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autism, adhd, child development

D Zoenen, V Delvenne
INTRODUCTION: The processing of information coming from the elementary sensory systems conditions the development and fulfilment of a child's abilities. A dysfunction in the sensory stimuli processing may generate behavioural patterns that might affect a child's learning capacities as well as his relational sphere. The DSM-5 recognizes the sensory abnormalities as part of the symptomatology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. However, similar features are observed in other neurodevelopmental disorders...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Andy Barnes, Richard Ziegler, Neena McConnico, Martin T Stein
Carter is a 12-year-old boy who has been seeing a developmental-behavioral pediatrician since the age of 7 years for problems with behavioral regulation. Around that time, he began to receive special education services after an educational assessment of autism. He has average intellectual abilities, with below-average semantic-pragmatic speech (e.g., conversations are one-sided). His medical diagnoses included attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined presentation, and generalized anxiety disorder...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Albert Castellheim, Sebastian Lundström, Mattias Molin, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Carina Gillberg, Christopher Gillberg
BACKGROUND: The role of general anesthetics as a risk factor for possible neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) in humans is unresolved. The investigation of the role of anesthetics in the development of postgeneral anesthesia (anesthesia onward) NDDs has proven to be complicated, partly because of the inherent confounding in clinical cohort studies, and partly by the fact that anesthetics are only one part in the complex process of anesthesia-surgery. METHODS: Utilizing the Swedish databases Child and Adolescent Twins Study in Sweden (CATSS) and National Patient Register (NPR), we investigated twins discordant for anesthesia, born between 1997 and 2004 for traits of NDDs...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Meng-Chuan Lai, Miao-Chun Chou, Chi-Yung Shang, Yen-Nan Chiu, Wen-Che Tsai, Yu-Yu Wu, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
We compared the maternal reports on mothering and family processes between 160 youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 160 age and gender-matched typically developing (TD) youth stratified by personal characteristics from Taiwan. The ASD groups consisted of 51 'typical autism' (TA), 52 'high-functioning autism' (HFA), and 57 'Asperger syndrome (AS).' Maternal reports showed that youth with ASD obtained less affection and more protection from the mother, and had less active mother-child interactions and more behavioral problems at home...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Kyoko Hirasawa
Over the past few decades, advances in neonatal medicine have increased survival rates among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) babies. Despite improvements in short-term outcomes, there is increasing concern about the probability of mild cognitive dysfunction in this population. Our analysis of VLBW babies born in our hospital revealed that the incidence of mild developmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) at the age of 3 years is 7.2%, which is markedly higher than the 2...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Radim J Sram, Milos Veleminsky, Milos Veleminsky, Jana Stejskalová
The aim of this paper was to review studies analyzing the associations between air pollution and neurodevelopment in children as well as the effect on adult population. Effect of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P) were already studied on cohorts from New York, Poland, China, and Spain. All results indicate changes of child behavior and neurodevelopment at the age of 3-9 years, decrease of IQ, increase of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), decrease of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), reduction of left hemisphere white matter...
December 4, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
E Kale Edmiston, Rachael A Muscatello, Blythe A Corbett
Introduction: The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is involved in regulating social behavior; Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by alterations in social behavior and reduced physiological response to threat. We hypothesized that adolescents with ASD would show reduced ANS response to social threat. Methods: Eighteen males with ASD and thirteen males with typical development (TD), ages 12 to 17, completed a social threat paradigm while wearing an impedance cardiography apparatus...
April 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Sophie S Hall, Hannah F Wright, Daniel S Mills
There is growing scientific and societal recognition of the role that pet dogs can play in healthy development of children; both those who are neuro-typically developing and those who live with a neuro-developmental disorder, such as autism or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, little attention has been paid to how living with children positively and negatively affects quality of life of a pet dog. In this exploratory study we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents of neuro-typically developing children (n = 18) and those with a neuro-developmental disorder (n = 18) who owned a pet dog, until no new factors were identified...
2017: PloS One
Yuta Aoki, Yuliya N Yoncheva, Bosi Chen, Tanmay Nath, Dillon Sharp, Mariana Lazar, Pablo Velasco, Michael P Milham, Adriana Di Martino
Importance: Clinical overlap between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly appreciated, but the underlying brain mechanisms remain unknown to date. Objective: To examine associations between white matter organization and 2 commonly co-occurring neurodevelopmental conditions, ASD and ADHD, through both categorical and dimensional approaches. Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigation was a cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study at an outpatient academic clinical and research center, the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at New York University Langone Medical Center...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
Janne C Visser, Nanda N J Rommelse, Martijn Lappenschaar, Iris J Servatius-Oosterling, Corina U Greven, Jan K Buitelaar
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to model more homogeneous subgroups within autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on early trajectories of core symptoms; and to further characterize these subgroups in terms of trajectories of language, cognition, co-occurring (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]-related) traits and clinical outcome diagnosis. METHOD: Children (N = 203) referred for possible ASD at ages 1 to 4 years were assessed at three time points at intervals ranging from 9 months to 3 years...
