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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511731/dietary-nitrate-and-blood-pressure-evolution-of-a-new-nutrient
#1
Ann Ashworth, Raul Bescos
Dietary nitrate is mainly obtained from vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables and beetroot. As a result of early research, dietary nitrate is currently viewed as a contaminant linked to increased risks of stomach cancer and methaemoglobinaemia. Consequently, nitrate levels are restricted in certain vegetables and in water supplies to ensure exposure levels remain below an acceptable daily intake of 3·7 mg/kg per d. The average nitrate intake in the UK is approximately 70 mg/d, although some population groups, such as vegetarians, may consume three times that amount...
May 17, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509762/beetroot-juice-increases-human-muscle-force-without-changing-ca2-handling-proteins
#2
Jamie Whitfield, Daniel Gamu, George J F Heigenhauser, Luc J C van Loon, Lawrence L Spriet, A Russell Tupling, Graham P Holloway
Dietary inorganic nitrate (NO3) supplementation improves skeletal muscle (SkM) contractile efficiency, and while rodent literature has suggested improvements in calcium handling or redox modifications as likely explanations, the direct mechanism-of-action in humans remains unknown. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 7-d of beetroot juice (BRJ) supplementation on SkM contractile characteristics and function. METHODS: Recreationally active males (n=8) underwent transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation of the vastus lateralis for evaluation of contractile characteristics before (pre) and after (post) 7-d of BRJ supplementation (280 mL/day, ~26 mmol NO3)...
May 15, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476923/acute-beetroot-juice-supplementation-on-sympathetic-nerve-activity-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-proof-of-concept-study
#3
Karambir Notay, Anthony V Incognito, Philip J Millar
Acute dietary nitrate supplementation reduces resting blood pressure in healthy normotensives. This response is attributed to increased nitric oxide bioavailability and peripheral vasodilation, though nitric oxide also tonically inhibits central sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation using beetroot (BR) juice would reduce blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest and during exercise. Fourteen participants (7 men, 25±10 years) underwent blood pressure and MSNA measurements before and after (165-180 minutes) ingestion of 70ml high-nitrate (~6...
May 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475151/antimicrobial-optical-and-mechanical-properties-of-chitosan-starch-films-with-natural-extracts
#4
Jessica I Lozano-Navarro, Nancy P Díaz-Zavala, Carlos Velasco-Santos, Ana L Martínez-Hernández, Beatriz I Tijerina-Ramos, Margarita García-Hernández, José L Rivera-Armenta, Ulises Páramo-García, Adriana I Reyes-de la Torre
Natural extracts possess several kinds of antioxidants (anthocyanins, betalains, thymol, carvacrol, and resveratrol) that have also demonstrated antimicrobial properties. In order to study these properties, extracts from cranberry, blueberry, beetroot, pomegranate, oregano, pitaya, and resveratrol (from grapes) were obtained. Growth inhibition tests of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and fungi were conducted in films prepared from the extracts in accordance with Mexican Official Norms (NOM). Optical properties such as transparency and opacity, mechanical properties, and pH were also analyzed in these materials...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464411/c-glycosyl-flavonoids-from-beta-vulgaris-cicla-and-betalains-from-beta-vulgaris-rubra-antioxidant-anticancer-and-antiinflammatory-activities-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Paolino Ninfali, Elena Antonini, Alessandra Frati, Emanuele-Salvatore Scarpa
The green beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) and red beetroot (B. vulgaris var. rubra L.) contain phytochemicals that have beneficial effects on human health. Specifically, the green beet contains apigenin, vitexin, vitexin-2-O-xyloside and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside, while the red beetroot is a source of betaxanthins and betacyanins. These phytochemicals show considerable antioxidant activity, as well as antiinflammatory and antiproliferative activities. Vitexin-2-O-xyloside, in combination with betaxanthins and betacyanins, exerts antiproliferative activity in breast, liver, colon and bladder cancer cell lines, through the induction of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways...
May 2, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422539/the-effect-of-nitrate-supplementation-on-cycling-performance-in-the-heat-in-well-trained-cyclists
#6
Joseph A McQuillan, Julia R Casadio, Deborah K Dulson, Paul B Laursen, Andrew E Kilding
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of NO3(-) consumption on measures of perception, thermoregulation and cycling performance in hot conditions. METHODS: Using a randomised, double-blind, crossover-design, 8 well-trained cyclists (mean ± SD: age: 25 ± 8 y, V̇O2peak: 64 ± 5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 2 separate trials, in hot (35°C, 60% relative humidity) environments, having ingested either 140 ml NO3(-)-rich beetroot juice ~8 mmol NO3(-) (NIT), or placebo (PLA), daily for 3-days with a 7-day washout period separating trials...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332118/nutrition-and-training-influences-on-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-adenosine-diphosphate-sensitivity-and-bioenergetics
#7
REVIEW
Graham P Holloway
Since the seminal finding almost 50 years ago that exercise training increases mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle, a considerable amount of research has been dedicated to elucidate the mechanisms inducing mitochondrial biogenesis. The discovery of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α as a major regulator of exercise-induced gene transcription was instrumental in beginning to understand the signals regulating this process. However, almost two decades after its discovery, our understanding of the signals inducing mitochondrial biogenesis remain poorly defined, limiting our insights into possible novel training modalities in elite athletes that can increase the oxidative potential of muscle...
