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autism, adhd, child development

Susan dosReis, Wendy Camelo Castillo, Melissa Ross, Marcy Fitz-Randolph, Angela Vaughn-Lee, Beverly Butler
OBJECTIVES: To develop a methodological approach for selecting, validating, and prioritizing attributes for health care decision making. METHODS: Participants (n = 48) were recruited from community support groups if they had a child aged 26 years or younger diagnosed with a coexisting mental health condition and cognitive impairment. Six in-depth interviews eliciting care management experiences were transcribed and coded into themes following the principles of grounded theory and the constant comparative method...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Ulf Jonsson, Iman Alaie, Anna Löfgren Wilteus, Eric Zander, Peter B Marschik, David Coghill, Sven Bölte
BACKGROUND: An individual's subjective perception of well-being is increasingly recognized as an essential complement to clinical symptomatology and functional impairment in children's mental health. Measurement of quality of life (QoL) has the potential to give due weight to the child's perspective. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY: Our aim was to critically review the current evidence on how childhood mental disorders affect QoL. First, the major challenges in this research field are outlined...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Branko M van Hulst, Patrick de Zeeuw, Dienke J Bos, Yvonne Rijks, Sebastiaan F W Neggers, Sarah Durston
BACKGROUND: Changes in reward processing are thought to be involved in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as other developmental disorders. In addition, different forms of therapy for ADHD rely on reinforcement principles. As such, improved understanding of reward processing in ADHD could eventually lead to more effective treatment options. However, differences in reward processing may not be specific to ADHD, but may be a trans-diagnostic feature of disorders that involve ADHD-like symptoms...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Nidhi Chauhan, Mahadev Singh Sen, Soumya Jhanda, Sandeep Grover
Neurodevelopmental disorders are known to have varied etiology. Among known etiologic causes, congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is reported to be one of the infections associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. CRS has been reported to be associated with large number of psychiatric manifestation. However, data from developing countries on psychiatric manifestations of CRS are nonexistent. In this report, we present the case of a 7-year-old boy, who presented with mental retardation, atypical autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Muhammad Mahaj, Rajech Sharkia, Nadeem Shorbaji, Nathanel Zelnik
BACKGROUND: Despite the increased worldwide recognition of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a variability in the diagnostic rate of both ADHD and its co-morbidities. These diversities are probably related to the methodology and instruments used for the diagnosis of ADHD and to awareness and cultural interpretation of its existence. OBJECTIVES: To identify consistent differences in the clinical profile of Arab and Jewish children with ADHD in Israel who differ in cultural, ethnic and socioeconomic background...
June 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Mirko Uljarević, Napoleon Katsos, Kristelle Hudry, Jenny L Gibson
BACKGROUND: Language and communication skills are essential aspects of child development, which are often disrupted in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Cutting edge research in psycholinguistics suggests that multilingualism has potential to influence social, linguistic and cognitive development. Thus, multilingualism has implications for clinical assessment, diagnostic formulation, intervention and support offered to families. We present a systematic review and synthesis of the effects of multilingualism for children with neurodevelopmental disorders and discuss clinical implications...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Sari Bar, Ruth Milanaik, Andrew Adesman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of an infant#$#apos;s life, with continuation of breastfeeding for at least a year or as mutually desired by mother and child. A robust body of research literature documenting the short-term medical, developmental, and emotional benefits of breastfeeding for infants and toddlers supports this position. This article reviews the neurodevelopmental benefits of breastfeeding as it relates to preschool and school-age children, with particular emphasis on cognitive development, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Lidia V Gabis, Noah Gruber, Michal Berkenstadt, Shahar Shefer, Odelia Leon Attia, Dana Mula, Yoram Cohen, Shai E Elizur
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most prevalent known genetically inherited cause for autism and intellectual disability. Premutation state can cause several clinical disorders as well. We aimed to perform a nesting approach to acquire data with regard to first degree relatives of index fragile X cases at the largest child development center in Israel in order to map characteristics of Israeli FXS permutation women carriers. Seventy-nine women were referred due to a related fragile X syndrome patient, mainly an offspring or sibling...
October 2016: Cerebellum
Virginia A Rauh, Amy E Margolis
BACKGROUND: Environmental exposures play a critical role in the genesis of some child mental health problems. METHODS: We open with a discussion of children's vulnerability to neurotoxic substances, changes in the distribution of toxic exposures, and cooccurrence of social and physical exposures. We address trends in prevalence of mental health disorders, and approaches to the definition of disorders that are sensitive to the subtle effects of toxic exposures. We suggest broadening outcomes to include dimensional measures of autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and child learning capacity, as well as direct assessment of brain function...
July 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Amanda Connolly, Joanne Fielding, Nicole Papadopoulos, Jennifer McGinley, Anna Murphy, Nicole J Rinehart
OBJECTIVE: We explored the relationship between accidental injuries, motor impairment, and co-occurring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-CT). METHOD: Participants were 32 male children diagnosed with ADHD-CT and 23 typically developing male children (7-12 years, full scale IQ [FSIQ] > 80). Parents completed a customized questionnaire on the occurrence of accidental injuries (e.g., bruises, cuts) their child experienced in the past 12 months...
