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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107555/participation-in-sports-body-composition-and-fitness-characteristics-in-children-according-to-ethnic-background
#1
Stefania Toselli, Maria Giovanna Belcastro
Participation in sports has important implications, being associated with health and social features. The objectives of this study were to verify whether there were any differences in sport participation between immigrant and Italian children, and if there was any relation with their body composition and fitness characteristics. A survey was conducted on 1432 children attending primary school in the Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy). Anthropometric measurements, fitness characteristics and data about participation in sports were considered...
January 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102887/clinical-trial-of-nintedanib-in-patients-with-recurrent-or-metastatic-salivary-gland-cancer-of-the-head-and-neck-a-multicenter-phase-2-study-korean-cancer-study-group-hn14-01
#2
Youjin Kim, Su Jin Lee, Ji Yun Lee, Se-Hoon Lee, Jong-Mu Sun, Keunchil Park, Ho Jung An, Jae Yong Cho, Eun Joo Kang, Ha-Young Lee, Jinsoo Kim, Bhumsuk Keam, Hye Ryun Kim, Kyoung Eun Lee, Moon Young Choi, Ki Hyeong Lee, Myung-Ju Ahn
BACKGROUND: Salivary gland cancers (SGCs) are uncommon and account for less than 5% of all head and neck cancers, but they are histologically heterogeneous. No specific therapy, including targeted agents, has consistently improved clinical outcomes in recurrent/metastatic SGC. Recent studies suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) play important roles in SGC. Nintedanib is a potent small-molecule, triple-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and VEGFR3; fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 [FGFR1], FGFR2, and FGFR3; and PDGFRα and PDGFRß)...
January 19, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101270/using-online-active-learning-techniques-to-convey-time-compensated-sun-compass-orientation-in-the-eastern-north-american-monarch
#3
Noah H Green, Douglas G McMahon, Cynthia Brame
A common tool that animals use to navigate in a constant direction is known as "time compensated sun compass orientation." This is a process by which animals use the position of the sun along with information from their internal circadian clocks to determine and maintain a directional heading. Many circadian scientists and educators use this process as an example of how the internal circadian clock can directly influence animal behavior. However, many students have difficulty grasping this biological process due to its multivariable nature...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100790/genome-wide-analysis-in-brazilians-reveals-highly-differentiated-native-american-genome-regions
#4
Josyf C Mychaleckyj, Alexandre Havt, Uma Nayak, Relana Pinkerton, Emily Farber, Patrick Concannon, Aldo A Lima, Richard L Guerrant
Despite its population, geographic size, and emerging economic importance, disproportionately little genome-scale research exists into genetic factors that predispose Brazilians to disease, or the population genetics of risk. After identification of suitable proxy populations and careful analysis of tri-continental admixture in 1,538 North-Eastern Brazilians to estimate individual ancestry and ancestral allele frequencies, we computed 400,000 genome-wide locus-specific branch length (LSBL) Fst statistics of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and a similar set of differentiation statistics for their Amerindian component compared to the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population (surprisingly, Bengalis in Bangladesh)...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095136/homonationalism-before-homonationalism-representations-of-russia-eastern-europe-and-the-soviet-union-in-the-u-s-homophile-press-1953-1964
#5
Dasha Serykh
This essay focuses on representations of Russia, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe in U.S. homophile periodicals from 1953 to 1964. Extending the application of Jasbir Puar's concept of homonationalism to the Cold War period, the essay examines 126 articles and other items that were published in ONE, Mattachine Review, and The Ladder and demonstrates that these periodicals often engaged in homonationalist discourses when constructing the Russian, Soviet, and Eastern European "other." Negative constructions of these regions were sometimes used to affirm the political alignment of the homophile authors with the American nation...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094447/on-the-origins-and-genetic-diversity-of-south-american-chickens-one-step-closer
#6
A Luzuriaga-Neira, G Villacís-Rivas, F Cueva-Castillo, G Escudero-Sánchez, A Ulloa-Nuñez, M Rubilar-Quezada, R Monteiro, M R Miller, A Beja-Pereira
Local chicken populations are a major source of food in the rural areas of South America. However, very little is known about their genetic composition and diversity. Here, we analyzed five populations from South America to investigate their maternal genetic origin and diversity, hoping to mitigate the lack of information on local chicken populations from this region. We also included three populations of chicken from the Iberian Peninsula and one from Easter Island, which are potential sources of the first chickens introduced in South America...
January 17, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091431/determinants-of-quality-of-life-among-community-dwelling-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-path-analysis
#7
End Ekechukwu, J O Ikrechero, A O Ezeukwu, A V Egwuonwu, L Umar, U M Badaru
CONTEXT: Recent advancement in technology and medical care has resulted in an increase not only in disability arising from spinal cord injury (SCI) but also its attendant challenges such as poor quality of life (QoL). AIM: To test a theoretical model of predictors of QoL among persons with SCI. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Study was conducted in the South Eastern Nigeria. A longitudinal study design was employed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 64 persons with SCI discharged from in-hospital admission participated in this study...