March 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332111/practical-issues-in-evidence-based-use-of-performance-supplements-supplement-interactions-repeated-use-and-individual-responses
#8
REVIEW
Louise M Burke
Current sports nutrition guidelines recommend that athletes only take supplements following an evidence-based analysis of their value in supporting training outcomes or competition performance in their specific event. While there is sound evidence to support the use of a few performance supplements under specific scenarios (creatine, beta-alanine, bicarbonate, caffeine, nitrate/beetroot juice and, perhaps, phosphate), there is a lack of information around several issues needed to guide the practical use of these products in competitive sport...
March 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327503/beetroot-juice-supplementation-improves-high-intensity-intermittent-type-exercise-performance-in-trained-soccer-players
#9
Jean Nyakayiru, Kristin L Jonvik, Jorn Trommelen, Philippe J M Pinckaers, Joan M Senden, Luc J C van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club) participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study...
March 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319596/medium-term-effects-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-systolic-and-diastolic-blood-pressure-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Ammar W Ashor, Jose Lara, Mario Siervo
OBJECTIVES: Dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) particularly in short-term clinical trials. Whether these effects are sustained in the long-term remains to be established. The objective was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that examined whether dietary nitrate supplementation for more than 1 week has beneficial effects on SBP and DBP. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched from inception until May 2016...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251402/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-enhances-short-but-not-longer-duration-running-time-trial-performance
#11
Oliver Michael Shannon, Matthew John Barlow, Lauren Duckworth, Emily Williams, Georgina Wort, David Woods, Mario Siervo, John Paul O'Hara
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effects of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation on physiological functioning and exercise performance in trained runners/triathletes conducting short and longer-distance treadmill running time-trials (TT). METHOD: Eight trained male runners or triathletes completed four exercise performance tests comprising a 10 min warm up followed by either a 1500 or 10,000 m treadmill TT. Exercise performance tests were preceded 3 h before the exercise by supplementation with either 140 ml concentrated nitrate-rich (~12...
April 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243471/a-single-dose-of-beetroot-gel-rich-in-nitrate-does-not-improve-performance-but-lowers-blood-glucose-in-physically-active-individuals
#12
Julia Vasconcellos, Diego Henrique Silvestre, Diego Dos Santos Baião, João Pedro Werneck-de-Castro, Thiago Silveira Alvares, Vânia M Flosi Paschoalin
Background. Beetroot consumption has been proposed to improve exercise performance, since the nitrate content of this food is able to stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide. Objective. The acute effect of 100 g of a beetroot gel containing ~10 mmol of nitrate was tested on the nitric oxide synthesis, on metabolic and biochemical parameters, and on performance in physically active individuals. Methods. Through a double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study, 25 healthy runners ingested a single dose of beetroot and placebo gels...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231157/breads-fortified-with-freeze-dried-vegetables-quality-and-nutritional-attributes-part-ii-breads-not-containing-oil-as-an-ingredient
#13
Viren Ranawana, Fiona Campbell, Charles Bestwick, Phyllis Nicol, Lesley Milne, Garry Duthie, Vassilios Raikos
The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion...
September 8, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231114/breads-fortified-with-freeze-dried-vegetables-quality-and-nutritional-attributes-part-1-breads-containing-oil-as-an-ingredient
#14
Viren Ranawana, Vassilios Raikos, Fiona Campbell, Charles Bestwick, Phyllis Nicol, Lesley Milne, Garry Duthie
There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient) with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were assessed for nutrition, antioxidant potential, storage life, shelf stability, textural changes and macronutrient oxidation. Furthermore, using an in vitro model the study for the first time examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during human gastro-intestinal digestion...
