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GHB and Methamphetamine

Lena Kristoffersen, Dag Helge Strand, Veronica Horpestad Liane, Vigdis Vindenes, Ingunn Fride Tvete, Magne Aldrin
Legislative limits for driving under the influence of 20 non-alcohol drugs were introduced in Norway in February 2012. Per se limits corresponding to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.2g/kg were established for 20 psychoactive drugs, and limits for graded sanctions corresponding to BACs of 0.5 and 1.2g/kg were determined for 13 of these drugs. This new legislation made it possible for the courts to make sentences based on the analytical results, similar to the situation for alcohol. To ensure that the reported concentration is as least as high as the true concentration, with a 99% safety level, safety margins had to be calculated for each of the substances...
February 2016: Forensic Science International
Guillermo A Castaño Pérez, Gustavo A Calderón Vallejo, Dedsy Yajaira Berbesi Fernández
INTRODUCTION: The ongoing emergence of new synthetic substances that are used as drugs is a constant challenge to public health. Emerging drugs is the concept used in this research project to define the emergence of new psychoactive substances at a given time, a specific context and group, the reemergence of others that some epidemiologists considered had lost their prevalence, and the sudden prevalence of drugs that had low levels of consumption. METHOD: This research project was carried out using an empirical-analytical approach using a mixed methods study...
September 2013: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Ping Xiang, Min Shen, Olaf H Drummer
Segmental hair analysis can provide valuable retrospective information on the history of drug exposure in victims of drug facilitated crimes (DFC). This is now possible with availability of sensitive tandem MS techniques such as GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS allowing drugs to be detected at pg/mg concentrations after a single dose. In this review hair concentrations of 35 psychoactive drugs given in 20 controlled dose studies are reviewed and compared to the 25 different drugs detected in reported case work. The most common drugs were the benzodiazepines and related hypnotics, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine and methamphetamine...
November 2015: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Adam Bourne, David Reid, Ford Hickson, Sergio Torres-Rueda, Paul Steinberg, Peter Weatherburn
BACKGROUND: Chemsex is a colloquial term used by gay men in some parts of the UK to describe the use of psychoactive substances (typically mephedrone, GHB/GBL or crystal methamphetamine) during sex. Use of these drugs by gay men in London appears to have risen sharply from relatively low levels and, as yet, there is little data to inform appropriate harm reduction services. This study sought to understand the personal and social context of chemsex and the nature of harm reduction need...
December 2015: International Journal on Drug Policy
A Bourne, D Reid, F Hickson, S Torres-Rueda, P Weatherburn
BACKGROUND: 'Chemsex' is a colloquial term used in the UK that describes sex under the influence of psychoactive substances (typically crystal methamphetamine, mephedrone and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)/gamma-butyrolactone (GBL)). Recently, concern has been raised as to the impact of such behaviour on HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission risk behaviour, which this qualitative study aimed to explore via semistructured interviews with gay men living in three South London boroughs...
December 2015: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Marina Daskalopoulou, Alison Rodger, Alicia Thornton, Andrew Phillips, Lorraine Sherr, Richard Gilson, Margaret Johnson, Martin Fisher, Jane Anderson, Jeffrey McDonnell, Simon Edwards, Nicky Perry, Simon Collins, Sanjay Bhagani, Andrew Speakman, Colette Smith, Fiona Lampe
INTRODUCTION: Transmission of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United Kingdom is ongoing. We explore associations between self-reported sexual behaviours and drug use with cumulative HCV prevalence, as well as new HCV diagnosis. METHODS: ASTRA is a cross-sectional questionnaire study including 2,248 HIV-diagnosed MSM under care in the United Kingdom during 2011-2012. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, HIV-related and sexual behaviour data were collected during the study...
2014: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Macduff O Okuom, Mark V Wilson, Abby Jackson, Andrea E Holmes
DETECHIP has been used in testing analytes including caffeine, cocaine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from marijuana, as well as date rape and club drugs such as flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and methamphetamine. This study investigates the intermolecular interaction between DETECHIP sensor eosin Y (DC1) and the analyte (caffeine) that is responsible for the fluorescence and color changes observed in the actual array. Using (1)H-NMR, (1)H-COSY, and (1)H-DOSY NMR methods, a proton exchange from C-8 of caffeine to eosin Y is proposed...
December 31, 2013: International Journal of Spectroscopy
Eric G Benotsch, Aaron M Martin, Stephen Koester, Michael J Mason, Amy J Jeffers, Daniel J Snipes
BACKGROUND: Over the past 20 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). However, minimal attention has been given to driving under the influence of prescription drugs used nonmedically. METHODS: This study examines attitudes and characteristics that might be associated with driving while engaging in NMUPD. College students (N = 763) aged 18-25 years completed online surveys assessing demographic information, NMUPD, recreational use of other drugs, psychological variables, attitudes towards NMUPD and driving, and driving behavior...
2015: Substance Abuse
Joseph J Palamar, Mathew V Kiang, Erik D Storholm, Perry N Halkitis
Club drug use is often associated with unsafe sexual practices and use remains prevalent among gay and bisexual men. Although epidemiological studies commonly report the risk of engaging in unsafe sex due to the effects of particular club drugs, there remain gaps in the literature regarding the specific sexual effects of such substances and the context for their use in this population. We examined secondary data derived from interviews with 198 club drug using gay and bisexual males in New York City and qualitatively describe subjective sexual effects of five drugs: ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, powder cocaine and methamphetamine...
