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The eastern american

Víctor Hugo Peña-García, Michael K McCracken, Rebecca C Christofferson
Zika and chikungunya viruses emerged as public health emergencies in the Western Hemisphere where previously they had not been reported on a large scale. Millions were infected as the viruses met with virtually no herd immunity upon emergence. Purpose of the Review: We explore the histories of these two recent arbovirus experiences in South America. We then review similarly three endemic South American viruses: yellow fever, Oropouche, and Mayaro viruses. Recent Findings: We discuss the commonalities of the transmission systems and the possibility of an atypical emergence, that of New World virus to the Old World...
December 2017: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
Jessica Greene, Judith H Hibbard, Rebecca M Sacks
This study's objective was to examine the extent to which individuals exhibit a preference for physicians based upon the race/ethnicity and gender of a physician's name. We conducted an online survey of 915 adults, who viewed a comparative display of four physicians' quality performance. We randomized the name of one physician, whose quality performance was equal to that of one physician and better than two other physicians, to be either typically African American male, African American female, white male, white female, or Middle Eastern (gender ambiguous)...
June 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Emily L Kaufman, Nathan E Stone, Glen A Scoles, Crystal M Hepp, Joseph D Busch, David M Wagner
BACKGROUND: The American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, is an important vector of pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals in North America. Although this tick species is widely distributed in the USA and Canada, knowledge of its range-wide phylogeographic patterns remains incomplete. METHODS: We carried out a phylogenetic analysis of D. variabilis using samples collected from 26 USA states and five Canadian provinces. Tick samples (n = 1053 in total) originated from two main sources: existing archives (2000-2011), and new collections made from 2012 to 2013...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Dirk Deleu, Boulenouar Mesraoua, Beatriz Canibaño, Gayane Melikyan, Hassan Al Hail, Lubna El-Sheikh, Musab Ali, Hassan Al Hussein, Faiza Ibrahim, Yolande Hanssens
The introduction of new disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for remitting-relapsing multiple sclerosis (RRMS) have considerably transformed the landscape of therapeutic opportunities for this chronic disabling disease. Unlike injectable drugs, oral DMTs, promote patient satisfaction and increase therapeutic adherence. This article reviews the salient features about the mode of action, efficacy, safety and tolerability profile of approved oral DMTs in RRMS and reviews their place in clinical algorithms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region...
May 15, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Mary C Garvin, Amy L Austin, Norberth H Stracker, Samuel P Slowinski, Jordan E Rutter, Maxwell Butler, Megan Michel, Rebecca J Whelan
Culex pipiens, the endemic mosquito vector of West Nile virus in eastern North America, is responsible for maintenance of the virus in avian reservoir hosts, the most important of which appears to be the American robin. One reason for the greater involvement of robins is believed to be the feeding preference of Cx. pipiens, however, the basis of this preference is not understood. We tested the hypothesis that the species-specific chemical profile of avian uropygial gland secretions are used by Cx. pipiens as cues to locate birds and, therefore, may contribute to the observed feeding preferences...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Georgi Bonchev, Yvonne Willi
Transposable elements (TE) can constitute a large fraction of plant genomes, yet our understanding of their evolution and fitness effect is still limited. Here we tested several models of evolution that make specific predictions about differences in TE abundance between selfing and outcrossing taxa, and between small and large populations. We estimated TE abundance in multiple populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata differing in mating system and long-term size, using transposon insertion display on several TE families...
May 14, 2018: New Phytologist
Wentao Dai, Quanxue Li, Bing-Ya Liu, Yi-Xue Li, Yuan-Yuan Li
BACKGROUND: Gastric Carcinoma is one of the most lethal cancer around the world, and is also the most common cancers in Eastern Asia. A lot of differentially expressed genes have been detected as being associated with Gastric Carcinoma (GC) progression, however, little is known about the underlying dysfunctional regulation mechanisms. To address this problem, we previously developed a differential networking approach that is characterized by involving differential coexpression analysis (DCEA), stage-specific gene regulatory network (GRN) modelling and differential regulation networking (DRN) analysis...
