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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049632/an-engineering-model-to-test-for-sensory-reweighting-in-non-human-primate-posture
#1
Lara A Thompson, Csilla Haburcakova, Adam D Goodworth, Richard F Lewis
Quantitative animal models are critically needed to provide proof-of-concept for the investigation of rehabilitative balance therapies (e.g., invasive vestibular prostheses) and treatment response prior to, or in conjunction with, human clinical trials. This paper describes a novel approach to modeling the non-human primate postural control system. Our observation that rhesus macaques and humans have even remotely similar postural control motivates the further application of the rhesus macaque as a model for studying the effects of vestibular dysfunction, as well as vestibular prosthesis-assisted states, on human postural control...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049540/feasibility-process-and-outcomes-of-cardiovascular-clinical-trial-data-sharing-a-reproduction-analysis-of-the-smart-af-trial
#2
Hawkins C Gay, Abigail S Baldridge, Mark D Huffman
Importance: Data sharing is as an expanding initiative for enhancing trust in the clinical research enterprise. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, process, and outcomes of a reproduction analysis of the THERMOCOOL SMARTTOUCH Catheter for the Treatment of Symptomatic Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (SMART-AF) trial using shared clinical trial data. Design, Setting, and Participants: A reproduction analysis of the SMART-AF trial was performed using the data sets, data dictionary, case report file, and statistical analysis plan from the original trial accessed through the Yale Open Data Access Project using the SAS Clinical Trials Data Transparency platform...
October 18, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049323/one-time-versus-repeated-abutment-connection-for-platform-switched-implant-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Qing-Qing Wang, Ruoxi Dai, Chris Ying Cao, Hui Fang, Min Han, Quan-Li Li
OBJECTIVE: This review aims to compare peri-implant tissue changes in terms of clinical and radiographic aspects of implant restoration protocol using one-time abutment to repeated abutment connection in platform switched implant. METHOD: A structured search strategy was applied to three electronic databases, namely, Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science. Eight eligible studies, including seven randomised controlled studies and one controlled clinical study, were identified in accordance with inclusion/exclusion criteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047309/chimpanzee-adenoviral-vectors-as-vaccines-challenges-to-move-the-technology-into-the-fast-lane
#4
Alessandra Vitelli, Antonella Folgori, Elisa Scarselli, Stefano Colloca, Stefania Capone, Alfredo Nicosia
In recent years, replication-defective chimpanzee-derived adenoviruses have been extensively evaluated as genetic vaccines. These vectors share desirable properties with human adenoviruses like the broad tissue tropism and the ease of large-scale manufacturing. Additionally, chimpanzee adenoviruses have the advantage to overcome the negative impact of pre-existing anti-human adenovirus immunity. Areas covered: Here the authors review current pre-clinical research and clinical trials that utilize chimpanzee-derived adenoviral vectors as vaccines...
October 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046774/role-of-whatsapp-based-discussions-in-improving-residents-knowledge-of-post-operative-pain-management-a-pilot-study
#5
Sumitra G Bakshi, Pranay Bhawalkar
BACKGROUND: To provide a platform for the dissemination of basic knowledge of pain management, a WhatsApp group was created by residents and consultants. Common clinical scenarios, resident queries, and important instructions to be followed by residents with respect to running the Acute Pain Service were discussed in the group. This study evaluates the benefits of this interaction. METHODS: This study was approved by the hospital ethics board and was registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045527/braf-mutant-colorectal-cancer-prognosis-treatment-and-new-perspectives
#6
E Sanz-Garcia, G Argiles, E Elez, J Tabernero
The MAPK cascade plays a crucial role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. Accumulating evidence suggests that mutations in the BRAF oncogene are not only associated with poor prognosis but also linked with less benefit when treated with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Targeting this molecular aberration has thus become a matter of particular interest in mCRC drug development. In contrast to other malignances such as BRAF mutant (mt) melanoma, efficacy observed with BRAF inhibitors in mono-therapy in mCRC is poor...