April 1, 2014: Psychology and Sexuality
Peter S Theodore, Ron E Durán, Michael H Antoni
Research connecting club drug use to risky sex among gay/bisexual men (GBM) contains methodological issues that have limited knowledge about the relative risks of distinct drugs. This paper reports drug use and sexual behavior data from 197 GBM who frequented at least one party venue within 3 months of participating. Alarming rates of drug use and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual sex-partners were reported in connection with time spent at a bar, club or circuit party. Structural equation modeling revealed that use of methamphetamine, gammahydroxybutrate (GHB), and/or ketamine (K), but not use of ecstasy, at a party venue helped explain likelihood of UAI with a casual sex-partner while under the influence of a drug during/following time partying (β = 0...
November 2014: AIDS and Behavior
L J Hunter, P I Dargan, A Benzie, J A White, D M Wood
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of recreational drug use in patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic, and to determine whether drug use was greater among men who have sex with men (MSM) patients, when compared to non-MSM male patients. METHODS: A questionnaire was given to all patients attending the genitourinary medicine clinics at two inner city teaching hospitals over 3 months (July to September 2011). The questionnaire was self-completed by patients while waiting to be seen by a clinician...
March 2014: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Daniel E Siconolfi, Perry N Halkitis, Staci C Barton, Molly J Kingdon, Rafael E Perez-Figueroa, Vanessa Arias-Martinez, Stephen Karpiak, Mark Brennan-Ing
The prevalence of HIV among adults 50 and older in the USA is increasing as a result of improvements in treatment and detection of HIV infection. Substance use by this population has implications for physical and mental health outcomes. We examined patterns of demographics, mental health, and recent substance use in a diverse sample of heterosexual, bisexual, and gay adults 50 and older living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in New York City. The most commonly used substances were cigarettes or alcohol; however, the majority of the sample did not report recent use of marijuana, poppers, or hard drugs (crystal methamphetamine, cocaine, crack, heroin, ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, and LSD or PCP)...
December 2013: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Mariarosaria Aromatario, Edoardo Bottoni, Mariangela Santoni, Costantino Ciallella
Drug scenes within several countries have changed in recent years to incorporate a range of licit psychoactive products collectively known as "legal highs": these in combination with substances already in use can cause major health problems and even death. Consumption of Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) spread from 1980s to 2000s, when several nations have enacted laws that have made it illegal. Cases of GHB-caused or related deaths are often described in association with alcohol or traditional drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine); few cases of acute lethal toxicity due to Mephedrone have been recently reported; we describe the first case of fatality due to concomitant consumption of GHB and Mephedrone...
November 30, 2012: Forensic Science International
Janine V Olthuis, Christine Darredeau, Sean P Barrett
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) is a common phenomenon, yet little is known about its role in substance use initiation. DESIGN AND METHODS: In the present study, 226 cannabis users completed structured interviews about their substance use history. For each substance ever used, participants provided details of their age of first use, their use in the preceding 30 days and whether they co-administered any other licit or illicit substances the first time they used the substance...
January 2013: Drug and Alcohol Review
S Lott, F Musshoff, B Madea
There is no toxicological analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) applied routinely in cases of driving under influence (DUI); therefore the extent of consumption of this drug might be underestimated. Its consumption is described as occurring often concurrently with amphetamine or ecstasy. This study examines 196 serum samples which were collected by police during road side testing for GHB. The samples subject to this study have already been found to be positive for amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and/or 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA)...
September 10, 2012: Forensic Science International
Diogo Frasquilho Guerreiro, Ana Lisa Carmo, Joaquim Alves da Silva, Rita Navarro, Carlos Góis
Club drugs are the following substances: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); Methamphetamine; Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD); Ketamine; Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Flunitrazepam. These substances are mainly used by adolescents and young adults, mostly in recreational settings like dance clubs and rave parties. These drugs have diverse psychotropic effects, are associated with several degrees of toxicity, dependence and long term adverse effects. Some have been used for several decades, while others are relatively recent substances of abuse...
September 2011: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Molly K Pappas, Perry N Halkitis
This study examined club drug use (i.e., cocaine, ecstasy, ketamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate [GHB], and methamphetamine) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in an ethnically and racially diverse sample of 166 New York City-based seropositive, club drug-using, gay and bisexual men, ages 19-61, and considered these behaviors in relation to age category (20s, 30s, and 40 +) and number of years living with HIV. Club drug use was common across all age categories, with differences arising only in the type of club drug used...
November 2011: AIDS Care
Laurent Karila, Michel Reynaud
Designer drugs belong to a group of legally or illegally produced substances that are structurally and pharmacologically very similar to illicit drugs. In the past, designer drugs were often used during all-night dance parties, but they are now consumed in multiple settings from college bars to parks to private house parties. Most of these club drugs can be bought on legal websites and home-delivered for private parties. Recently, legal highs have once again become a burning media issue across the world. Our review will focus on GHB and synthetic cathinones...
September 2011: Drug Testing and Analysis
Stacy D Brown, Tyler C Melton
The term 'club drug' can be loosely defined as any substance used to enhance social settings. Such drugs are commonly found at raves or similar all-night dance parties and include methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine (KET), and flunitrazepam (FLU). These drugs have potentially dangerous side effects including hallucinations, paranoia, amnesia and hyperthermia. In addition, GHB, KET and FLU are considered predatory drugs due to their roles in drug-facilitated sexual assault...
January 2011: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Eric G Benotsch, Aaron M Martin, Stephen Koester, Anna Cejka, Diana Luckman
BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated associations between substance use and sexual risk behavior in men who have sex with men (MSM). Recent trends in substance use show increasing use of prescription medications (e.g., Vicodin) without a physician's prescription, yet associations between the nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) and HIV risk behavior have not been well examined in MSM. METHODS: MSM attending a gay pride festival completed a self-report measure assessing NMUPD, motivations for use, use of traditional recreational drugs, and HIV risk behavior...
February 2011: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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