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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728575/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-a-major-gene-for-beech-bark-disease-resistance-in-american-beech-fagus-grandifolia-ehrh
#1
Irina Ćalić, Jennifer Koch, David Carey, Charles Addo-Quaye, John E Carlson, David B Neale
BACKGROUND: The American Beech tree (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), native to eastern North America, is ecologically important and provides high quality wood products. This species is susceptible to beech bark disease (BBD) and is facing high rates of mortality in North America. The disease occurs from an interaction between the woolly beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga), one of two species of the fungus Neonectria (N. faginata or N. ditissima), and American Beech trees. METHODS: In this case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS), we tested 16 K high quality SNPs using the Affymetrix Axiom 1...
July 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712417/holding-the-body-in-mind-interoceptive-awareness-dispositional-mindfulness-and-psychological-well-being
#2
Adam W Hanley, Wolf E Mehling, Eric L Garland
Objective Recent dialogue between Western and Eastern traditions has stimulated novel explorations of the relationship between mind and body. Many of these cross-cultural, mind-body dialogues have proven productive in identifying more adaptive forms of embodiment. Prior studies suggest that dispositional mindfulness (DM) and interoceptive awareness (IA) are associated but distinct, key constructs in mind-body approaches that are conceptualized in a variety of ways with imprecisely characterized relationship...
August 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708937/malignant-central-nervous-system-tumors-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-15-39-years-old-in-14-southern-eastern-european-registries-and-the-us-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-program-mortality-and-survival-patterns
#3
Marios K Georgakis, Paraskevi Papathoma, Anton Ryzhov, Snezana Zivkovic-Perisic, Sultan Eser, Łukasz Taraszkiewicz, Mario Sekerija, Tina Žagar, Luis Antunes, Anna Zborovskaya, Joana Bastos, Margareta Florea, Daniela Coza, Anna Demetriou, Domenic Agius, Rajko M Strahinja, Marios Themistocleous, Maria Tolia, Spyridon Tzanis, George A Alexiou, Panagiotis G Papanikolaou, Panagiotis Nomikos, Maria Kantzanou, Nick Dessypris, Apostolos Pourtsidis, Eleni T Petridou
BACKGROUND: Unique features and worse outcomes have been reported for cancers among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-39 years old). The aim of this study was to explore the mortality and survival patterns of malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors among AYAs in Southern-Eastern Europe (SEE) in comparison with the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. METHODS: Malignant CNS tumors diagnosed in AYAs during the period spanning 1990-2014 were retrieved from 14 population-based cancer registries in the SEE region (n = 11,438)...
July 14, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708851/interpreting-surveys-to-estimate-the-size-of-the-monarch-butterfly-population-pitfalls-and-prospects
#4
John M Pleasants, Myron P Zalucki, Karen S Oberhauser, Lincoln P Brower, Orley R Taylor, Wayne E Thogmartin
To assess the change in the size of the eastern North American monarch butterfly summer population, studies have used long-term data sets of counts of adult butterflies or eggs per milkweed stem. Despite the observed decline in the monarch population as measured at overwintering sites in Mexico, these studies found no decline in summer counts in the Midwest, the core of the summer breeding range, leading to a suggestion that the cause of the monarch population decline is not the loss of Midwest agricultural milkweeds but increased mortality during the fall migration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700598/tracing-social-interactions-in-pleistocene-north-america-via-3d-model-analysis-of-stone-tool-asymmetry
#5
Sabrina B Sholts, Joseph A M Gingerich, Stefan Schlager, Dennis J Stanford, Sebastian K T S Wärmländer
Stone tools, often the sole remnant of prehistoric hunter-gatherer behavior, are frequently used as evidence of ancient human mobility, resource use, and environmental adaptation. In North America, studies of morphological variation in projectile points have provided important insights into migration and interactions of human groups as early as 12-13 kya. Using new approaches to 3D imaging and morphometric analysis, we here quantify bifacial asymmetry among early North American projectile point styles to better understand changes in knapping technique and cultural transmission...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696428/growing-the-lost-crops-of-eastern-north-america-s-original-agricultural-system
#6
Natalie G Mueller, Gayle J Fritz, Paul Patton, Stephen Carmody, Elizabeth T Horton
Thousands of years before the maize-based agriculture practiced by many Native American societies in eastern North America at the time of contact with Europeans, there existed a unique crop system only known through archaeological evidence. There are no written or oral records of how these lost crops were cultivated, but several domesticated subspecies have been identified in the archaeological record. Growth experiments and observations of living progenitors of these crops can provide insights into the ancient agricultural system of eastern North America, the role of developmental plasticity in the process of domestication, and the creation and maintenance of diverse landraces under cultivation...