April 24, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
M G Russo, C B Dejean, S A Avena, V Seldes, P Ramundo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of pre-Hispanic Andean mitochondrial diversity by analyzing an individual from the archaeological site Pukara de La Cueva (North-western Argentina). The date of the discovery context (540 ± 60 BP) corresponds to the Regional Developments II period. METHODS: Two separate DNA extractions were performed from dentin powder of one tooth. HVR I was amplified by PCR from each extract in three overlapping fragments and the haplotype was determined by consensus among all obtained sequences...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Vin Gupta, Alexander C Tsai, Alexandre Mason-Sharma, Eric P Goosby, Ashish K Jha, Vanessa B Kerry
Background: This study sought to characterize the possible relationship between US geopolitical priorities and annual decisions on health foreign assistance among recipient nations between 2009 and 2016. Methods: Data on total planned United States (US) foreign aid and health aid were collected for the 194 member nations of the World Health Organization (WHO) from publicly available databases. Trends in per-capita spending were examined between 2009 and 2016 across the six regions of the WHO (Africa, Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific)...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
K Khunti, M Cigrovski Berković, B Ludvik, E Moberg, J Barner Lekdorf, H Gydesen, U Pedersen-Bjergaard
AIM: To determine participant knowledge and reporting of hypoglycaemia in the non-interventional Hypoglycaemia Assessment Tool (HAT) study. METHODS: HAT was conducted in 24 countries over a 6-month retrospective/4-week prospective period in 27 585 adults with Type 1 or insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Participants recorded whether hypoglycaemia was based on blood glucose levels, symptoms or both. RESULTS: Hypoglycaemia rates were consistently higher in the prospective compared with the retrospective period...
May 5, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Roberto Refinetti, G J Kenagy
Although inbred domesticated strains of rats and mice serve as traditional mammalian animal models in biomedical research, the nocturnal habits of these rodents make them inappropriate for research that requires a model with human-like diurnal activity rhythms. We conducted a literature review and recorded locomotor activity data from four rodent species that are generally considered to be diurnally active, the Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus), the degu ( Octodon degus), the African (Nile) grass rat ( Arvicanthis niloticus), and the antelope ground squirrel ( Ammospermophilus leucurus)...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Nina Michalikova
This study examines the socioeconomic adaptation of post-1991 Eastern European professionals in the United States. The data were obtained from the pooled 2006-2010 American Community Surveys. The analysis includes recent immigrants between ages of 25-65 who have at least an associate's degree. Skilled immigrants in professional or managerial occupations are compared with non-professionals or managers to examine and compare socioeconomic outcomes. The findings presented in this study support the segmented assimilation theory and reveal cross-group and cross-country disparities in socioeconomic adaptation...
2018: Comparative Migration Studies
Brittany E Owens, Christopher E Carlton
Two new species of Bibloplectus Reitter, 1881 are described from the Orlando Park Collection of Pselaphinae at the FMNH (Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL, USA): Bibloplectus silvestris Owens and Carlton, new species (type locality, Urbana, IL, USA) and Bibloplectus wingi Owens and Carlton, new species (type locality, Shades State Park, IN, USA). Types of these new species were part of a series of specimens bearing unpublished Park manuscript names in both the pinned and slide collection at the FMNH...
April 10, 2018: Zootaxa
Anthony A Echelle, Nicholas J Lang, W Calvin Borden, Michael R Schwemm, Christopher W Hoagstrom, David J Eisenhour, Richard L Mayden, Ronald A van den Bussche
The North American fish genus Macrhybopsis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) as presently conceived comprises 12 species and occurs in much of interior eastern North America. Variation in the mitochondrial ND2 gene and the nuclear S7 intron 1 reveal conflicting gene-tree relationships for deeper nodes, which are assumed to represent past introgression and heterospecific mitochondrial fixation. The results support monophyly for the wide-ranging M. aestivalis complex with successive sister relationships to M. gelida, M...
