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Rhinovirus human asthma study

Reena Berman, Di Jiang, Qun Wu, Connor R Stevenson, Niccolette R Schaefer, Hong Wei Chu
BACKGROUND: MUC18 is upregulated in the lungs of asthma and COPD patients. It has been shown to have pro-inflammatory functions in cultured human airway epithelial cells during viral infections and in mice during lung bacterial infections. However, the in vivo role of MUC18 in the context of viral infections remains poorly understood. The goal of this study is to define the in vivo function of MUC18 during respiratory rhinovirus infection. METHODS: Muc18 wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice were infected with human rhinovirus 1B (HRV-1B) and sacrificed after 1 day to determine the inflammatory and antiviral responses...
2016: PloS One
Maria J Gutierrez, Jose L Gomez, Geovanny F Perez, Krishna Pancham, Stephanie Val, Dinesh K Pillai, Mamta Giri, Sarah Ferrante, Robert Freishtat, Mary C Rose, Diego Preciado, Gustavo Nino
BACKGROUND: Innate immune responses are fine-tuned by small noncoding RNA molecules termed microRNAs (miRs) that modify gene expression in response to the environment. During acute infections, miRs can be secreted in extracellular vesicles (EV) to facilitate cell-to-cell genetic communication. The purpose of this study was to characterize the baseline population of miRs secreted in EVs in the airways of young children (airway secretory microRNAome) and examine the changes during rhinovirus (RV) infection, the most common cause of asthma exacerbations and the most important early risk factor for the development of asthma beyond childhood...
2016: PloS One
Cibele M Gaido, Shane Stone, Abha Chopra, Wayne R Thomas, Peter N Le Souëf, Belinda J Hales
: Rhinovirus (RV) species A and C are the most frequent cause of respiratory viral illness worldwide and RV-C has been linked to more severe exacerbations of asthma in young children. Little is known about the immune response against the different RV species, although studies comparing IgG1 antibody titers found impaired antibody responses to RV-C. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether T-cell immunity to RV-C is similarly impaired. We measured T-cell proliferation to overlapping synthetic peptides covering the entire VP1 capsid protein of an RV-A and RV-C genotype for 20 healthy adult donors...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Virology
Rachel Tham, Don Vicendese, Shyamali Dharmage, Rob J Hyndman, Ed Newbigin, Emma Lewis, Molly O'Sullivan, Adrian J Lowe, Philip Taylor, Philip Bardin, Mimi L K Tang, Michael J Abramson, Bircan Erbas
BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a significant public health problem and severe exacerbations can result in diminished quality of life and hospitalisation. OBJECTIVE: To examine the contribution of outdoor fungi to childhood and adolescent asthma hospitalisations. METHODS: The Melbourne Air Pollen Children and Adolescent (MAPCAH) study is a case-crossover study of 644 children and adolescents (aged 2-17 years) hospitalised for asthma. MAPCAH collected individual data on human rhinovirus (HRV) infection and sensitisation to Alternaria and Cladosporium; and daily counts of ambient concentrations of fungal spores, pollen and air pollutants...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Elena C Cavallaro, Kar-Kate Liang, Mark D Lawrence, Kevin D Forsyth, Dani-Louise Dixon
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization with bronchiolitis is linked to the development of early childhood chronic wheeze and asthma. Viral etiology and severity of inflammation are potential contributing factors. Previously we observed reduced airway neutrophil infiltration in breastfed bronchiolitic infants, with a corresponding reduction in disease severity. This study aimed to examine whether respiratory viral etiology and co-infection alters the pattern of neutrophil influx, and the inflammatory mediator profile, resulting in epithelial damage in bronchiolitis...
July 13, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Min Zhao, Wen-Jing Zhu, Yuan Qian, Yu Sun, Ru-Nan Zhu, Jie Deng, Fang Wang, Ya-Xin Ding, Run Tian, Chuan-He Liu, Ling-Hui Meng, Lin-Qing Zhao
BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are divided into three genetic species: HRV-A, HRV-B, and HRV-C. The association of different HRV species with asthma in children in China has not yet been evaluated. This preliminary study aimed to assess the associations between different HRV species, particularly HRV-C, and asthma in young children in China. METHODS: A total of 702 nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from 155 children with asthma (asthma group), 461 children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) without asthma (nonasthma ARI group), and 86 children from the control group...