July 5, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682113/subjective-well-being-in-centenarians-a-comparison-of-japan-and-the-united-states
#7
Takeshi Nakagawa, Jinmyoung Cho, Yasuyuki Gondo, Peter Martin, Mary Ann Johnson, Leonard W Poon, Nobuyoshi Hirose
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the cultural differences and similarities in the levels and predictors of subjective well-being in Japanese and American centenarians. METHOD: We analyzed data on cognitively intact Japanese (N = 59) and American (N = 125) participants from the Tokyo and Georgia Centenarian Studies, respectively. The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale was used to measure subjective well-being, while sociodemographic, social, and health resources were assessed as potential predictors...
July 6, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677171/dominance-function-relationships-in-the-amphibian-skin-microbiome
#8
Jenifer B Walke, Matthew H Becker, Myra C Hughey, Meredith C Swartwout, Roderick V Jensen, Lisa K Belden
Some amphibian skin bacteria inhibit growth of a fungal amphibian pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but it is unclear how dominant these anti-Bd bacteria are in skin communities. Using in vitro co-culture challenge assays, we quantified Bd inhibition by bacterial isolates collected from the skin of four amphibian species: bullfrogs, Eastern newts, spring peepers, and American toads. The 16S rRNA sequences for each isolate were matched to culture-independent amplicon sequences from the same individuals to assess inhibitory function versus relative abundance...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670906/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-mediterranean-style-diet-intervention-to-reduce-cardiovascular-risk-for-low-income-hispanic-american-women
#9
Yaniré Estrada Del Campo, Laura Cubillos, Maihan B Vu, Aurelia Aguirre, Daniel S Reuland, Thomas C Keyserling
OBJECTIVE: Evidence for the cardioprotective effects of a Mediterranean-style (Med-style) diet is strong, however few Med-style dietary interventions have been developed for and tested among Hispanic Americans (HAs), especially younger HAs of reproductive age whose dietary habits may strongly influence dietary intake for all family members. DESIGN: We adapted a previously tested and evidence-informed lifestyle intervention to reduce CVD risk and evaluated its feasibility, acceptability, and effects on self-reported lifestyle behaviors in this study enrolling low-income HA women attending a Title X family planning clinic in eastern North Carolina...
July 1, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659218/effect-of-dietary-consumption-as-a-modifier-on-the-association-between-fto-gene-variants-and-excess-body-weight-in-children-from-an-admixed-population-in-brazil-the-social-changes-asthma-and-allergy-in-latin-america-scaala-cohort-study
#10
Marília Vilella, Gustavo Nunes de Oliveira Costa, Maurício Lima Barreto, Camila Alexandrina Figueredo, Neuza Maria Alcantara-Neves, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, Sheila Maria Alvim de Matos, Rosemeire Leovigildo Fiaccone, Pablo Oliveira, Aline Rocha, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva
Previous studies have shown associations of variants of the FTO gene with body weight, but none of these have involved Latin American populations with a high level of miscegenation, as is seen in the north-eastern Brazilian population. This study evaluated the association between SNP in the FTO gene and excess weight in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. In addition, the effect of diet as a modifier on this association was also investigated. This cross-sectional study included 1191 participants aged 4-11 years, who were genotyped for 400 variants of the FTO gene...
June 29, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649348/no-evidence-for-adaptation-to-local-rhizobial-mutualists-in-the-legume-medicago-lupulina
#11
Tia L Harrison, Corlett W Wood, Isabela L Borges, John R Stinchcombe
Local adaptation is a common but not ubiquitous feature of species interactions, and understanding the circumstances under which it evolves illuminates the factors that influence adaptive population divergence. Antagonistic species interactions dominate the local adaptation literature relative to mutualistic ones, preventing an overall assessment of adaptation within interspecific interactions. Here, we tested whether the legume Medicago lupulina is adapted to the locally abundant species of mutualistic nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria that vary in frequency across its eastern North American range...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642064/the-genetic-basis-of-deafness-in-populations-of-african-descent
#12
REVIEW
Jason R Rudman, Rosemary I Kabahuma, Sara E Bressler, Yong Feng, Susan H Blanton, Denise Yan, Xue-Zhong Liu
Hearing loss is the most common sensorineural disorder worldwide and is associated with more than 1000 mutations in more than 90 genes. While mutations in genes such as GJB2 (gap-junction protein β 2) and GJB6 (gap-junction protein β 6) are highly prevalent in Caucasian, Asian, and Middle Eastern populations, they are rare in both native African populations and those of African descent. The objective of this paper is to review the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology and genetics of hearing loss in African populations with a focus on native sub-Saharan African populations...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639281/resolving-relationships-between-several-neolithic-and-mesolithic-populations-in-northern-eurasia-using-geometric-morphometrics
#13
Ekaterina Stansfield Bulygina, Anna Rasskasova, Natalia Berezina, Andrei D Soficaru
OBJECTIVES: Remains from several Eastern European and Siberian Mesolithic and Neolithic sites are analysed to clarify their biological relationships. We assume that groups' geographical distances correlate with genetic and, therefore, morphological distances between them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Material includes complete male crania from several Mesolithic and Neolithic burial sites across Northern Eurasia and from several modern populations. Geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistical techniques are applied to explore morphological trends, group distances, and correlations with their geographical position, climate, and the time of origin...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636751/using-experimentation-to-understand-the-10-year-snowshoe-hare-cycle-in-the-boreal-forest-of-north-america
