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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674931/why-we-should-create-artificial-offspring-meaning-and-the-collective-afterlife
#1
John Danaher
This article argues that the creation of artificial offspring could make our lives more meaningful (i.e. satisfy more meaning-relevant conditions of value). By 'artificial offspring' I mean beings that we construct, with a mix of human and non-human-like qualities. Robotic artificial intelligences are paradigmatic examples of the form. There are two reasons for thinking that the creation of such beings could make our lives more meaningful and valuable. The first is that the existence of a collective afterlife-i...
July 3, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606625/-terrorism-and-human-behavior
#2
S J Leistedt
OBJECTIVES: Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. METHODS: Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases...
June 9, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560488/lived-religion-as-reproductive-decision-making-resource-among-romanian-women-who-use-abortion-as-contraception
#3
Cristina A Pop
This article draws upon qualitative ethnographic data collected between 2005 and 2013 in southern Romania among women who have been consistently using abortion as a contraceptive method. It particularly considers the role that lived religion might have played in some individuals' strategies to render abortion a justifiable practice. Over the last seven decades, Romanian women's experiences of abortion have often been at odds with both secular and religious regulations. This study shifts the perspective from the biopolitics and the bioethics of abortion toward women's own reproductive decision-making strategies in a context of enduring traditional patriarchy...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522475/paolo-macchiarini-s-academic-afterlife-in-russia-ends
#4
Alla Astakhova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303987/development-of-islamic-spiritual-health-scale-ishs
#5
Fatemeh Khorashadizadeh, Abbas Heydari, Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi, Seyed Reza Mazlom, Mahdi Ebrahimi, Habibollah Esmaili
OBJECTIVE: To develop and psychometrically assess spiritual health scale based on Islamic view in Iran. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Imam Ali and Quem hospitals in Mashhad and Imam Ali and Imam Reza hospitals in Bojnurd, Iran, from 2015 to 2016 In the first stage, an 81-item Likert-type scale was developed using a qualitative approach. The second stage comprised quantitative component. The scale's impact factor, content validity ratio, content validity index, face validity and exploratory factor analysis were calculated...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214730/risk-aversion-and-religious-behaviour-analysis-using-a-sample-of-danish-twins
#6
Jytte Seested Nielsen, Mickael Bech, Kaare Christensen, Astrid Kiil, Niels Christian Hvidt
Economics offers an analytical framework to consider human behaviour including religious behaviour. Within the realm of Expected Utility Theory, religious belief and activity could be interpreted as an insurance both for current life events and for afterlife rewards. Based on that framework, we would expect that risk averse individuals would demand a more generous protection plan which they may do by devoting more effort and resources into religious activities such as church attendance and prayer, which seems to be in accordance with previous empirical results...
February 12, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132921/meningeal-preservation-in-a-child-mummy-from-ancient-egypt
#7
REVIEW
Albert Isidro, Jesús Herrerin
Over many centuries, the ancient Egyptians developed a method of preserving bodies so they would remain lifelike. Mummification of bodies was originally a natural process in Egypt, and it evolved to a sophisticated embalming system to preserve the individual for the afterlife. Afterwards, mummification continued to be practiced in Egypt for some 3000 years, lasting until the end of the Christian era. In the Coptic necropolis of Qarara (Middle Egypt), 17 mummified individuals were studied during the 2012 campaign...
April 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859566/does-the-body-survive-death-cultural-variation-in-beliefs-about-life-everlasting
#8
Rachel E Watson-Jones, Justin T A Busch, Paul L Harris, Cristine H Legare
Mounting evidence suggests that endorsement of psychological continuity and the afterlife increases with age. This developmental change raises questions about the cognitive biases, social representations, and cultural input that may support afterlife beliefs. To what extent is there similarity versus diversity across cultures in how people reason about what happens after death? The objective of this study was to compare beliefs about the continuation of biological and psychological functions after death in Tanna, Vanuatu (a Melanesian archipelago), and the United States (Austin, Texas)...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754765/nurses-experiences-of-spiritual-communication-with-seriously-iii-children
#9
Betty Ferrell, Elaine Wittenberg, Vanessa Battista, Gay Walker
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to explore nurse experiences in communication with children about spiritual topics in order to develop training in this area. BACKGROUND: Although spiritual care is essential in pediatric palliative care, few providers receive training about communication with ill children about spirituality. METHODS: Researchers developed a brief survey to prompt nurses to reflect on pediatric palliative care experiences that included spiritual discussions...
November 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621915/spiritual-health-in-nursing-from-the-viewpoint-of-islam
#10
REVIEW
Abbas Heydari, Fatemeh Khorashadizadeh, Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi, Seyed Reza Mazlom, Mahdi Ebrahimi
CONTEXT: In order to gain a more detailed insight into the concept of spiritual health, a hybrid model of concept analysis was used to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of spiritual health in Islamic and Iranian contexts. The purpose of this study was to clarify the meaning and nature of the spiritual health concept in the context of the practice of Islam among Iranian patients. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The current concept analysis was undertaken according to the modified traditional hybrid model, which consists of five phases: theoretical phase, initial fieldwork phase, initial analytical phase, and final fieldwork and final analytical phase...
June 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444779/the-impact-of-a-belief-in-life-after-death-on-health-state-preferences-true-difference-or-artifact
#11
Michał Jakubczyk, Dominik Golicki, Maciej Niewada
PURPOSE: In most religions, the preservation of one's own, God-given, life is considered obligatory, while the time trade-off method (TTO) forces one to voluntarily forego life years. We sought to verify how this conflict impacts TTO-results among the religious. METHODS: We used the data from the only EQ-5D valuation in Poland (2008, three-level, 321 respondents, 23 states each)-a very religious, mostly Catholic country. We measured the religiosity with the belief in afterlife question on two levels: strong (definitely yes) and some (also rather yes), both about a third of the sample...
