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GHB and Methamphetamine

G J Melendez-Torres, Adam Bourne, Ford Hickson, David Reid, Peter Weatherburn
BACKGROUND: Evidence to understand which gay and bisexual men (GBM) inject drugs remains scant, especially in the UK. We describe correlates of last-year injecting in UK GBM, and characterise subgroups of GBM who inject drugs by types of drugs used. METHODS: Using data from the 2014 Gay Men's Sex Survey, an opportunistic internet-based survey conducted of GBM living in the UK, we examined via logistic regression correlates with any injecting of six drugs (amphetamine/speed, crystal methamphetamine, heroin, mephedrone, GHB/GBL, and ketamine) in the last year...
June 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Claire Edmundson, Ellen Heinsbroek, Rachel Glass, Vivian Hope, Hamish Mohammed, Martin White, Monica Desai
BACKGROUND: Sexualised drug use (SDU) refers to the use of drugs in a sexual context. This includes 'Chemsex'- the use of drugs (specifically crystal methamphetamine, GHB/GBL and mephedrone) before or during planned sexual activity to sustain, enhance, disinhibit or facilitate the experience. Here we aimed to synthesise available UK prevalence data for Chemsex, SDU and the use of Chemsex drugs in an undefined context (CDU) in men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: Papers published between January 2007 and August 2017 reporting Chemsex, SDU and/or Chemsex drug use (CDU) prevalence in MSM were identified through PubMed...
May 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Ellen Heinsbroek, Rachel Glass, Claire Edmundson, Vivian Hope, Monica Desai
BACKGROUND: Higher levels of drug use have been reported in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities, some of which can be explained by sexualised drug use, including 'chemsex'; the use of drugs before or during planned sexual activity to sustain, enhance, disinhibit or facilitate sex. We explored injecting and non-injecting drug use by sexual behaviour among people who inject drugs (PWID) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. METHODS: Data were used from an unlinked-anonymous survey of PWID (2013-2016), where participants recruited through services self-completed a questionnaire...
March 6, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Sean P Colyer, Nathan J Lachowsky, Zishan Cui, Julia Zhu, Heather L Armstrong, Matthew Taylor, Joshua Edward, Gbolahan Olarewaju, Robert S Hogg, Eric A Roth, David M Moore
BACKGROUND: Treatment as Prevention (TasP) leading to increased HIV treatment optimism among men who have sex with men (MSM) has been previously associated with behavioural risk compensation, though not yet via crystal methamphetamine (CM) use. Among HIV-negative MSM in a TasP environment, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of recent CM use over time, examine the association between HIV treatment optimism and CM use and initiation, and identify correlates of recent CM use and predictors of CM initiation...
April 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kathleen E Ryan, Anna L Wilkinson, Alisa Pedrana, Brendan Quinn, Paul Dietze, Margaret Hellard, Mark Stoové
BACKGROUND: Reliably measuring drug use by gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) in the context of sex can inform sexual health service responses. We report changing drug use patterns among GBM testing for HIV at a community-based service in Melbourne in response to behavioural survey modifications. METHODS: Surveys were completed by GBM prior to all HIV tests. Survey one asked about use of "party drugs for the purpose of sex" and survey two asked about specific drug use (alcohol, amyl nitrate, methamphetamine, cocaine, ecstasy, GHB, Viagra® /Cialis® ) before or during sex...
February 2, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Helia Shariati, Heather L Armstrong, Zishan Cui, Nathan J Lachowsky, Julia Zhu, Praney Anand, Eric A Roth, Robert S Hogg, Greg Oudman, Christina Tonella, David M Moore
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is common among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) and most of the mortality gap between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals is attributable to smoking. METHODS: We recruited sexually active HIV-positive and HIV-negative GBMSM age ≥16 years using respondent-driven sampling. Study visits occurred every six months for up to four years and included a computer-assisted self-interview and clinical assessment...
October 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Raphael Cornez, Christophe Demarly, Gilles Tournel, Valery Hédouin
We report a case of fatal intoxication from 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), which was ingested by a young and "naïve" gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) consumer during a party with the co-ingestion of alcohol, cannabis, and methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine. The following drug concentrations were found using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry on autopsy samples and on a cup and a glass found at the scene: 20,350 mg/L (bottle) for 1,4-BD; 1020 mg/L (femoral blood), 3380 mg/L (cardiac blood), 47,280 mg/L (gastric content), and 570 mg/L (vitreous humor) for GHB...