February 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076666/the-global-incidence-of-lip-oral-cavity-and-pharyngeal-cancers-by-subsite-in-2012
#8
Kevin D Shield, Jacques Ferlay, Ahmedin Jemal, Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan, Anil K Chaturvedi, Freddie Bray, Isabelle Soerjomataram
By using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer publication Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents and GLOBOCAN, this report provides the first consolidated global estimation of the subsite distribution of new cases of lip, oral cavity, and pharyngeal cancers by country, sex, and age for the year 2012. Major geographically based, sex-based, and age-based variations in the incidence of lip, oral cavity, and pharyngeal cancers by subsite were observed. Lip cancers were highly frequent in Australia (associated with solar radiation) and in central and eastern Europe (associated with tobacco smoking)...
January 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074030/a-working-model-of-the-deep-relationships-of-diverse-modern-human-genetic-lineages-outside-of-africa
#9
Mark Lipson, David Reich
A major topic of interest in human prehistory is how the large-scale genetic structure of modern populations outside of Africa was established. Demographic models have been developed that capture the relationships among small numbers of populations or within particular geographical regions, but constructing a phylogenetic tree with gene flow events for a wide diversity of non-Africans remains a difficult problem. Here, we report a model that provides a good statistical fit to allele-frequency correlation patterns among East Asians, Australasians, Native Americans, and ancient western and northern Eurasians, together with archaic human groups...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070826/interaction-of-ethnicity-and-h-pylori-infection-in-the-occurrence-of-microscopic-colitis
#10
Amnon Sonnenberg, Kevin O Turner, Robert M Genta
BACKGROUND: Previous studies found that microscopic colitis is inversely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and that microscopic colitis is characterized by a marked ethnic variation. AIM: The aim of the present study was to test whether an underlying ethnic variation of H. pylori infection is responsible for the ethnic variation of microscopic colitis. METHODS: The Miraca Life Sciences Database is a large national electronic repository of histopathologic records of patients distributed throughout the entire USA...
January 9, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068178/cetuximab-plus-chemoradiotherapy-in-immunocompetent-patients-with-anal-carcinoma-a-phase-ii-eastern-cooperative-oncology-group-american-college-of-radiology-imaging-network-cancer-research-group-trial-e3205
#11
Madhur K Garg, Fengmin Zhao, Joseph A Sparano, Joel Palefsky, Richard Whittington, Edith P Mitchell, Mary F Mulcahy, Karin I Armstrong, Nassim H Nabbout, Shalom Kalnicki, Bassel F El-Rayes, Adedayo A Onitilo, Daniel J Moriarty, Thomas J Fitzgerald, Al B Benson
Purpose Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) is characterized by high locoregional failure (LRF) rates after sphincter-preserving definitive chemoradiation (CRT) and is typically associated with anogenital human papilloma virus infection. Because cetuximab enhances the effect of radiation therapy in human papilloma virus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, we hypothesized that adding cetuximab to CRT would reduce LRF in SCCAC. Methods Sixty-one patients with stage I to III SCCAC received CRT including cisplatin, fluorouracil, and radiation therapy to the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes (45 to 54 Gy) plus eight once-weekly doses of concurrent cetuximab...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061832/high-rates-of-multidrug-resistant-and-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-among-re-treatment-cases-where-do-they-come-from
#12
Romain Ragonnet, James M Trauer, Justin T Denholm, Ben J Marais, Emma S McBryde
BACKGROUND: Globally 3.9% of new and 21% of re-treatment tuberculosis (TB) cases are multidrug-resistant or rifampicin-resistant (MDR/RR), which is often interpreted as evidence that drug resistance results mainly from poor treatment adherence. This study aims to assess the respective contributions of the different causal pathways leading to MDR/RR-TB at re-treatment. METHODS: We use a simple mathematical model to simulate progression between the different stages of disease and treatment for patients diagnosed with TB...
January 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052088/emerging-new-crop-pests-ecological-modelling-and-analysis-of-the-south-american-potato-psyllid-russelliana-solanicola-hemiptera-psylloidea-and-its-wild-relatives
#13
Mindy M Syfert, Liliya Serbina, Daniel Burckhardt, Sandra Knapp, Diana M Percy
Food security is threatened by newly emerging pests with increased invasive potential accelerated through globalization. The Neotropical jumping plant louse Russelliana solanicola Tuthill is currently a localized potato pest and probable vector of plant pathogens. It is an unusually polyphagous species and is widely distributed in and along the Andes. To date, introductions have been detected in eastern Argentina, southern Brazil and Uruguay. Species distribution models (SDMs) and trait comparisons based on contemporary and historical collections are used to estimate the potential spread of R...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045226/regional-climate-on-the-breeding-grounds-predicts-variation-in-the-natal-origin-of-monarch-butterflies-overwintering-in-mexico-over-38%C3%A2-years
#14
D T Tyler Flockhart, Lincoln P Brower, M Isabel Ramirez, Keith A Hobson, Leonard I Wassenaar, Sonia Altizer, D Ryan Norris
Addressing population declines of migratory insects requires linking populations across different portions of the annual cycle and understanding the effects of variation in weather and climate on productivity, recruitment, and patterns of long-distance movement. We used stable H and C isotopes and geospatial modeling to estimate the natal origin of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America using over 1000 monarchs collected over almost four decades at Mexican overwintering colonies. Multinomial regression was used to ascertain which climate-related factors best-predicted temporal variation in natal origin across six breeding regions...
