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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667175/first-line-drugs-for-hypertension
#1
REVIEW
James M Wright, Vijaya M Musini, Rupam Gill
BACKGROUND: This is the first update of a review published in 2009. Sustained moderate to severe elevations in resting blood pressure leads to a critically important clinical question: What class of drug to use first-line? This review attempted to answer that question. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the mortality and morbidity effects from different first-line antihypertensive drug classes: thiazides (low-dose and high-dose), beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), and alpha-blockers, compared to placebo or no treatment...
April 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665952/community-engagement-for-paediatric-mdr-tb-clinical-trials-principles-to-support-ethical-trial-implementation
#2
G Hoddinott, S Staples, R Brown, M Simwinga, C Mubekapi-Musadaidzwa, A C Hesseling, G Hendricks, P De Koker, L McKenna
The paediatric tuberculosis (TB) prevention and treatment landscape is moving into a new and exciting era, with knowledge from clinical trials offering real benefit to children. Community engagement is key to optimising the success of these trials. However, the clinical profile, epidemiology and social perceptions for paediatric multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) complicate the operationalisation of this community engagement. We reflect on a diversity of recent experiences attempting to implement this type of research and the community engagement around it...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665830/implementation-of-telemedicine-for-knee-osteoarthritis-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Zhengping Huang, Xia Pan, Weiming Deng, Zhixiang Huang, Yukai Huang, Xuechan Huang, Zhaohua Zhu, Weiyu Han, Shaoling Zheng, Xin Guo, Changhai Ding, Tianwang Li
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent chronic joint disease, characterized by joint structural deterioration, pain and loss of function among the elders. It is also associated with several extra-articular symptoms (fatigue, sleep disorders, anxiety and depression) and a reduction of life quality. Studies have revealed that patients with OA benefitted from enhanced management via telemedicine. Guangdong Online Hospital (GOH) is the first officially recognized web-based hospital that provides telemedicine service in China...
April 17, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665617/transradial-versus-transfemoral-approach-for-diagnostic-coronary-angiography-and-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-people-with-coronary-artery-disease
#4
REVIEW
Ahmed A Kolkailah, Rabah S Alreshq, Ahmed M Muhammed, Mohamed E Zahran, Marwah Anas El-Wegoud, Ashraf F Nabhan
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of mortality worldwide. Coronary artery disease (CAD) contributes to half of mortalities caused by CVD. The mainstay of management of CAD is medical therapy and revascularisation. Revascularisation can be achieved via coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Peripheral arteries, such as the femoral or radial artery, provide the access to the coronary arteries to perform diagnostic or therapeutic (or both) procedures...
April 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665532/operating-optimization-for-the-heavy-metal-removal-from-the-municipal-solid-waste-incineration-fly-ashes-in-the-three-dimensional-electrokinetics
#5
Tao Huang, Longfei Liu, Lulu Zhou, Ke Yang
The three-dimensional (3D) electrode has been widely studied and curiously pushed forward for the treatment of various wastewater. However, the reports on the electro-remediation of municipal solid waste incineration fly ashes using 3D electrochemical platform are scarce. In this research, the removal of heavy metals from the municipal solid waste incineration fly ashes was comprehensively investigated using a 3D electrokinetic system. Central composite design method was used based on the 31 trials and desirability functions in the 3D electrochemical process to evaluate the main effect and their interacted effect of parameter-variables on the remedial efficiencies...
April 13, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664159/reading-aids-for-adults-with-low-vision
#6
REVIEW
Gianni Virgili, Ruthy Acosta, Sharon A Bentley, Giovanni Giacomelli, Claire Allcock, Jennifer R Evans
BACKGROUND: The purpose of low-vision rehabilitation is to allow people to resume or to continue to perform daily living tasks, with reading being one of the most important. This is achieved by providing appropriate optical devices and special training in the use of residual-vision and low-vision aids, which range from simple optical magnifiers to high-magnification video magnifiers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different visual reading aids for adults with low vision...
