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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532983/towards-the-goal-of-achieving-a-normal-duration-and-quality-of-life-after-fontan-operation-creation-of-the-international-fontan-interest-group-i-fig-an-international-collaborative-initiative-dedicated-to-improving-outcomes
#1
Yves d'Udekem, Jack Rychik
A growing population of patients are now surviving the Fontan procedure and face an uncertain future and a clear burden of disease. The best medical therapy and follow-up modalities for these patients have not yet been identified, indications for transplantation are unclear and we have not been successful in mechanically supporting their circulation. There has only been a limited number of trials to address these issues. An international group has now been created to launch the large scale multi-centric research needed to provide the best future to this growing population: the International Fontan Interest Group (I-FIG)...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530853/designing-clinical-trials-that-accept-new-arms-an-example-in-metastatic-breast-cancer
#2
Steffen Ventz, Brian M Alexander, Giovanni Parmigiani, Richard D Gelber, Lorenzo Trippa
Purpose The majority of randomized oncology trials are two-arm studies that test the efficacy of new therapies against a standard of care, thereby assigning a large proportion of patients to nonexperimental therapies. In contrast, multiarm studies efficiently share a common control arm while evaluating multiple experimental therapies. A major bottleneck for traditional multiarm trials is the requirement that all therapies-often drugs from different companies-have to be available at the same time when the trial starts...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528578/a-cluster-randomized-trial-to-reduce-caesarean-delivery-rates-in-quebec-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#3
Mira Johri, Edmond S W Ng, Clara Bermudez-Tamayo, Jeffrey S Hoch, Thierry Ducruet, Nils Chaillet
BACKGROUND: Widespread increases in caesarean section (CS) rates have sparked concerns about risks to mothers and infants and rising healthcare costs. A multicentre, two-arm, cluster-randomized trial in Quebec, Canada assessed whether an audit and feedback intervention targeting health professionals would reduce CS rates for pregnant women compared to usual care, and concluded that it reduced CS rates without adverse effects on maternal or neonatal health. The effect was statistically significant but clinically small...
May 22, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527714/investigation-of-left-and-right-lateral-fluid-percussion-injury-in-c57bl6-j-mice-in-vivo-functional-consequences
#4
Lesley D Schurman, Terry L Smith, Anthony J Morales, Nancy N Lee, Thomas M Reeves, Linda L Phillips, Aron H Lichtman
Although rodent models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) reliably produce cognitive and motor disturbances, behavioral characterization resulting from left and right hemisphere injuries remains unexplored. Here we examined the functional consequences of targeting the left versus right parietal cortex in lateral fluid percussion injury, on Morris water maze (MWM) spatial memory tasks (fixed platform and reversal) and neurological motor deficits (neurological severity score and rotarod). In the MWM fixed platform task, right lateral injury produced a small delay in acquisition rate compared to left...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527232/three-dimensional-evaluation-of%C3%A2-postural%C3%A2-stability-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-mobile-technology
#5
Sarah J Ozinga, Mandy Miller Koop, Susan M Linder, Andre G Machado, Tanujit Dey, Jay L Alberts
BACKGROUND: Postural instability is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease. Objective metrics to characterize postural stability are necessary for the development of treatment algorithms to aid in the clinical setting. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this project was to validate a mobile device platform and resultant three-dimensional balance metric that characterizes postural stability. METHODS: A mobile Application was developed, in which biomechanical data from inertial sensors within a mobile device were processed to characterize movement of center of mass in the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior and trunk rotation directions...
May 13, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526673/the-effectiveness-of-a-computer-game-based-rehabilitation-platform-for-children-with-cerebral-palsy-protocol-for-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Anuprita Kanitkar, Tony Szturm, Sanjay Parmar, Dorcas Bc Gandhi, Gina Ruth Rempel, Gayle Restall, Monika Sharma, Amitesh Narayan, Jeyaraj Pandian, Nilashri Naik, Ravi R Savadatti, Mahesh Appasaheb Kamate
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to engage young children with cerebral palsy (CP) in repetitive, tedious therapy. As such, there is a need for innovative approaches and tools to motivate these children. We developed the low-cost, computer game-based rehabilitation platform CGR that combines fine manipulation and gross movement exercises with attention and planning game activities appropriate for young children with CP. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to provide evidence of the therapeutic value of CGR to improve upper extremity (UE) motor function for children with CP...