January 3, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029200/the-influence-of-helicobacter-pylori-on-the-ethnic-distribution-of-esophageal-eosinophilia
#15
Amnon Sonnenberg, Evan S Dellon, Kevin O Turner, Robert M Genta
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors associated with ethnicity may contribute to the occurrence of eosinophilic esophagitis. Our study aimed to investigate the influence of Helicobacter pylori on the ethnic variation of esophageal eosinophilia in a large national sample of patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. METHODS: The Miraca Life Sciences Database is an electronic repository of histopathologic patient records. A case-control study evaluated the influence of ethnicity on the occurrence of esophageal eosinophilia and how age, gender, and histologic diagnosis of H...
December 28, 2016: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028099/interactions-among-latitude-nematode-parasitization-and-female-sirex-nigricornis-hymenoptera-siricidae-fitness
#16
Jessica A Hartshorn, Kevin D Chase, Larry D Galligan, John J Riggins, Fred M Stephen
Sirex nigricornis F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is an innocuous pine-inhabiting woodwasp native to eastern North America, utilizing dead or dying pine trees as hosts. Although S. nigricornis F. does not cause economic damage, a closely related species, Sirex noctilio, was discovered in New York in 2004 and has continually spread throughout the northeastern United States and southern Canada, threatening the multi-billion-dollar pine timber industry of the southeastern United States and raising interest about potential interactions with native woodwasps and associated mortality agents...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028089/wolbachia-in-parasitoids-attacking-native-european-and-introduced-eastern-cherry-fruit-flies-in-europe
#17
Hannes Schuler, Peter Kern, Wolfgang Arthofer, Heidrun Vogt, Maximilian Fischer, Christian Stauffer, Markus Riegler
The eastern cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest of cherries in North America. In 1983 it was first reported in Europe where it shares its ecological niche with the native European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi L. (Diptera: Tephritidae). Their coexistence in Europe led to the recent horizontal transmission of the Wolbachia strain wCer1 from R. cerasi to R. cingulata Horizontal Wolbachia transmission is mediated by either sharing of ecological niches or by interacting species such as parasitoids...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024175/two-worlds-apart-determinants-of-height-in-late-18th-century-central-mexico
#18
Rafael Dobado-González, Alfredo Garcia-Hiernaux
Anthropometric literature on the American territories of the Hispanic monarchy before their independence is still scarce. We attempt to expand the field with a case study that includes some important novelties. Albeit our main source, the military records of the Censo de Revillagigedo (conducted in the early 1790s), has already been used, the sample size and the geographical scope are unprecedented: 19,390 males of four ethnicities (castizos, españoles, mestizos, and mulatos) aged from 16 to 39 from 24 localities, including towns and villages scattered across central regions of the Viceroyalty of New Spain...
December 14, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004301/evidence-and-expert-opinions-drying-needling-versus-acupuncture-i-the-american-alliance-for-professional-acupuncture-safety-aapas-white-paper-2016
#19
Arthur Yin Fan, Jun Xu, Yong-Ming Li
In the last twenty years, in the United States and other Western countries, dry needling (DN) became a hot and debatable topic, not only in academic but also in legal fields. This White Paper is to provide the authoritative information of DN versus acupuncture to academic scholars, healthcare professional administrators, lawmakers, and the general public through providing the authoritative evidence and experts' opinions regarding critical issues of DN versus acupuncture, and then reach consensus. DN is the use of dry needles alone, either solid filiform acupuncture needles or hollow-core hypodermic needles, to insert into the body for the treatment of muscle pain and related myofascial pain syndrome...
December 21, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000408/ancestral-variations-in-the-shape-and-size-of-the-zygoma
#20
Anna C Oettlé, Fabrice P Demeter, Ericka N L'abbé
The variable development of the zygoma, dictating its shape and size variations among ancestral groups, has important clinical implications and valuable anthropological and evolutionary inferences. The purpose of the study was to review the literature regarding the variations in the zygoma with ancestry. Ancestral variation in the zygoma reflects genetic variations because of genetic drift as well as natural selection and epigenetic changes to adapt to diet and climate variations with possible intensification by isolation...
January 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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