April 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663383/nanoparticle-based-targeted-cancer-strategies-for-non-invasive-prostate-cancer-intervention
#7
REVIEW
Nicholas H Farina, Areg Zingiryan, Michael A Vrolijk, Scott D Perrapato, Steven Ades, Gary S Stein, Jane B Lian, Christopher C Landry
Prostate cancer is screened by testing circulating levels of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biomarker, monitoring changes over time, or a digital rectal exam. Abnormal results often lead to prostate biopsy. Prostate cancer positive patients are stratified into very low-risk, low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk, based on clinical classification parameters, to assess therapy options. However, there remains a gap in our knowledge and a compelling need for improved risk stratification to inform clinical decisions and reduce both over-diagnosis and over-treatment...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662450/poly-ethylene-glycol-polylactide-micelles-for-cancer-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Jixue Wang, Shengxian Li, Yuping Han, Jingjing Guan, Shirley Chung, Chunxi Wang, Di Li
For the treatment of malignancy, many therapeutic agents, including small molecules, photosensitizers, immunomodulators, proteins and genes, and so forth, have been loaded into nanocarriers for controllable cancer therapy. Among these nanocarriers, polymeric micelles have been considered as one of the most promising nanocarriers, some of which have already been applied in different stages of clinical trials. The successful advantages of polymeric micelles from bench to bedside are due to their special core/shell structures, which can carry specific drugs in certain disease conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661748/virtual-reality-cue-refusal-video-game-for-alcohol-and-cigarette-recovery-support-summative-study
#9
Mary Metcalf, Karen Rossie, Katie Stokes, Christina Tallman, Bradley Tanner
BACKGROUND: New technologies such as virtual reality, augmented reality, and video games hold promise to support and enhance individuals in addiction treatment and recovery. Quitting or decreasing cigarette or alcohol use can lead to significant health improvements for individuals, decreasing heart disease risk and cancer risks (for both nicotine and alcohol use), among others. However, remaining in recovery from use is a significant challenge for most individuals. OBJECTIVE: We developed and assessed the Take Control game, a partially immersive Kinect for Windows platform game that allows users to counter substance cues through active movements (hitting, kicking, etc)...
April 16, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661178/mobile-health-tool-to-improve-maternal-and-neonatal-health-care-in-bangladesh-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Ruoyan Gai Tobe, Syed Emdadul Haque, Kiyoko Ikegami, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, the targets on reduction of maternal mortality and utilization of related obstetric services provided by skilled health personnel in Millennium Development Goals 5 remains unmet, and the progress in reduction of neonatal mortality lag behind that in the reduction of infant and under-five mortalities, remaining as an essential issue towards the achievement of maternal and neonatal health targets in health related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). As access to appropriate perinatal care is crucial to reduce maternal and neonatal deaths, recently several mobile platform-based health programs sponsored by donor countries and Non-Governmental Organizations have targeted to reduce maternal and child mortality...
April 16, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660093/posts-pics-or-polls-which-post-type-generates-the-greatest-engagement-in-a-facebook-physical-activity-intervention
#11
Sarah Edney, Jemma Looyestyn, Jillian Ryan, Jocelyn Kernot, Carol Maher
Social networking websites have attracted considerable attention as a delivery platform for physical activity interventions. Current evidence highlights a need to enhance user engagement with these interventions to actualize their potential. The purpose of this study was to determine which post type generates the most engagement from participants and whether engagement was related to change in physical activity in an intervention delivered via Facebook. Subgroup analysis of the intervention condition of a randomized controlled trial was conducted...
April 5, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659191/optimised-arid1a-immunohistochemistry-is-an-accurate-predictor-of-arid1a-mutational-status-in-gynaecological-cancers
#12
Saira Khalique, Kalnisha Naidoo, Ayoma D Attygalle, Divya Kriplani, Frances Daley, Anne Lowe, James Campbell, Thomas Jones, Michael Hubank, Kerry Fenwick, Nicholas Matthews, Alistair G Rust, Christopher J Lord, Susana Banerjee, Rachael Natrajan
ARID1A is a tumour suppressor gene that is frequently mutated in clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary and endometrium and is an important clinical biomarker for novel treatment approaches for patients with ARID1A defects. However, the accuracy of ARID1A immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a surrogate for mutation status has not fully been established for patient stratification in clinical trials. Here we tested whether ARID1A immunohistochemistry could reliably predict ARID1A mutations identified by next-generation sequencing...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658117/mapping-the-tumour-hla-ligandome-by-mass-spectrometry
#13
REVIEW
Lena Katharina Freudenmann, Ana Marcu, Stefan Stevanović
The entirety of HLA-presented peptides is referred to as the HLA ligandome of a cell or tissue, in tumours often termed immunopeptidome. Mapping the tumour immunopeptidome by mass spectrometry (MS) comprehensively views the pathophysiologically relevant antigenic signature of human malignancies. MS is an unbiased approach stringently filtering the candidates to be tested as opposed to epitope prediction algorithms. In the setting of peptide-specific immunotherapies, MS-based strategies significantly diminish the risk of lacking clinical benefit, as they yield highly enriched amounts of truly presented peptides...