May 18, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524930/nutrition-support-in-hospitalised-adults-at-nutritional-risk
#7
REVIEW
Joshua Feinberg, Emil Eik Nielsen, Steven Kwasi Korang, Kirstine Halberg Engell, Marie Skøtt Nielsen, Kang Zhang, Maria Didriksen, Lisbeth Lund, Niklas Lindahl, Sara Hallum, Ning Liang, Wenjing Xiong, Xuemei Yang, Pernille Brunsgaard, Alexandre Garioud, Sanam Safi, Jane Lindschou, Jens Kondrup, Christian Gluud, Janus C Jakobsen
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition in Western European hospitals is estimated to be about 30%. There is no consensus whether poor nutritional status causes poorer clinical outcome or if it is merely associated with it. The intention with all forms of nutrition support is to increase uptake of essential nutrients and improve clinical outcome. Previous reviews have shown conflicting results with regard to the effects of nutrition support. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nutrition support versus no intervention, treatment as usual, or placebo in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk...
May 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523978/closed-loop-neuromodulation-systems-next-generation-treatments-for-psychiatric-illness
#8
Meng-Chen Lo, Alik S Widge
Despite deep brain stimulation's positive early results in psychiatric disorders, well-designed clinical trials have yielded inconsistent clinical outcomes. One path to more reliable benefit is closed-loop therapy: stimulation that is automatically adjusted by a device or algorithm in response to changes in the patient's electrical brain activity. These interventions may provide more precise and patient-specific treatments. This article first introduces the available closed-loop neuromodulation platforms, which have shown clinical efficacy in epilepsy and strong early results in movement disorders...
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523636/informing-materials-drugs-as-tools-for-exploring-cancer-mechanisms-and-pathways
#9
Etienne Vignola-Gagné, Peter Keating, Alberto Cambrosio
This paper builds on previous work that investigated anticancer drugs as 'informed materials', i.e., substances that undergo an informational enrichment that situates them in a dense relational web of qualifications and measurements generated by clinical experiments and clinical trials. The paper analyzes the recent transformation of anticancer drugs from 'informed' to 'informing material'. Briefly put: in the post-genomic era, anti-cancer drugs have become instruments for the production of new biological, pathological, and therapeutic insights into the underlying etiology and evolution of cancer...
June 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521067/antiepileptic-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-infants-with-severe-myoclonic-epilepsy
#10
REVIEW
Francesco Brigo, Stanley C Igwe, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2015, Issue 10.Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infants (SMEI), also known as Dravet syndrome, is a rare, refractory form of epilepsy, for which stiripentol (STP) has been recently licensed as add-on therapy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of STP and other antiepileptic drug treatments (including ketogenic diet) for patients with SMEI. SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update we searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (20 December 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Register of Studies Online (CRSO, 20 December 2016), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to 20 December 2016) and ClinicalTrials...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518221/micronutrient-supplementation-in-adults-with-hiv-infection
#11
REVIEW
Marianne E Visser, Solange Durao, David Sinclair, James H Irlam, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are common among adults living with HIV disease, particularly in low-income settings where the diet may be low in essential vitamins and minerals. Some micronutrients play critical roles in maintenance of the immune system, and routine supplementation could therefore be beneficial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether micronutrient supplements are effective and safe in reducing mortality and HIV-related morbidity of HIV-positive adults (excluding pregnant women)...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516471/topical-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-for-analgesia-in-traumatic-corneal-abrasions
#12
REVIEW
Abel Wakai, John G Lawrenson, Annali L Lawrenson, Yongjun Wang, Michael D Brown, Michael Quirke, Omar Ghandour, Ryan McCormick, Cathal D Walsh, Ahmed Amayem, Eddy Lang, Nick Harrison
BACKGROUND: Traumatic corneal abrasions are relatively common and there is a lack of consensus about analgesia in their management. It is therefore important to document the clinical efficacy and safety profile of topical ophthalmic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the management of traumatic corneal abrasions. OBJECTIVES: To identify and evaluate all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the use of topical NSAIDs with placebo or any alternative analgesic interventions in adults with traumatic corneal abrasions (including corneal abrasions arising from foreign body removal), to reduce pain, and its effects on healing time...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515135/not-all-antigens-are-created-equally-progress-challenges-and-lessons-associated-with-developing-a-vaccine-for-leishmaniasis
#13
Malcolm S Duthie, Steven G Reed
From experimental models and the analyses of patients, it is well documented that antigen-specific T cells are critical for protection against Leishmania infection. Effective vaccines require both targeting to the pathogen and an immune stimulant to induce maturation of appropriate immune responses. While a great number of antigens have been examined as vaccine candidates across various Leishmania species, few have advanced to human or canine clinical trials. With emphasis on antigen expression, in this minireview we discuss some the vaccine platforms that are currently being explored for the development of Leishmania vaccines...