July 21, 2016: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377294/spirituality-and-mood-pathology-in-severe-skin-conditions-a-prospective-observational-study
#12
Human-Friedrich Unterrainer, M Lukanz, M Pilch, S Scharf, M Glawischnig-Goschnik, N Wutte, R Fink-Puches, E Aberer
Although the association between spirituality and parameters of psychological health and disease has been investigated extensively, little evidence is available for its potential role in dermatology. In a single-centre observational prospective study, 149 outpatients (107 women) with systemic sclerosis (SSc; n = 44), lupus erythematosus (LE; n = 48), or early stage malignant melanoma (MM; n = 57) were investigated using the multidimensional inventory for religious/spiritual well-being together with the Brief Symptom Inventory for psychiatric symptoms (BSI-18)...
September 2016: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366110/curious-afterlives-the-enduring-appeal-of-the-criminal-corpse
#13
Sarah Tarlow
Not only did the criminal corpse have actual medicinal and magical power for Europeans, it also had social and cultural meaning as an object, a curio or secular relic. This paper considers the appeal of notorious bodies. From books bound in the skin of a criminal, to preserved and exhibited heads, from fragments of the hangman's rope to the exhibition of the skeleton, the story of the afterlife of criminal bodies and the material culture most immediately associated with them begins with the collection and exchange of bodies and moves into contemporary preoccupations with authenticity...
July 2, 2016: Mortality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27221507/construction-and-validation-of-afterlife-belief-scale-for-muslims
#14
Saba Ghayas, Syeda Shahida Batool
The purpose of this study was to develop a scale in Urdu language for measuring different dimensions of afterlife belief. The scale was subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis on a sample of 504 individuals (235 men and 269 women) recruited from different cities in the Punjab, Pakistan. After exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, 16 items were retained with three well-defined factor structures of afterlife belief: positive, negative, and extinction. The alpha coefficients of the subscales ranged from ...
June 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154194/hunter-gatherers-and-the-origins-of-religion
#15
Hervey C Peoples, Pavel Duda, Frank W Marlowe
Recent studies of the evolution of religion have revealed the cognitive underpinnings of belief in supernatural agents, the role of ritual in promoting cooperation, and the contribution of morally punishing high gods to the growth and stabilization of human society. The universality of religion across human society points to a deep evolutionary past. However, specific traits of nascent religiosity, and the sequence in which they emerged, have remained unknown. Here we reconstruct the evolution of religious beliefs and behaviors in early modern humans using a global sample of hunter-gatherers and seven traits describing hunter-gatherer religiosity: animism, belief in an afterlife, shamanism, ancestor worship, high gods, and worship of ancestors or high gods who are active in human affairs...
September 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043273/skepticism-genuine-unbelief-or-implicit-beliefs-in-the-supernatural
#16
Marjaana Lindeman, Annika M Svedholm-Häkkinen, Tapani Riekki
We examined whether skeptics hold implicit supernatural beliefs or implicit cognitive underpinnings of the beliefs. In study 1 (N=57), participants read a biological or a religious story about death. The story content had no effect on skeptics' (or believers') afterlife beliefs. Study 2 examined the relationships between religious and non-religious paranormal beliefs and implicit views about whether supernatural and religious phenomena are imaginary or real (n1=33, n2=31). The less supernatural beliefs were endorsed the easier it was to connect "supernatural" with "imaginary"...
May 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26943173/slowing-down-time-an-exploration-of-personal-life-extension-desirability-as-it-relates-to-religiosity-and-specific-religious-beliefs
#17
Scott Ballinger, Theresa Clement Tisdale, David L Sellen, Loren A Martin
As medical technology continues increasing the possibility of living a longer life, the public's valuing of these developments must be considered. This study examines attitudes toward extending the human life span within a student population at a Christian university. Religious factors were hypothesized to affect life extension desirability. Scores on measures of willingness to defer to God's will, meaning derived from religion, positive afterlife beliefs, and intrinsic religiosity were significantly and inversely related to life extension desirability...
March 4, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26930832/afterlife-for-atheists
#18
Michael Shermer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Scientific American
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898770/an-association-between-belief-in-life-after-death-and-serum-oxytocin-in-older-people-in-rural-japan
#19
Yoshiomi Imamura, Yoshito Mizoguchi, Hiromi Nabeta, Yoshinori Haraguchi, Jun Matsushima, Naoki Kojima, Toshiro Kawashima, Shigeto Yamada, Akira Monji
OBJECTIVE: Previous research suggests that spirituality/religiosity has benefits for both mental and physical health, measured using biological indices such as cortisol and IL-6. However, there have been few studies concerning the association of religious beliefs with oxytocin, a neuropeptide hormone secreted by the pituitary. Levels of peripheral oxytocin are thought to reflect the strength of bonding and stress regulation in social relationships. As such, the oxytocin system may underpin the biological mechanisms by which belief in life after death is associated with good mental and physical health...
January 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26631521/physician-assisted-suicide-and-other-forms-of-euthanasia-in-islamic-spiritual-care
#20
Nazila Isgandarova
The muteness in the Qur'an about suicide due to intolerable pain and a firm opposition to suicide in the hadith literature formed a strong opinion among Muslims that neither repentance nor the suffering of the person can remove the sin of suicide or mercy 'killing' (al-qatl al-rahim), even if these acts are committed with the purpose of relieving suffering and pain. Some interpretations of the Islamic sources even give advantage to murderers as opposed to people who commit suicide because the murderers, at least, may have opportunity to repent for their sin...
December 2015: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
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