April 15, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656851/first-line-systemic-therapy-for-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Christopher J D Wallis, Zachary Klaassen, Bimal Bhindi, Xiang Y Ye, Thenappan Chandrasekar, Ann M Farrell, Hanan Goldberg, Stephen A Boorjian, Bradley Leibovich, Girish S Kulkarni, Prakesh S Shah, Georg A Bjarnason, Daniel Heng, Raj Satkunasivam, Antonio Finelli
CONTEXT: In the last decade, there has been a proliferation of treatment options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, direct comparative data are lacking for most of these agents. OBJECTIVE: To indirectly compare the efficacy and safety of systemic therapies used in the first-line treatment of mRCC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched using the OvidSP platform for studies indexed from database inception to October 23, 2017...
April 13, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652442/antioxidant-hydrolysed-peptides-from-manchurian-walnut-juglansmandshurica-maxim-attenuate-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-in-mice
#15
Dayong Ren, Fanrui Zhao, Chunlei Liu, Ji Wang, Yong Guo, Jingsheng Liu, Weihong Min
BACKGROUND: Walnut protein, which is obtained as a by-product of oil expression, has not been used efficiently. Although walnuts are beneficial for cognitive functioning, the potential of their protein composition in strengthening learning and memory functions remains unknown. In this research, the inhibition of memory impairment by the Manchurian walnut hydrolyzed peptide (MWHP) was evaluated. RESULTS: Small-molecular-weight MWHP (<3 kDa) achieved the optimal antioxidative activity...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650507/recruitment-of-participants-and-delivery-of-online-mental-health-resources-for-depressed-individuals-using-tumblr-pilot-randomized-control-trial
#16
Erin Kelleher, Megan Moreno, Megan Pumper Wilt
BACKGROUND: Adolescents and young adults frequently post depression symptom references on social media; previous studies show positive associations between depression posts and self-reported depression symptoms. Depression is common among young people and this population often experiences many barriers to mental health care. Thus, social media may be a new resource to identify, recruit, and intervene with young people at risk for depression. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to test a social media intervention on Tumblr...
April 12, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650058/roles-of-instrumented-farm-scale-trials-in-trade-off-assessments-of-pasture-based-ruminant-production-systems
#17
T Takahashi, P Harris, M S A Blackwell, L M Cardenas, A L Collins, J A J Dungait, J M B Hawkins, T H Misselbrook, G A McAuliffe, J N McFadzean, P J Murray, R J Orr, M J Rivero, L Wu, M R F Lee
For livestock production systems to play a positive role in global food security, the balance between their benefits and disbenefits to society must be appropriately managed. Based on the evidence provided by field-scale randomised controlled trials around the world, this debate has traditionally centred on the concept of economic-environmental trade-offs, of which existence is theoretically assured when resource allocation is perfect on the farm. Recent research conducted on commercial farms indicates, however, that the economic-environmental nexus is not nearly as straightforward in the real world, with environmental performances of enterprises often positively correlated with their economic profitability...
April 13, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645348/retzius-sparing-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-using-revo-i-robotic-surgical-system-surgical-technique-and-results-of-the-first-human-trial
#18
Ki Don Chang, Ali Abdel Raheem, Young Deuk Choi, Byung Ha Chung, Koon Ho Rha
PURPOSE: Recently, Revo-i® robotic surgical system has been proved to be safe in the preclinical animal studies. Our aim was to evaluate the safety and proficiency of Revo-i® robotic platform in the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out on 17 male patients with clinically localized PCa from August 17, 2016, to Feb 23, 2017 at our urology department using Revo-i® . Patients underwent Retzius-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RP-RARP)...
April 12, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630138/adhesives-for-fixed-orthodontic-brackets
#19
REVIEW
Nicky A Mandall, Joy Hickman, Tatiana V Macfarlane, Rye Cr Mattick, Declan T Millett, Helen V Worthington
BACKGROUND: Bonding of orthodontic brackets to teeth is important to enable effective and efficient treatment with fixed appliances. The problem is bracket failure during treatment which increases operator chairside time and lengthens treatment time. A prolonged treatment is likely to increase the oral health risks of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances one of which is irreversible enamel decalcification. This is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2003. A new full search was conducted on 26 September 2017 but no new studies were identified...
April 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629996/normothermic-liver-preservation-current-status-and-future-directions
#20
Danielle Detelich, James F Markmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) is an emerging technology for liver preservation. Early clinical results demonstrate beneficial effects in reconditioning high-risk grafts. This review discusses the role of normothermic perfusion as a tool to assess graft viability and as a platform for graft intervention and modification. RECENT FINDINGS: The potential benefits of NMP extend far beyond organ reconditioning. Recent pilot studies have identified clinically relevant viability criteria, which now require validation in large randomized control trials prior to implementation...
April 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
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