March 14, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221891/microbial-quality-safety-and-pathogen-detection-by-using-quantitative-pcr-of-raw-salad-vegetables-sold-in-dhanbad-city-india
#15
Sujeet K Mritunjay, Vipin Kumar
Consumption of ready-to-eat fresh vegetables has increased worldwide, with a consequent increase in outbreaks caused by foodborne pathogens. In the Indian subcontinent, raw fresh vegetables are usually consumed without washing or other decontamination procedures, thereby leading to new food safety threats. In this study, the microbiological quality and pathogenic profile of raw salad vegetables was evaluated through standard protocols. In total, 480 samples (60 each of eight different salad vegetables) of cucumber, tomato, carrot, coriander, cabbage, beetroot, radish, and spinach were collected from different locations in Dhanbad, a city famous for its coal fields and often called the "Coal Capital of India...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192880/ameliorating-effect-of-betanin-a-natural-chromoalkaloid-by-modulating-hepatic-carbohydrate-metabolic-enzyme-activities-and-glycogen-content-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-experimental-rats
#16
Indumathi Dhananjayan, Sujithra Kathiroli, Srinivasan Subramani, Vinothkumar Veerasamy
Betanin, a chromoalkaloid of beetroot, has shown significant biological effects of antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. So, we attempted to determine whether betanin (a natural pigment) would be protective against hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ) - nicotinamide (NA) induced diabetic rats. Rats were injected with STZ (40mg/kgb.w.) 15 mins after the administration of NA (110mg/kgb.w.) by intraperitonially (i.p.) 30days for the induction of experimental diabetes mellitus. After 72h diabetic rats were treated with betanin orally at a doses of 10, 20 and 40mg/kg b...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182502/effect-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-swimming-performance-in-trained-swimmers
#17
Sam Lowings, Oliver Michael Shannon, Kevin Deighton, Jamie Matu, Matthew John Barlow
Nitrate supplementation appears to be most ergogenic when oxygen availability is restricted and subsequently may be particularly beneficial for swimming performance due to the breath-hold element of this sport. This represents the first investigation of nitrate supplementation and swimming time-trial (TT) performance. In a randomised double-blind repeated-measures crossover study, ten (5male, 5female) trained swimmers ingested 140ml nitrate-rich (~12.5mmol nitrate) or nitrate-depleted (~0.01mmol nitrate) beetroot juice...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165768/minimal-muscle-damage-after-a-marathon-and-no-influence-of-beetroot-juice-on-inflammation-and-recovery
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tom Clifford, Dean M Allerton, Meghan A Brown, Liam Harper, Steven Horsburgh, Karen M Keane, Emma J Stevenson, Glyn Howatson
This study examined whether beetroot juice (BTJ) would attenuate inflammation and muscle damage following a marathon. Using a double blind, independent group design, 34 runners (each having completed ca. ∼16 previous marathons) consumed either BTJ or an isocaloric placebo (PLA) for 3 days following a marathon. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVC), countermovement jumps (CMJ), muscle soreness, serum cytokines, leucocytosis, creatine kinase (CK), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured pre, post, and 2 days after the marathon...
March 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165641/effects-of-nitrate-supplementation-in-trained-and-untrained-muscle-is-modest-with-initial-high-plasma-nitrite-levels
#19
Peter M Christensen, Nanna K Petersen, Signe N Friis, Eddie Weitzberg, Lars Nybo
Nitrate (NO3(-) ) supplementation resulting in higher plasma nitrite (NO2(-) ) is reported to lower resting mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and oxygen uptake (VO2 ) during submaximal exercise in non-athletic populations, whereas effects in general are absent in endurance trained individuals. To test whether physiological effects of NO3(-) supplementation depend on local muscular training status or cardiovascular fitness, male endurance-trained cyclists (CYC, n=9, VO2 -max: 64±3 ml/min/kg; mean±SD) and recreational active subjects serving as a control group (CON, n=8, 46±3 ml/min/kg), acutely consumed nitrate-rich beetroot-juice ([NO3(-) ] ~9 mmol) (NIT) or placebo (PLA) with assessment of resting MAP and energy expenditure during moderate intensity (~50% VO2 -max) and incremental leg cycling (LEG-ex) and arm cranking exercise (ARM-ex)...
February 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150476/nitrate-containing-beetroot-juice-reduces-oxygen-consumption-during-submaximal-exercise-in-low-but-not-high-aerobically-fit-male-runners
#20
Colin R Carriker, Roger A Vaughan, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Kelly E Johnson, Nicholas M Beltz, James J McCormick, Nathan H Cole, Ann L Gibson
Purpose: to examine the effect of a 4-day NO3- loading protocol on the submaximal oxygen cost of both low fit and high fit participants at five different exercise intensities. Methods: participants were initially assigned to a placebo (PL; negligible NO3-) or inorganic nitrate-rich (NR; 6.2 mmol nitrate/day) group; double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover. Participants completed three trials (T1, T2 and T3). T1 included a maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) treadmill test...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
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