention and mitigation efforts targeting climate change, and clinical actions to reduce individual risk...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800413/the-impact-of-climate-change-and-emissions-control-on-future-ozone-levels-implications-for-human-health
#7
Jennifer D Stowell, Young-Min Kim, Yang Gao, Joshua S Fu, Howard H Chang, Yang Liu
Overwhelming evidence has shown that, from the Industrial Revolution to the present, human activities influence ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations. Past studies demonstrate links between O3 exposure and health. However, knowledge gaps remain in our understanding concerning the impacts of climate change mitigation policies on O3 concentrations and health. Using a hybrid downscaling approach, we evaluated the separate impact of climate change and emission control policies on O3 levels and associated excess mortality in the US in the 2050s under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)...
August 8, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796635/detecting-and-attributing-health-burdens-to-climate-change
#8
Kristie L Ebi, Nicholas H Ogden, Jan C Semenza, Alistair Woodward
BACKGROUND: Detection and attribution of health impacts caused by climate change uses formal methods to determine a) whether the occurrence of adverse health outcomes has changed, and b) the extent to which that change could be attributed to climate change. There have been limited efforts to undertake detection and attribution analyses in health. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to show a range of approaches for conducting detection and attribution analyses. RESULTS: Case studies for heatwaves, Lyme disease in Canada, and Vibrio emergence in northern Europe highlight evidence that climate change is adversely affecting human health...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796442/total-environmental-impacts-of-biofuels-from-corn-stover-using-a-hybrid-life-cycle-assessment-lca-model-combining-process-lca-and-economic-input-output-lca
#9
Changqi Liu, Yaji Huang, Xinye Wang, Yang Tai, Lingqin Liu, Hao Liu
Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far only focused on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one media to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage...
August 10, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796121/climate-changes-and-hymenoptera-venom-allergy-are-there-some-connections
#10
Stefano Turillazzi, Francesco Turillazzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to update the world status of the main allergenic stinging Hymenoptera. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we consider the problems that social Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) could represent in the nearest future for human health in different parts of the world. SUMMARY: Distribution and consistency of allergenic species including venomous insects are interested by accelerated dynamics caused by climate changes and globalization...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793241/the-activity-based-methodology-to-assess-ship-emissions-a-review
#11
REVIEW
R A O Nunes, M C M Alvim-Ferraz, F G Martins, S I V Sousa
Several studies tried to estimate atmospheric emissions with origin in the maritime sector, concluding that it contributed to the global anthropogenic emissions through the emission of pollutants that have a strong impact on hu' health and also on climate change. Thus, this paper aimed to review published studies since 2010 that used activity-based methodology to estimate ship emissions, to provide a summary of the available input data. After exclusions, 26 articles were analysed and the main information were scanned and registered, namely technical information about ships, ships activity and movement information, engines, fuels, load and emission factors...
August 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790510/fear-and-loathing-on-the-campaign-trail-what-the-election-means-for-u-s-health-care-and-the-health-of-american-democracy
#12
Robert B Doherty
This paper analyzes four trends that are affecting the 2016 election: changing US demographics and the reaction to them, a growing distrust of government, increased polarization and government gridlock, and the rise of populism. It compares the views of candidates Hillary Rodham Clinton and Donald S. Trump on the Affordable Care Act, climate change, prescription drug pricing, prevention of injuries and deaths from firearms, and the opioids epidemic; and offers perspectives on the potential impact of the election not only on U...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782134/gut-microbiomes-of-free-ranging-and-captive-namibian-cheetahs-diversity-putative-functions-and-occurrence-of-potential-pathogens
#13
Wasim Uddin, Sebastian Menke, Jörg Melzheimer, Susanne Thalwitzer, Sonja Heinrich, Bettina Wachter, Simone Sommer
Although the significance of the gut microbiome for host health is well acknowledged, the impact of host traits and environmental factors on the inter-individual variation of gut microbiomes of wildlife species is not well understood. Such information is essential, however, since changes in the composition of these microbial communities beyond the natural range might cause dysbiosis leading to increased susceptibility to infections. We examined the potential influence of sex, age, genetic relatedness, spatial tactics, and the environment on the natural range of the gut microbiome diversity in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)...