July 5, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
L Öhrmalm, A Malinovschi, M Wong, P Levinson, C Janson, K Broliden, K Alving
BACKGROUND: Viral respiratory infections have been associated with up to 80% of wheezing episodes and asthma exacerbations. However, studies on the role of these viruses in asthmatic patients in the interval between exacerbations are sparse. This study aimed to determine the presence of respiratory viruses, without symptoms of infection, in the airways of young asthmatics as compared to healthy controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients 10-35 years of age with stable asthma and a group of healthy controls were analyzed regarding the presence of RNA from common respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates by PCR...
June 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Achsah D Keegan, Kari Ann Shirey, Dayanand Bagdure, Jorge Blanco, Rose M Viscardi, Stefanie N Vogel
Early childhood infection with respiratory viruses, including human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza, is associated with an increased risk of allergic asthma and severe exacerbation of ongoing disease. Despite the long recognition of this relationship, the mechanism linking viral infection and later susceptibility to allergic lung inflammation is still poorly understood. We discuss the literature and provide new evidence demonstrating that these viruses induce the alternative activation of macrophages...
July 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Alar Aab, Oliver Wirz, Willem van de Veen, Stefan Söllner, Barbara Stanic, Beate Rückert, Julia Aniscenko, Michael R Edwards, Sebastian L Johnston, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Ana Rebane, Cezmi A Akdis, Mübeccel Akdis
BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are one of the main causes of virus induced asthma exacerbations. Infiltration of B lymphocytes into the subepithelial tissue of the lungs has been demonstrated during rhinovirus infection in allergic individuals. However, the mechanisms through which HRVs modulate the immune responses of monocytes and lymphocytes are not yet well described. OBJECTIVE: To study the dynamics of virus uptake by monocytes and lymphocytes, and the ability of HRVs to induce activation of in vitro cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
May 11, 2016: Allergy
Li Guan, Lin-Qing Zhao, Hang-Yu Zhou, Kai Nie, Xin-Na Li, Dan Zhang, Juan Song, Yuan Qian, Xue-Jun Ma
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) have long been recognized as the cause of more than one-half of acute viral upper respiratory illnesses, and they are associated with more-serious diseases in children, such as asthma, acute otitis media and pneumonia. A rapid and universal test for of HRV infection is in high demand. In this study, a reverse transcription genome exponential amplification reaction (RT-GEAR) assay targeting the HRV 5' untranslated region (UTR) was developed for pan-HRV detection. The reaction was performed in a single tube in one step at 65 °C for 60 min using a real-time fluorometer (Genie(®)II; Optigene)...
July 2016: Archives of Virology
Cristina Calvo, María Luz García-García, Francisco Pozo, Daniel Carballo, Eduardo Martínez-Monteserín, Inmaculada Casas
The human bocavirus (hBoV) has been identified in respiratory infections in children in a large number of studies. Despite this, the pathogenic role of the HBoV is under discussion. The main objectives of the study were: to determine the incidence of HBoV in hospitalized children; to describe the main clinical features of the positive children; and to compare the data with those from other viral infections in the same population. A prospective study was performed between 2005 and 2013 including children up to 14 years old with respiratory infection admitted to the Severo Ochoa Hospital (Spain)...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Laurène Da Costa, Manon Roche, Els Scheers, Antonio Coluccia, Johan Neyts, Thierry Terme, Pieter Leyssen, Romano Silvestri, Patrice Vanelle
Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are the predominant cause of common colds and flu-like illnesses, but are also responsible for virus-induced exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, to date, no drug has been approved yet for clinical use. In this study, we present the results of the structure-based lead optimization of a class of new small-molecule inhibitors that we previously reported to bind into the pocket beneath the canyon of the VP1 protein. A small series of analogues that we designed based on the available structure and interaction data were synthesized and evaluated for their potency to inhibit the replication of HRV serotype 14...
June 10, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yury A Bochkov, James E Gern
Human rhinoviruses (RVs) are picornaviruses that can cause a variety of illnesses including the common cold, lower respiratory tract illnesses such as bronchitis and pneumonia, and exacerbations of asthma. RVs are classified into three species, RV-A, B, and C, which include over 160 types. They utilize three major types of cellular membrane glycoproteins to gain entry into the host cell: intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) (the majority of RV-A and all RV-B), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family members (12 RV-A types), and cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3) (RV-C)...