January 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Lena Kristoffersen, Dag Helge Strand, Veronica Horpestad Liane, Vigdis Vindenes, Ingunn Fride Tvete, Magne Aldrin
Legislative limits for driving under the influence of 20 non-alcohol drugs were introduced in Norway in February 2012. Per se limits corresponding to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.2g/kg were established for 20 psychoactive drugs, and limits for graded sanctions corresponding to BACs of 0.5 and 1.2g/kg were determined for 13 of these drugs. This new legislation made it possible for the courts to make sentences based on the analytical results, similar to the situation for alcohol. To ensure that the reported concentration is as least as high as the true concentration, with a 99% safety level, safety margins had to be calculated for each of the substances...
February 2016: Forensic Science International
Guillermo A Castaño Pérez, Gustavo A Calderón Vallejo, Dedsy Yajaira Berbesi Fernández
INTRODUCTION: The ongoing emergence of new synthetic substances that are used as drugs is a constant challenge to public health. Emerging drugs is the concept used in this research project to define the emergence of new psychoactive substances at a given time, a specific context and group, the reemergence of others that some epidemiologists considered had lost their prevalence, and the sudden prevalence of drugs that had low levels of consumption. METHOD: This research project was carried out using an empirical-analytical approach using a mixed methods study...
September 2013: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Ping Xiang, Min Shen, Olaf H Drummer
Segmental hair analysis can provide valuable retrospective information on the history of drug exposure in victims of drug facilitated crimes (DFC). This is now possible with availability of sensitive tandem MS techniques such as GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS allowing drugs to be detected at pg/mg concentrations after a single dose. In this review hair concentrations of 35 psychoactive drugs given in 20 controlled dose studies are reviewed and compared to the 25 different drugs detected in reported case work. The most common drugs were the benzodiazepines and related hypnotics, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine and methamphetamine...
November 2015: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Adam Bourne, David Reid, Ford Hickson, Sergio Torres-Rueda, Paul Steinberg, Peter Weatherburn
BACKGROUND: Chemsex is a colloquial term used by gay men in some parts of the UK to describe the use of psychoactive substances (typically mephedrone, GHB/GBL or crystal methamphetamine) during sex. Use of these drugs by gay men in London appears to have risen sharply from relatively low levels and, as yet, there is little data to inform appropriate harm reduction services. This study sought to understand the personal and social context of chemsex and the nature of harm reduction need...
December 2015: International Journal on Drug Policy
A Bourne, D Reid, F Hickson, S Torres-Rueda, P Weatherburn
BACKGROUND: 'Chemsex' is a colloquial term used in the UK that describes sex under the influence of psychoactive substances (typically crystal methamphetamine, mephedrone and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)/gamma-butyrolactone (GBL)). Recently, concern has been raised as to the impact of such behaviour on HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission risk behaviour, which this qualitative study aimed to explore via semistructured interviews with gay men living in three South London boroughs...
December 2015: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Marina Daskalopoulou, Alison Rodger, Alicia Thornton, Andrew Phillips, Lorraine Sherr, Richard Gilson, Margaret Johnson, Martin Fisher, Jane Anderson, Jeffrey McDonnell, Simon Edwards, Nicky Perry, Simon Collins, Sanjay Bhagani, Andrew Speakman, Colette Smith, Fiona Lampe
INTRODUCTION: Transmission of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United Kingdom is ongoing. We explore associations between self-reported sexual behaviours and drug use with cumulative HCV prevalence, as well as new HCV diagnosis. METHODS: ASTRA is a cross-sectional questionnaire study including 2,248 HIV-diagnosed MSM under care in the United Kingdom during 2011-2012. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, HIV-related and sexual behaviour data were collected during the study...
