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Environmental Philosophy

Theo G M van de Ven, Amir Sheikhi
Nanomaterials have secured such a promising role in today's life that imagining the modern world without them is almost impossible. A large fraction of nanomaterials is synthesized from environmentally-dangerous elements such as heavy metals, which have posed serious side-effects to ecosystems. Despite numerous advantages of synthetic nanomaterials, issues such as renewability, sustainability, biocompatibility, and cost efficiency have drawn significant attention towards natural products such as cellulose-based nanomaterials...
August 18, 2016: Nanoscale
Annamaria Colao, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Prisco Piscitelli
The Hippocratic tradition emphasized environmental causes of diseases and the need for harmony between the individual and the natural environment as the right philosophy to maintain a good health status. Public awareness and scientific attention concerning environmental pollution is usually focused on the consequent increased risk of developing cancer. Air pollution has been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) to cause cardiovascular and respiratroy diseases, as well as lung cancer, after acute/chronic exposure to fine particulates (PM2...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Junko Hatanaka
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to explore the structure of occupational health nurses' support for return-to-work to workers with depression. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 occupational health nurses who support workers returning to work. Data were analyzed using the Modified Grounded Theory Approach. RESULTS: The qualitatively analyzed data was grouped into 9 categories. The support for return-to-work was divided into 3 periods: (1) the first priority for recovery, (2) preparation for return-to-work, and (3) adaptation to work...
July 29, 2016: Sangyō Eiseigaku Zasshi, Journal of Occupational Health
Alexandra S Penn
Understanding and manipulating bacterial biofilms is crucial in medicine, ecology and agriculture and has potential applications in bioproduction, bioremediation and bioenergy. Biofilms often resist standard therapies and the need to develop new means of intervention provides an opportunity to fundamentally rethink our strategies. Conventional approaches to working with biological systems are, for the most part, "brute force", attempting to effect control in an input and effort intensive manner and are often insufficient when dealing with the inherent non-linearity and complexity of living systems...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Karim Bschir
Environmental risk assessment is often affected by severe uncertainty. The frequently invoked precautionary principle helps to guide risk assessment and decision-making in the face of scientific uncertainty. In many contexts, however, uncertainties play a role not only in the application of scientific models but also in their development. Building on recent literature in the philosophy of science, this paper argues that precaution should be exercised at the stage when tools for risk assessment are developed as well as when they are used to inform decision-making...
May 18, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
Keris Myrick, Paolo Del Vecchio
OBJECTIVE: This article examines how the history and philosophy of peer support services has shaped current mental health and substance use service delivery systems. The growth of peer-run and recovery community organizations in the changing health care environment are discussed, including issues related to workforce development, funding, relevant policies, and opportunities for expansion. These initiatives are designed to increase access to recovery-promoting services. METHODS: We conducted an environmental scan and analysis of peer support services within the behavioral health care field in the United States, with particular attention to initiatives of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration...
September 2016: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
(no author information available yet)
For the last six months or so, some of us at The Hastings Center have been participating in a kind of short-term book group. Together we have been thinking about the contribution of moral psychology to bioethics. One of our questions is whether bioethics' understanding of moral values should draw on what moral psychology tells us about moral values. Bioethics tends to look to philosophy for guidance. Can it learn from insights in moral psychology into the biological, environmental, and cultural influences on morality? The question can be taken in many directions...
May 2016: Hastings Center Report
Christian J Killow, Ewan D Fitzsimons, Michael Perreur-Lloyd, David I Robertson, Henry Ward, Johanna Bogenstahl
We describe the optical and mechanical design, construction philosophy, and testing of a pair of matched, spaceflight-qualified fiber couplers. The couplers were developed for the LISA Pathfinder mission but are relevant for other applications-both on ground and in space-where a robust fiber coupler with well-controlled beam parameters and stable beam pointing is required. This particular implementation of the design called for two couplers providing collimated beams with individual waist sizes and positions...
April 1, 2016: Applied Optics
Simone Schleper
This article looks at the International Biological Program (IBP) as the predecessor of UNESCO's well-known and highly successful Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB). It argues that international conservation efforts of the 1970s, such as the MAB, must in fact be understood as a compound of two opposing attempts to reform international conservation in the 1960s. The scientific framework of the MAB has its origins in disputes between high-level conservationists affiliated with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) about what the IBP meant for the future of conservation...
January 28, 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
Ciyun Lin, Bowen Gong, Xin Qu
A traditional traffic signal control system is established based on vehicular delay, queue length, saturation and other indicators. However, due to the increasing severity of urban environmental pollution issues and the development of a resource-saving and environmentally friendly social philosophy, the development of low-carbon and energy-efficient urban transport is required. This paper first defines vehicular trajectories and the calculation of vehicular emissions based on VSP. Next, a regression analysis method is used to quantify the relationship between vehicular emissions and delay, and a traffic signal control model is established to reduce emissions and delay using the enumeration method combined with saturation constraints...