May 17, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509584/the-influence-of-the-crutch-setup-on-stability-and-weight-bearing-parameters-in-post-total-hip-replacement-surgery-patients-during-quiet-standing
#14
Francesco Esposito, Marco Freddolini, Leonardo Latella, Palmina Braccio, Massimiliano Marcucci, Andrea Corvi
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of the crutch setup on standing, in post total hip replacement (THR) surgery patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients after THR were randomly assigned to walking with the elbow flexed (EF) or elbow straight (ES) crutch setup. Subjects were asked to stand on a force platform in a comfortable position with the crutch positioned on the unaffected side, facing forward for 10 seconds. Centre of pressure total path and maximal excursion were evaluated in both medio-lateral and anterior-posterior planes...
May 16, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506378/pharmacist-to-prescriber-intervention-to-close-therapeutic-gaps-for-statin-use-in-patients-with-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Hannah M Renner, Amanda Hollar, Samuel F Stolpe, Macary Weck Marciniak
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a community pharmacist-led intervention on the proportion of patients with diabetes placed on statin therapy. DESIGN: The Pharmacy Quality Alliance endorsed a performance measure, Statin Use in Persons with Diabetes, which evaluates the percentage of patients aged 40-75 years who were dispensed a medication for diabetes and also received a statin medication. SETTING: This new measure has been implemented within the Electronic Quality Improvement Platform for Plans and Pharmacies (EQuIPP) dashboard...
May 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500020/efficacy-of-a-web-based-guided-recommendation-service-for-a-curated-list-of-readily-available-mental-health-and-well-being-mobile-apps-for-young-people-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Niranjan Bidargaddi, Peter Musiat, Megan Winsall, Gillian Vogl, Victoria Blake, Stephen Quinn, Simone Orlowski, Gaston Antezana, Geoffrey Schrader
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are highly prevalent for the people who are aged between 16 and 25 years and can permanently disrupt the development of these individuals. Easily available mobile health (mHealth) apps for mobile phones have great potential for the prevention and early intervention of mental disorders in young adults, but interventions are required that can help individuals to both identify high-quality mobile apps and use them to change health and lifestyle behavior. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess the efficacy of a Web-based self-guided app recommendation service ("The Toolbox") in improving the well-being of young Australians aged between 16 and 25 years...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500019/assessing-the-comparability-of-paper-and-electronic-versions-of-the-eortc-qol-module-for-head-and-neck-cancer-a-qualitative-study
#17
Josephine Norquist, Diana Chirovsky, Teja Munshi, Chloe Tolley, Charlotte Panter, Adam Gater
BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are important tools for monitoring disease activity and response to treatment in clinical trials and clinical practice. In recent years, there have been movements away from traditional pen-and-paper PROs towards electronic administration. When using electronic PROs (ePROs), evidence that respondents complete ePROs in a similar way to their paper counterparts provides assurance that the two modes of administration are comparable or equivalent...
May 12, 2017: JMIR Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498632/robotic-microlaryngeal-phonosurgery-testing-of-a-steady-hand-microsurgery-platform
#18
Lee M Akst, Kevin C Olds, Marcin Balicki, Preetham Chalasani, Russell H Taylor
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate gains in microlaryngeal precision achieved by using a novel robotic "steady hand" microsurgery platform in performing simulated phonosurgical tasks. STUDY DESIGN: Crossover comparative study of surgical performance and descriptive analysis of surgeon feedback. METHODS: A novel robotic ear, nose, and throat microsurgery system (REMS) was tested in simulated phonosurgery. Participants navigated a 0.4-mm-wide microlaryngeal needle through spirals of varying widths, both with and without robotic assistance...
May 12, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498022/thyroid-hormone-analogs-for-the-treatment-of-dyslipidemia-past-present-and-future
#19
Alessandro P Delitala, Giuseppe Delitala, Paolo Sioni, Giuseppe Fanciulli
OBJECTIVE: Treatment of dyslipidemia is a major burden for public health. Thyroid hormone regulates lipid metabolism by binding the thyroid hormone receptor (TR), but the use of thyroid hormone to treat dyslipidemia is not indicated due to its deleterious effects on heart, bone, and muscle. Thyroid hormone analogs have been conceived to selectively activate TR in the liver, thus reducing potential side effects. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database to review TR and the action of thyromimetics in vitro and in animal models...
May 12, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497476/optimization-of-a-novel-large-field-of-view-distortion-phantom-for-mr-only-treatment-planning
#20
Ryan G Price, Robert A Knight, Ken-Pin Hwang, Ersin Bayram, Siamak P Nejad-Davarani, Carri K Glide-Hurst
PURPOSE: MR-only treatment planning requires images of high geometric fidelity, particularly for large fields of view (FOV). However, the availability of large FOV distortion phantoms with analysis software is currently limited. This work sought to optimize a modular distortion phantom to accommodate multiple bore configurations and implement distortion characterization in a widely implementable solution. METHOD AND MATERIALS: To determine candidate materials, 1...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
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