January 25, 2018: Zootaxa
Nikolai M Korovchinsky
Two species of the genus Bythotrephes Leydig, B. brevimanus Lilljeborg and B. cederstrӧmii Schӧdler, are analysed. The former of them is redescribed on the basis of type material and other materials from Northern Europe while the latter one is reevaluated, in comparison with the previous recent investigation which was based on limited material being not enough for the adequate species assessment. The species under consideration were investigated with the application of detailed morphological analysis, including intra- and interpopulation variability and the original scheme of morphometric measurements...
February 15, 2018: Zootaxa
James B Whitfield, Robert J Nuelle Jr, Robert J Nuelle Iii
The braconid wasp parasitoid Cotesia nuellorum Whitfield, new species, is described from specimens reared from a caterpillar of the hickory horned devil, Citheronia regalis (F.), and from a caterpillar of the luna moth, Actias luna (L.), in eastern Texas. The species is diagnosed with respect to other species of Cotesia recorded from North American Saturniidae, and details of its biology are provided.
2018: ZooKeys
Emma H Allott, Sarah C Markt, Lauren E Howard, Adriana C Vidal, Daniel M Moreira, Ramiro Castro-Santamaria, Gerald L Adriole, Lorelei A Mucci, Stephen J Freedland
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) incidence rates vary 25-fold worldwide. Differences in PSA screening are largely, but not entirely, responsible. We examined geographic differences in prevalence of histologic prostate inflammation and subsequent PC risk. METHODS: 7,000 non-Hispanic white men were enrolled in the REDUCE trial from Europe (n=4,644), North America (n=1,746), South America (n=466), and Australia/New Zealand (n=144). Histologic inflammation in baseline negative prostate biopsies was classified as chronic (lymphocytes/macrophages) or acute (neutrophils)...
April 18, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Tiffany A Yap, Michelle S Koo, Richard F Ambrose, Vance T Vredenburg
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a causal agent of the amphibian fungal skin disease chytridiomycosis, has been implicated in the decline and extinction of over 200 species worldwide since the 1970s. Despite almost two decades of research, the history of Bd and its global spread is not well understood. However, the spread of the Global Panzootic Lineage of Bd (Bd-GPL), the lineage associated with amphibian die-offs, has been linked with the American bullfrog (Rana [Aqurana] catesbeiana) and global trade...
2018: PloS One
Benjamin Moeller, Ehsan H Balagamwala, Aileen Chen, Kimberly M Creach, Giuseppe Giaccone, Matthew Koshy, Sandra Zaky, George Rodrigues
PURPOSE: To revise the recommendation on the use of concurrent chemotherapy (CC) with palliative thoracic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) made in the original 2011 American Society for Radiation Oncology guideline on palliative thoracic radiation for lung cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Based on a systematic PubMed search showing new evidence for this key question, the task force felt an update was merited. Guideline recommendations were created using a predefined consensus-building methodology supported by American Society for Radiation Oncology-approved tools for grading evidence quality and recommendation strength...
April 3, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
A Angulo, A C Santos, M López, F Langeani, C D McMahan
Astyanax anai, a new species of characid fish, is described from the Sixaola River basin, eastern Costa Rica-western Panama, Central America. The new species can be distinguished from all other congeners by the following combination of characters: premaxillary teeth 4-5 at the inner series and 4-6 at the outer series; maxillary teeth tricuspid, 2-4; predorsal scale series irregular and incomplete, with an unscaled space behind tip of supraoccipital process and 12-14 scales; lateral line scales 34-39; humeral region with a conspicuous black and rounded to horizontally ovate spot and two diffuse brown and vertically elongate bars (the first through the rounded to horizontally ovate spot, the second 2-4 scales behind the first); body depth 36...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
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