#14
C J Krebs, R Boonstra, S Boutin
Population cycles have long fascinated ecologists from the time of Charles Elton in the 1920s. The discovery of large population fluctuations in undisturbed ecosystems challenged the idea that pristine nature was in a state of balance. The 10-year cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) across the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska is a classic cycle, recognized by fur traders for more than 300 years. Since the 1930s ecologists have investigated the mechanisms that might cause these cycles. Proposed causal mechanisms have varied from sunspots to food supplies, parasites, diseases, predation, and social behaviour...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635082/targeting-risk-factors-for-type-2-diabetes-in-american-indian-youth-the-tribal-turning-point-pilot-study
#15
K A Sauder, D Dabelea, R Bailey-Callahan, S Kanott Lambert, J Powell, R James, C Percy, B F Jenks, L Testaverde, J M Thomas, R Barber, J Smiley, C W Hockett, V W Zhong, L Letourneau, K Moore, A M Delamater, E Mayer-Davis
BACKGROUND: American Indian (AI) youth are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To partner with Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and Navajo Nation to develop a culturally sensitive behavioural intervention for youth (Tribal Turning Point; TTP) and assess feasibility in an 8-month randomized pilot study. METHODS: We enrolled 62 overweight/obese AI children (7-10 years) who participated with ≥1 parent/primary caregiver. Intervention participants (n = 29) attended 12 group classes and five individual sessions...
June 21, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630899/comment-on-whole-genome-sequence-analysis-shows-two-endemic-species-of-north-american-wolf-are-admixtures-of-the-coyote-and-gray-wolf
#16
Paul A Hohenlohe, Linda Y Rutledge, Lisette P Waits, Kimberly R Andrews, Jennifer R Adams, Joseph W Hinton, Ronald M Nowak, Brent R Patterson, Adrian P Wydeven, Paul A Wilson, Brad N White
Whole-genome data do not support a recent hybrid origin for red and eastern wolves.
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630406/emerging-fungal-pathogen-ophidiomyces-ophiodiicola-in-wild-european-snakes
#17
Lydia H V Franklinos, Jeffrey M Lorch, Elizabeth Bohuski, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Owen N Wright, Liam Fitzpatrick, Silviu Petrovan, Chris Durrant, Chris Linton, Vojtech Baláž, Andrew A Cunningham, Becki Lawson
Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging disease of conservation concern in eastern North America. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the causative agent of SFD, has been isolated from over 30 species of wild snakes from six families in North America. Whilst O. ophiodiicola has been isolated from captive snakes outside North America, the pathogen has not been reported from wild snakes elsewhere. We screened 33 carcasses and 303 moulted skins from wild snakes collected from 2010-2016 in Great Britain and the Czech Republic for the presence of macroscopic skin lesions and O...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623758/a-massive-hepatic-tumor-demonstrating-hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma-and-neuroendocrine-lineages-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Rachel E Beard, Sydney D Finkelstein, Amir A Borhani, Marta I Minervini, J Wallis Marsh
INTRODUCTION: Mixed hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma tumors (MHCC) are described in the literature, as are the more rare mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANC) of hepatobiliary origin. Only two cases of tumors with characteristics of all three histologies/phenotypes have been previously described in one Chinese study. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Herein we report clinical, microscopic and molecular features of a 25cm mixed hepatic tumor with hepatocellular, cholangiocarcinoma and neuroendocrine differentiation arising in an otherwise healthy 19-year-old North American Caucasian male without any identifiable risk factors...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617631/sixty-five-million-years-of-change-in-temperature-and-topography-explain-evolutionary-history-in-eastern-north-american-plethodontid-salamanders
#19
Richard Barnes, Adam Thomas Clark
For many taxa and systems, species richness peaks at midelevations. One potential explanation for this pattern is that large-scale changes in climate and geography have, over evolutionary time, selected for traits that are favored under conditions found in contemporary midelevation regions. To test this hypothesis, we use records of historical temperature and topographic changes over the past 65 Myr to construct a general simulation model of plethodontid salamander evolution in eastern North America. We then explore possible mechanisms constraining species to midelevation bands by using the model to predict plethodontid evolutionary history and contemporary geographic distributions...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614909/global-patterns-and-trends-in-stomach-cancer-incidence-age-period-and-birth-cohort-analysis
#20
Ganfeng Luo, Yanting Zhang, Pi Guo, Li Wang, Yuanwei Huang, Ke Li
The cases of stomach cancer (SC) incidence are increasing per year and the SC burden has remained very high in some countries. We aimed to evaluate the global geographical variation in SC incidence and temporal trends from 1978 to 2007, with an emphasis on the effect of birth cohort. Joinpoint regression and age-period-cohort model were applied. From 2003 to 2007, male rate were 1.5- to 3-fold higher than female in all countries. Rates were highest in Eastern Asian and South American countries. Except for Uganda, all countries showed favorable trends...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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