July 24, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045248/the-evolution-of-donation-after-circulatory-death-donor-kidney-repair-in-the-united-kingdom
#7
Sarah A Hosgood, Michael L Nicholson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increasing reliance on marginal donors has driven research to investigate ways to repair and improve the quality of kidneys for transplantation. Normothermic perfusion technologies provide an opportunity for improved preservation, organ assessment and resuscitation/repair of damaged kidneys. This review describes the evolution of normothermic perfusion in kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom. RECENT FINDINGS: One hour of normothermic perfusion can be used to restore function and improve early graft function of extended criteria donor kidneys...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044482/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-gaucher-disease
#8
REVIEW
Usha R Somaraju, Krishna Tadepalli
BACKGROUND: Gaucher disease is the most common lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Current treatment of the disease involves a choice from enzyme replacement therapy, substrate reduction therapy and hemotopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). HSCT is a high risk procedure with possible long-term benefits in the regression of skeletal and neurological changes in people with Gaucher disease. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review...
October 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043503/pharmacoperones-for-misfolded-gonadotropin-receptors
#9
Claire L Newton, Ross C Anderson
The gonadotropin receptors (luteinising hormone receptor; LHR and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor; FSHR) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that play an important role in the endocrine control of reproduction. Thus genetic mutations that cause impaired function of these receptors have been implicated in a number of reproductive disorders. Disease-causing genetic mutations in GPCRs frequently result in intracellular retention and degradation of the nascent protein through misfolding and subsequent recognition by cellular quality control machinery...
October 18, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040800/ocriplasmin-for-symptomatic-vitreomacular-adhesion
#10
REVIEW
James E Neffendorf, Varo Kirthi, Edward Pringle, Timothy L Jackson
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion (sVMA) is a recognised cause of visual loss and by tradition has been managed by pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). A less invasive alternative to surgery in some people is enzymatic vitreolysis, using an intravitreal injection of ocriplasmin. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of ocriplasmin compared to no treatment, sham or placebo for the treatment of sVMA. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 1), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 24 February 2017), Embase Ovid (1947 to 24 February 2017), PubMed (1946 to 24 February 2017), the ISRCTN registry (www...
October 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039160/influenza-vaccines-for-preventing-acute-otitis-media-in-infants-and-children
#11
REVIEW
Mohd N Norhayati, Jacqueline J Ho, Mohd Y Azman
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children. It has been reported that 64% of infants have an episode of AOM by the age of six months and 86% by one year. Although most cases of AOM are due to bacterial infection, it is commonly triggered by a viral infection. In most children AOM is self limiting, but it does carry a risk of complications. Since antibiotic treatment increases the risk of antibiotic resistance, influenza vaccines might be an effective way of reducing this risk by preventing the development of AOM...
October 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038335/preclinical-and-coclinical-studies-in-prostate-cancer
#12
Ming Chen, Pier Paolo Pandolfi
Men who develop metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) will invariably succumb to their disease. Thus there remains a pressing need for preclinical testing of new drugs and drug combinations for late-stage prostate cancer (PCa). Insights from the mCRPC genomic landscape have revealed that, in addition to sustained androgen receptor (AR) signaling, there are other actionable molecular alterations and distinct molecular subclasses of PCa; however, the rate at which this knowledge translates into patient care via current preclinical testing is painfully slow and inefficient...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037786/changes-in-postural-sway-after-a-single-global-postural-reeducation-session-in-university-students-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Carlos Lozano-Quijada, Emilio J Poveda-Pagán, José V Segura-Heras, Sergio Hernández-Sánchez, María J Prieto-Castelló
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a single session of global postural reeducation (GPR) in postural sway in young adult university students who use data visualization screens. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with 2 parallel groups was performed. Sixty-four subjects were randomized in the experimental group (12 men and 20 women) who underwent the GPR session, and a control group (13 men and 19 women) that did not receive any intervention was included...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037221/high-flow-oxygen-via-nasal-cannulae-in-patients-with-acute-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Murdoch Leeies, Eric Flynn, Alexis F Turgeon, Bojan Paunovic, Hal Loewen, Rasheda Rabbani, Ahmed M Abou-Setta, Niall D Ferguson, Ryan Zarychanski
BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of high-flow oxygen via nasal cannulae (HFNC) compared to non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and/or standard oxygen in patients with acute, hypoxemic respiratory failure. METHODS: We reviewed randomized controlled trials from CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to February 2016), conference proceedings, and relevant article reference lists...