August 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Hillary Schiltz, Nancy McIntyre, Lindsay Swain-Lerro, Matthew Zajic, Peter Mundy
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for anxiety symptoms. Few anxiety measures are validated for individuals with ASD, and the nature of ASD raises questions about reliability of self-reported anxiety. This study examined longitudinal stability and change of self-reported anxiety in higher functioning youth with ASD (HFASD) compared to youth with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typical development (TD) using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (March, 2012; March et al...
December 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Betty R Vohr, Elysia Poggi Davis, Christine A Wanke, Nancy F Krebs
The rapid pace of fetal development by far exceeds any other stage of the life span, and thus, environmental influences can profoundly alter the developmental course. Stress during the prenatal period, including malnutrition and inflammation, impact maternal and fetal neurodevelopment with long-term consequences for physical and mental health of both the mother and her child. One primary consequence of maternal malnutrition, inflammation, and other sources of prenatal stress is a poor birth outcome, such as prematurity or growth restriction...
April 2017: Pediatrics
Laura Contu, Cheryl A Hawkes
Globally, more than 20% of women of reproductive age are currently estimated to be obese. Children born to obese mothers are at higher risk of developing obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and asthma in adulthood. Increasing clinical and experimental evidence suggests that maternal obesity also affects the health and function of the offspring brain across the lifespan. This review summarizes the current findings from human and animal studies that detail the impact of maternal obesity on aspects of learning, memory, motivation, affective disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and neurodegeneration in the offspring...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nóra Kerekes, Örjan Falk, Sven Brändström, Henrik Anckarsäter, Maria Råstam, Björn Hofvander
BACKGROUND: Childhood aggressive antisocial behavior (CD) is one of the strongest predictors of mental health problems and criminal behavior in adulthood. The aims of this study were to describe personality profiles in children with CD, and to determine the strength of association between defined neurodevelopmental symptoms, dimensions of character maturity and CD. METHODS: A sample of 1886 children with a close to equal distribution of age (9 or 12) and gender, enriched for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems were selected from the nationwide Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Muhammad Mahajnah, Rajech Sharkia, Nadeem Shorbaji, Nathanel Zelnik
BACKGROUND: Despite the increased worldwide recognition of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a variability in the diagnostic rate of both ADHD and its co-morbidities. These diversities are probably related to the methodology and instruments used for the diagnosis of ADHD and to awareness and cultural interpretation of its existence. OBJECTIVES: To identify consistent differences in the clinical profile of Arab and Jewish children with ADHD in Israel who differ in their cultural, ethnic and socioeconomic background...
June 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Evie Stergiakouli, George Davey Smith, Joanna Martin, David H Skuse, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Susan M Ring, Angelica Ronald, David E Evans, Simon E Fisher, Anita Thapar, Beate St Pourcain
BACKGROUND: Shared genetic influences between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms have been reported. Cross-trait genetic relationships are, however, subject to dynamic changes during development. We investigated the continuity of genetic overlap between ASD and ADHD symptoms in a general population sample during childhood and adolescence. We also studied uni- and cross-dimensional trait-disorder links with respect to genetic ADHD and ASD risk...
2017: Molecular Autism
Anthony A Olashore, Bechedza Frank-Hatitchki, Olorunfemi Ogunwobi
BACKGROUND: Attention is currently being drawn to child psychiatric care, most especially in the developed countries. This type of care is still rudimentary in the developing countries. Botswana is one of the African countries with good health care services but mental illness is given the low priority. Child and adolescent mental health care (CAMHC) is almost non-existent likely due to the dearth of research which would drive a policy change in this direction. Hence the need for this research as a step towards establishing a well-structured CAMHC...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Liesbeth G E Telman, Francisca J A van Steensel, Marija Maric, Susan M Bögels
We compared clinically referred children with anxiety disorders (AD; n = 63) to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 39), ADHD Combined (ADHD-C; n = 62), ADHD Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I; n = 64), and typically developing children (n = 42) on child quality of life (QOL), paternal and maternal psychopathology and parental stress. Diagnoses were based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Multilevel analyses showed that QOL in AD was higher on school and social functioning, compared to respectively ADHD and ASD, and lower compared to normal controls on all five domains...
December 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Slavica K Katusic, Robert C Colligan, Scott M Myers, Robert G Voigt, Kouichi Yoshimasu, Ruth E Stoeckel, Amy L Weaver
A large cohort consisting of all children born to mothers from community provides 'natural' selection into different exposures and is a powerful resource for epidemiological research. A large population-based birth cohort with detailed systematic information already recorded, as part of longitudinal medical care, historical and current school data, detailed birth certificate data and all three resources available for every member of the birth cohort, are extremely rare. Our population-based birth cohort consists of all children born between 1976 and 2000 to mothers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, at the time of child's birth (N=39 890)...
April 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Randall Phelps, Debra Eisert, Susan Schulz, Marilyn Augustyn
Alex is a 9-year-old boy brought to you, his primary care provider, for a "fifth opinion." You have cared for Alex since he was adopted from a Romanian orphanage at 3 years of age. He has been physically healthy with normal growth parameters and no evidence of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alex has long-standing history of social difficulties, impulsivity, lying, controlling, manipulative behaviors, violent outbursts at home with subsequent lack of remorse, and excessive chatter. You referred Alex to an interdisciplinary child development clinic 2 years ago, where he was diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
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