2015: PloS One
Inga Schwabe, Dorret I Boomsma, Eveline L de Zeeuw, Stéphanie M van den Berg
The often-used ACE model which decomposes phenotypic variance into additive genetic (A), common-environmental (C) and unique-environmental (E) parts can be extended to include covariates. Collection of these variables however often leads to a large amount of missing data, for example when self-reports (e.g. questionnaires) are not fully completed. The usual approach to handle missing covariate data in twin research results in reduced power to detect statistical effects, as only phenotypic and covariate data of individual twins with complete data can be used...
July 2016: Behavior Genetics
Eugenie van der Harst, José Potting, Carolien Kroeze
Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of recycling loops, the recycled-content method, and the equal-share method. These six methods were first compared, with an assumed hypothetical 100% recycling rate, for an aluminium can and a disposable polystyrene (PS) cup...
February 2016: Waste Management
Mark Cole
Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) is a major patient safety concern and is associated with morbidity, mortality and increased healthcare costs. Prevention and control requires a multi-modal approach, but the individual's accountability and rigorous application of standard infection prevention and control behaviours is at its core. The third instalment of the epic3 guidance ( Loveday et al, 2014a ) provided the evidence and advanced the importance of hand-hygiene behaviour, the use of non-sterile gloves and environmental cleanliness...
September 24, 2015: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Ya S Tsimmerman, A S Dimov
Social aspects of the concept of disease are considered in the context offurther development of philosophical tenets of V.Kh. Vasilenko. Biological aspects were discussed in earlier publications (see <Clinical Medicine> No 3, 4, 2014). The essence of human being is a socio-biological unity; the same is true of the human life and diseases viewed as biopsycho-socialphenomena. It is proposed to regard them as a result of incompatibility of two self-organizing systems, general (the environment or noosphere) and its part (an individuum)...
2015: Klinicheskaia Meditsina
Bo Eriksson
The Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was jointly founded in 1953 by the Nordic countries. Until 1979, the school provided ad hoc courses on public health topics, using external teachers drawn mainly from the Nordic countries. At the time, the permanent staff of the school was small. In 1979, it began a Master's degree programme and a few academic positions were established and filled, to support these courses. The programme included four main areas: Epidemiology, Social Medicine, Environmental Health and Health Services Administration...
August 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
F Pringuey-Criou
Since ancient times the relationship between mankind and plants occupies medicine and philosophy. From the first tablets of herbal medicine to Asclepius gardens, those of cloisters and bimaristans to cosmological gardens in Asia, from the largest public park to asylum institutions of the nineteenth century, the garden is proposed as a place of care, a promoter of restoration of the human being. If the advent of technology and drugs have for a time relegated it to the level of empirical care, results in neuroscience ultimately provide it on a scientific basis...
October 2015: L'Encéphale
Carole W Dennis, Julie A Dorsey, Lynn Gitlow
BACKGROUND: The ability of the earth to sustain health among humans and in the natural world is under threat from overpopulation, environmental degradation, and climate change. These global threats are anticipated to harm health and human occupation in many direct and indirect ways. Strategies are needed to mitigate the effects of these threats and to build individual and community capacities to foster resilience. PURPOSE: This paper links issues of sustainability with occupational therapy philosophy and discusses how employing a sustainability lens with professional reasoning can help practitioners integrate sustainability into their practice...
June 2015: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Revue Canadienne D'ergothérapie
Markus Wettstein, Oliver K Schilling, Ortrun Reidick, Hans-Werner Wahl
We examined stability, change, and dedifferentiation of well-being in 124 participants with a baseline age between 87 and 97 years (M = 90.56, SD = 2.92) across 7 measurement occasions over 4 years. Measures of hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (autonomy, purpose in life, self-acceptance, environmental mastery), as well as indicators of mental distress (depressive symptoms, attitudes toward death and dying, disease phobia) were included. Average levels indicated high well-being at all measurement occasions in the majority of indicators analyzed...
September 2015: Psychology and Aging
M Sohrabi
A 'Universal Radiation Protection System' (URPS) is proposed in this paper with a novel philosophy, concept and methodology. It applies a 'Standardised Integrated Dose System' (SIDS) based on health risk limits for workers and public, no matter where they live in the world. The URPS assigns equal radiation health risk limit to an individual by integrating doses from national natural background (NBG) radiation and from man-made sources. For public, the SIDS integrates doses from planned exposure situations within a dose limit (e...
June 2015: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Andrea Romano, Vittorio Capozzi, Giuseppe Spano, Franco Biasioli
Analytical tools for the identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by microbial cultures have countless applications in an industrial and research context which are still not fully exploited. The various techniques for VOC analysis generally arise from the application of different scientific and technological philosophies, favoring either sample throughput or chemical information. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) represents a valid compromise between the two aforementioned approaches, providing rapid and direct measurements along with highly informative analytical output...
May 2015: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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