October 16, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037203/the-impact-of-an-innovative-web-based-school-nutrition-intervention-to-increase-fruits-and-vegetables-and-milk-and-alternatives-in-adolescents-a-clustered-randomized-trial
#15
Karine Chamberland, Marina Sanchez, Shirin Panahi, Véronique Provencher, Jocelyn Gagnon, Vicky Drapeau
BACKGROUND: The increase in overweight and obesity in adolescents and its health-related consequences highlight the need to develop strategies, which could help them adopt healthy eating habits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an innovative web-based school nutrition intervention (Team Nutriathlon) aimed at promoting the consumption of vegetables and fruit (V/F) and milk and alternatives (M/A) in high school students and to identify facilitators and/or barriers influencing its success...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036330/adding-experimental-arms-to-platform-clinical-trials-randomization-procedures-and-interim-analyses
#16
Steffen Ventz, Matteo Cellamare, Giovanni Parmigiani, Lorenzo Trippa
Multi-arm clinical trials use a single control arm to evaluate multiple experimental treatments. In most cases this feature makes multi-arm studies considerably more efficient than two-arm studies. A bottleneck for implementation of a multi-arm trial is the requirement that all experimental treatments have to be available at the enrollment of the first patient. New drugs are rarely at the same stage of development. These limitations motivate our study of statistical methods for adding new experimental arms after a clinical trial has started enrolling patients...
July 17, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032574/five-year-outcomes-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial-comparing-bone-level-implants-with-either-submerged-or-transmucosal-healing
#17
Juan Flores, Carmen Álvarez-Novoa, Germán Barbieri, Conchita Martín, Mariano Sanz
AIM: To evaluate the long-term hard and soft tissue peri-implant tissue stability of bone level implants using a different implant placement protocol (submerged vs. transmucosal). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was partly a subset analysis of a multicentre study where in 40 patients a single bone level implant with platform switching and a conical implant-abutment interface was placed either submerged or transmucosal in non-molar sites. Changes in the peri-implant tissues between implant placement and 5 years were assessed clinically and radiologically...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032385/exercise-training-response-heterogeneity-physiological-and-molecular-insights
#18
REVIEW
Lauren M Sparks
The overall beneficial effects of exercise are well studied, but why some people do not respond favourably to exercise is less understood. The National Institutes of Health Common Fund has recently launched the large-scale discovery project 'Molecular Transducers of Physical Activity in Humans' to examine the physiological and molecular (i.e. genetic, epigenetic, lipidomic, metabolomic, proteomic, etc.) responses to exercise training. A nationwide, multicentre clinical trial such as this one also provides a unique opportunity to robustly investigate the non-response to exercise in thousands of individuals that have undergone supervised aerobic- and resistance-based exercise training interventions...
October 14, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031023/whole-body-vibration-combined-with-treadmill-training-improves-walking-performance-in-post-stroke-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Wonjae Choi, Donghun Han, Junesun Kim, Seungwon Lee
BACKGROUND Stroke is characterized by an asymmetrical gait pattern that causes poor stability and reduces overall activity levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of whole-body vibration combined with treadmill training (WBV-TT) on walking performance in patients with chronic stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty ambulatory chronic stroke patients were randomly allocated to the WBV-TT group or the treadmill training (TT) group. The participants in the WBV-TT group performed 6 types of exercises on a vibrating platform for 4...
October 14, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030992/inadequate-safety-reporting-in-pre-eclampsia-trials-a-systematic-evaluation
#20
James M N Duffy, Martin Hirsch, Louise Pealing, Marian Showell, Khalid S Khan, Sue Ziebland, Richard J McManus
BACKGROUND: Randomised trials and their syntheses in meta-analyses offer a unique opportunity to assess the frequency and severity of adverse reactions. OBJECTIVE: To assess safety reporting in pre-eclampsia trials. SEARCH STRATEGY: Systematic search using bibliographic databases, including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, and MEDLINE, from inception to August 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials evaluating anticonvulsant or antihypertensive medication for pre-eclampsia...
October 14, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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