April 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
C A Stokes, R Kaur, M R Edwards, M Mondhe, D Robinson, E C Prestwich, R D Hume, C A Marshall, Y Perrie, V B O'Donnell, J L Harwood, I Sabroe, L C Parker
Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections are major contributors to the healthcare burden associated with acute exacerbations of chronic airway disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Cellular responses to HRV are mediated through pattern recognition receptors that may in part signal from membrane microdomains. We previously found Toll-like receptor signaling is reduced, by targeting membrane microdomains with a specific liposomal phosphatidylserine species, 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (SAPS)...
September 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Avraham Beigelman, Leonard B Bacharier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article presents recent findings and perspectives on the relationship between early-life respiratory infections and asthma inception, and discusses emerging concepts on strategies that target these infectious agents for asthma prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Cumulative evidence supports the role of early-life viral infections, especially respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus, as major antecedents of childhood asthma. These viruses may have different mechanistic roles in the pathogenesis of asthma...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jodie L Simpson, Melanie Carroll, Ian A Yang, Paul N Reynolds, Sandra Hodge, Alan L James, Peter G Gibson, John W Upham
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease in which host defense against respiratory viruses such as human rhinovirus (HRV) may be abnormal. This is a matter of some controversy, with some investigators reporting reduced type I interferon (IFN) synthesis and others suggesting that type I IFN synthesis is relatively normal in asthma. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the responsiveness of circulating mononuclear cells to HRV in a large cohort of participants with poorly controlled asthma and determine whether IFN-α and IFN-β synthesis varies across different inflammatory phenotypes...
March 2016: Chest
Sylvia Milanoi, Juliette R Ongus, George Gachara, Rodney Coldren, Wallace Bulimo
BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are a well-established cause of the common cold and recent studies indicated that they may be associated with severe acute respiratory illnesses (SARIs) like pneumonia, asthma, and bronchiolitis. Despite global studies on the genetic diversity of the virus, the serotype diversity of these viruses across diverse geographic regions in Kenya has not been characterized. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize the serotype diversity of HRV strains that circulated in Kenya in 2008...
May 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Heloisa I G Giamberardin, Sheila Homsani, Lucia F Bricks, Ana P O Pacheco, Matilde Guedes, Maria C Debur, Sonia M Raboni
This study reports the results of a systematic screening for respiratory viruses in pediatric outpatients from an emergency department (ED) in southern Brazil during two consecutive influenza seasons. Children eligible for enrollment in this study were aged 24-59 months and presented with acute respiratory symptoms and fever. Naso- and oropharyngeal swabs were collected and multiplex reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to identify the respiratory viruses involved. In total, 492 children were included in this study: 248 in 2010 and 244 in 2011...
August 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Anthony Orvedahl, Amruta Padhye, Kevin Barton, Kevin O'Bryan, Jack Baty, Nancy Gruchala, Angela Niesen, Angeliki Margoni, Mythili Srinivasan
BACKGROUND: The largest known outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections occurred during 2014. The goal of our study is to characterize the illness severity and clinical presentation of children infected with EV-D68 in comparison to non-EV-D68-human rhinoviruses/enteroviruses (HRV/EV). METHOD: Our study is a retrospective analysis of severity level, charges and length of stay of children who presented to St. Louis Children's Hospital from August 8, 2014 to October 31, 2014 and tested positive for EV-D68 in comparison to non-EV-D68-HRV/EV-infected patients...
May 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
A Graser, A B Ekici, N Sopel, V O Melichar, T Zimmermann, N G Papadopoulos, S Taka, F Ferrazzi, T Vuorinen, S Finotto
The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is known to mediate antimicrobial activity, but its role during rhinovirus (RV) infections and in asthma needs further investigation. Therefore, we addressed the role of IL-17A during allergic asthma and antiviral immune response in human and murine immunocompetent cells. In this study we found that asthmatic children with a RV infection in their upper airways have upregulated mRNA levels of the antiviral cytokine interferon type I (IFN)-β and the transcription factor T-box 21 (TBX21) and reduced levels of IL-17A protein in their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
September 2016: Mucosal Immunology
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