March 14, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
M S Fortea-Sevilla, M O Escandell-Bermudez, J J Castro-Sanchez, J Martos-Perez
INTRODUCTION: The identification of factors that influence attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) will allow the development of intervention strategies that will benefit the personal and social adjustment of these individuals. It is well known that children with developmental disorders have a higher risk of presenting symptoms of anxiety than typically developing children. AIM: To assess the perception of anxiety of a group of children and adolescents with ADHD or ASD and the anxiety their parents believe their children have, through the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorder (SCARED)...
2016: Revista de Neurologia
Yihong Zhao, F Xavier Castellanos
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric science remains descriptive, with a categorical nosology intended to enhance interobserver reliability. Increased awareness of the mismatch between categorical classifications and the complexity of biological systems drives the search for novel frameworks including discovery science in Big Data. In this review, we provide an overview of incipient approaches, primarily focused on classically categorical diagnoses such as schizophrenia (SZ), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but also reference convincing, if focal, advances in cancer biology, to describe the challenges of Big Data and discovery science, and outline approaches being formulated to overcome existing obstacles...
March 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Randal G Ross, Sharon K Hunter, M Camille Hoffman, Lizbeth McCarthy, Betsey M Chambers, Amanda J Law, Sherry Leonard, Gary O Zerbe, Robert Freedman
OBJECTIVE: α7-Nicotinic receptors are involved in the final maturation of GABA inhibitory synapses before birth. Choline at levels found in the amniotic fluid is an agonist at α7-nicotinic receptors. The authors conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess whether high-dose oral phosphatidylcholine supplementation during pregnancy to increase maternal amniotic fluid choline levels would enhance fetal development of cerebral inhibition and, as a result, decrease childhood behavior problems associated with later mental illness...
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Seul Bee Lee, Seung Ha Song, Ju Hyun Ham, Dong Ho Song, Keun-Ah Cheon
PURPOSE: High-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves pragmatic impairment of language skills. Among numerous tasks for assessing pragmatic linguistic skills, idioms are important to evaluating high-functioning ASD. Nevertheless, no assessment tool has been developed with specific consideration of Korean culture. Therefore, we designed the Korean Autism Social Language Task (KASLAT) to test idiom comprehension in ASD. The aim of the current study was to introduce this novel psychological tool and evaluate idiom comprehension deficits in high-functioning ASD...
November 2015: Yonsei Medical Journal
Laura A Janzen, Dana David, Darlene Walker, Johann Hitzler, Sue Zupanec, Heather Jones, Brenda J Spiegler
BACKGROUND: Not all children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were developing in a typical manner prior to diagnosis. Pre-existing developmental vulnerabilities (DV) may be related to long-term neuropsychological sequelae following ALL treatment, yet little is known about the prevalence or nature of prior DV in this population. PROCEDURE: Children with newly diagnosed ALL aged 2-18 years (n = 115) were screened for DV by asking parents about the child's prior developmental history and with the Developmental Profile-3 (DP-3)...
December 2015: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Nóra Kerekes, Armin Tajnia, Paul Lichtenstein, Sebastian Lundström, Henrik Anckarsäter, Thomas Nilsson, Maria Råstam
Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) and body mass index (BMI). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children. Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1) to define the prevalence of extreme (low or high) BMI in the group of children with ADHD and/or ASDs compared to the group of children without these NDPs; (2) to analyze whether extreme BMI is associated with the subdomains within the diagnostic categories of ADHD or ASD; and (3) to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to BMI in boys and girls at ages 9 and 12...
2015: PeerJ
Heejoo Jo, Laura A Schieve, Andrea J Sharma, Stefanie N Hinkle, Ruowei Li, Jennifer N Lind
BACKGROUND: Both obesity and developmental disabilities have increased in recent decades. Limited studies suggest associations between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child neurodevelopment. METHODS: The Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a US nationally distributed longitudinal study of maternal health and infant health and feeding practices, was conducted from 2005 to 2007. In 2012, mothers were recontacted for information on their children's health and development...
May 2015: Pediatrics
Simone Croft, Christopher Stride, Barbara Maughan, Richard Rowe
BACKGROUND: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is widely used to screen for child mental health problems and measure common forms of psychopathology in 4- to 16-year-olds. Using longitudinal data, we examined the validity of a version adapted for 3- to 4-year-olds. METHODS: We used SDQ data from 16,659 families collected by the Millennium Cohort Study, which charts the development of children born throughout the United Kingdom during 2000-2001. Parents completed the preschool SDQ when children were aged 3 and the standard SDQ at ages 5 and 7...
May 2015: Pediatrics
Eileen A Curran, Sinéad M O'Neill, John F Cryan, Louise C Kenny, Timothy G Dinan, Ali S Khashan, Patricia M Kearney
BACKGROUND: Given the growing prevalence of birth by Caesarean section (CS) worldwide, it is important to understand any long-term effects CS delivery may have on a child's development. We assessed the impact of mode of delivery on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science up to 28 February 2014. No publication date, language, location or age restrictions were employed...
May 2015: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Christopher Gillberg
Co-existence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, tic disorders, developmental coordination disorder, language disorder, learning problems, and autism spectrum disorder and sharing of symptoms across disorders, contribute to the typical clinical presentation in child psychiatry as well as in developmental medicine. The acronym ESSENCE refers to Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations. Affected children are brought for clinical assessment because of impairing symptoms that raise concern before the age of about 5 years in general development, communication and language, social inter-relatedness, motor coordination, attention, activity, behaviour, mood, and/or sleep...
September 24, 2014: Läkartidningen
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