2014: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Macduff O Okuom, Mark V Wilson, Abby Jackson, Andrea E Holmes
DETECHIP has been used in testing analytes including caffeine, cocaine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from marijuana, as well as date rape and club drugs such as flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and methamphetamine. This study investigates the intermolecular interaction between DETECHIP sensor eosin Y (DC1) and the analyte (caffeine) that is responsible for the fluorescence and color changes observed in the actual array. Using (1)H-NMR, (1)H-COSY, and (1)H-DOSY NMR methods, a proton exchange from C-8 of caffeine to eosin Y is proposed...
December 31, 2013: International Journal of Spectroscopy
Eric G Benotsch, Aaron M Martin, Stephen Koester, Michael J Mason, Amy J Jeffers, Daniel J Snipes
BACKGROUND: Over the past 20 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). However, minimal attention has been given to driving under the influence of prescription drugs used nonmedically. METHODS: This study examines attitudes and characteristics that might be associated with driving while engaging in NMUPD. College students (N = 763) aged 18-25 years completed online surveys assessing demographic information, NMUPD, recreational use of other drugs, psychological variables, attitudes towards NMUPD and driving, and driving behavior...
2015: Substance Abuse
Joseph J Palamar, Mathew V Kiang, Erik D Storholm, Perry N Halkitis
Club drug use is often associated with unsafe sexual practices and use remains prevalent among gay and bisexual men. Although epidemiological studies commonly report the risk of engaging in unsafe sex due to the effects of particular club drugs, there remain gaps in the literature regarding the specific sexual effects of such substances and the context for their use in this population. We examined secondary data derived from interviews with 198 club drug using gay and bisexual males in New York City and qualitatively describe subjective sexual effects of five drugs: ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, powder cocaine and methamphetamine...
April 1, 2014: Psychology and Sexuality
Peter S Theodore, Ron E Durán, Michael H Antoni
Research connecting club drug use to risky sex among gay/bisexual men (GBM) contains methodological issues that have limited knowledge about the relative risks of distinct drugs. This paper reports drug use and sexual behavior data from 197 GBM who frequented at least one party venue within 3 months of participating. Alarming rates of drug use and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual sex-partners were reported in connection with time spent at a bar, club or circuit party. Structural equation modeling revealed that use of methamphetamine, gammahydroxybutrate (GHB), and/or ketamine (K), but not use of ecstasy, at a party venue helped explain likelihood of UAI with a casual sex-partner while under the influence of a drug during/following time partying (β = 0...
November 2014: AIDS and Behavior
L J Hunter, P I Dargan, A Benzie, J A White, D M Wood
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of recreational drug use in patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic, and to determine whether drug use was greater among men who have sex with men (MSM) patients, when compared to non-MSM male patients. METHODS: A questionnaire was given to all patients attending the genitourinary medicine clinics at two inner city teaching hospitals over 3 months (July to September 2011). The questionnaire was self-completed by patients while waiting to be seen by a clinician...
March 2014: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Daniel E Siconolfi, Perry N Halkitis, Staci C Barton, Molly J Kingdon, Rafael E Perez-Figueroa, Vanessa Arias-Martinez, Stephen Karpiak, Mark Brennan-Ing
The prevalence of HIV among adults 50 and older in the USA is increasing as a result of improvements in treatment and detection of HIV infection. Substance use by this population has implications for physical and mental health outcomes. We examined patterns of demographics, mental health, and recent substance use in a diverse sample of heterosexual, bisexual, and gay adults 50 and older living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in New York City. The most commonly used substances were cigarettes or alcohol; however, the majority of the sample did not report recent use of marijuana, poppers, or hard drugs (crystal methamphetamine, cocaine, crack, heroin, ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, and LSD or PCP)...
December 2013: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Mariarosaria Aromatario, Edoardo Bottoni, Mariangela Santoni, Costantino Ciallella
Drug scenes within several countries have changed in recent years to incorporate a range of licit psychoactive products collectively known as "legal highs": these in combination with substances already in use can cause major health problems and even death. Consumption of Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) spread from 1980s to 2000s, when several nations have enacted laws that have made it illegal. Cases of GHB-caused or related deaths are often described in association with alcohol or traditional drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine); few cases of acute lethal toxicity due to Mephedrone have been recently reported; we describe the first case of fatality due to concomitant consumption of GHB and Mephedrone...
November 30, 2012: Forensic Science International
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