August 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774264/role-of-meteorological-conditions-in-reported-chickenpox-cases-in-wuhan-and-hong-kong-china
#14
Banghua Chen, Ayako Sumi, Lei Wang, Wang Zhou, Nobumichi Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Chickenpox is a common contagious disease that remains an important public health issue worldwide. Over 90% of unvaccinated individuals become infected, but infection occurs at different ages in different parts of the world. Many people have been infected by 20 to 30 years of age in China, and adults and pregnant women who become infected often develop severe infection. Furthermore, a mortality rate of 2-3 per 100,000 infected persons has been reported. In this study, we explore the temperature-dependent transition of patterns of reported chickenpox cases in two large subtropical climate cities, Wuhan and Hong Kong, China, to aid in the prediction of epidemics and preparation for the effects of climatic changes on epidemiology of chickenpox in China...
August 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772262/evolution-and-emergence-of-pathogenic-viruses-past-present-and-future
#15
Mohammad K Parvez, Shama Parveen
Incidences of emerging/re-emerging deadly viral infections have significantly affected human health despite extraordinary progress in the area of biomedical knowledge. The best examples are the recurring outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya fever in tropical and sub-tropical regions, the recent epidemic of Zika in the Americas and the Caribbean, and the SARS, MERS, and influenza A outbreaks across the globe. The established natural reservoirs of human viruses are mainly farm animals, and, to a lesser extent, wild animals and arthropods...
August 4, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769039/systematic-assessment-of-the-climate-sensitivity-of-important-human-and-domestic-animals-pathogens-in-europe
#16
K Marie McIntyre, Christian Setzkorn, Philip J Hepworth, Serge Morand, Andrew P Morse, Matthew Baylis
Climate change is expected to threaten human health and well-being via its effects on climate-sensitive infectious diseases, potentially changing their spatial distributions, affecting annual/seasonal cycles, or altering disease incidence and severity. Climate sensitivity of pathogens is a key indicator that diseases might respond to climate change, but the proportion of pathogens that is climate-sensitive, and their characteristics, are not known. The climate sensitivity of European human and domestic animal infectious pathogens, and the characteristics associated with sensitivity, were assessed systematically in terms of selection of pathogens and choice of literature reviewed...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767338/intensive-evening-outpatient-treatment-for-patients-with-personality-dysfunction-early-group-process-change-in-interpersonal-distress-and-longer-term-social-functioning
#17
Anthony S Joyce, John S Ogrodniczuk, David Kealy
OBJECTIVE: Entrenched interpersonal difficulties are a defining feature of those with personality dysfunction. Evening treatment-a comprehensive and intensive group-oriented outpatient therapy program-offers a unique approach to delivering mental health services to patients with chronic personality dysfunction. This study assessed change in interpersonal problems as a key outcome, the relevance of such change to future social functioning, and the influence of early group processes on this change...
2017: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766042/estimating-population-heat-exposure-and-impacts-on-working-people-in-conjunction-with-climate-change
#18
Tord Kjellstrom, Chris Freyberg, Bruno Lemke, Matthias Otto, David Briggs
Increased environmental heat levels as a result of climate change present a major challenge to the health, wellbeing and sustainability of human communities in already hot parts of this planet. This challenge has many facets from direct clinical health effects of daily heat exposure to indirect effects related to poor air quality, poor access to safe drinking water, poor access to nutritious and safe food and inadequate protection from disease vectors and environmental toxic chemicals. The increasing environmental heat is a threat to environmental sustainability...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765336/new-directions-in-cancer-control-and-population-sciences
#19
Robert A Hiatt
Cancer control science has been evolving since it first became a focus for cancer research and program activities a century ago. The evolution of the field has responded to historical megatrends along the way that keep it relevant to the cancer-related needs of society. This commentary describes some of the key trends and developments now influencing cancer control and population sciences that reflect societal change and new tools and concepts in modern biomedical science. New directions include the impact of climate change, health care delivery research, the growth of population health science, data science, precision medicine, data sharing, implementation science, and new technologies, including social media and new geospatial methodologies...
August 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764686/household-preferences-for-reducing-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-four-european-high-income-countries-does-health-information-matter-a-mixed-methods-study-protocol
#20
Alina Herrmann, Helen Fischer, Dorothee Amelung, Dorian Litvine, Carlo Aall, Camilla Andersson, Marta Baltruszewicz, Carine Barbier, Sébastien Bruyère, Françoise Bénévise, Ghislain Dubois, Valérie R Louis, Maria Nilsson, Karen Richardsen Moberg, Bore Sköld, Rainer Sauerborn
BACKGROUND: It is now universally acknowledged that climate change constitutes a major threat to human health. At the same time, some of the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so-called climate change mitigation measures, have significant health co-benefits (e.g., walking or cycling more; eating less meat). The goal of limiting global warming to 1,5° Celsius set by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris in 2015 can only be reached if all stakeholders, including households, take actions to mitigate climate change...
August 1, 2017: BMC Public Health
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