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Environmental Philosophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431090/current-status-of-the-blue-butterfly-in-fukushima-research
#1
Joji M Otaki, Wataru Taira
Adverse biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident have been revealed using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, since 2012, which were often considered incompatible with the conventional understanding of radiation biology. This discrepancy likely originates from different system conditions and methodologies. In this article, we first respond to comments from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) regarding our study; "technical errors" in unit usage and mathematical models noted by UNSCEAR are not errors but reflect our research philosophy not to introduce theoretical assumptions associated with unit conversion and mathematical fit...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379371/challenges-to-evidence-based-health-promotion-a-case-study-of-a-food-security-coalition-in-ontario-canada
#2
Samantha B Meyer, Sara S Edge, Jocelyn Beatty, Scott Leatherdale, Chris Perlman, Jennifer Dean, Paul R Ward, Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Developing the evidence base for health promotion can be challenging because interventions often have to target competing determinants of health, including social, structural, environmental and political determinants; all of which are difficult to measure and thus evaluate. Drawing on a case study of food insecurity, which refers to inadequate access to food due to financial constraints, we illustrate the challenges faced by community-based organizations in collecting data to form an evidence base for the development and evaluation of collective programmes aimed at addressing food insecurity...
March 30, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152627/on-the-psychometric-study-of-human-life-history-strategies
#3
REVIEW
George B Richardson, Blair K Sanning, Mark H C Lai, Lee T Copping, Patrick H Hardesty, Daniel J Kruger
This article attends to recent discussions of validity in psychometric research on human life history strategy (LHS), provides a constructive critique of the extant literature, and describes strategies for improving construct validity. To place the psychometric study of human LHS on more solid ground, our review indicates that researchers should (a) use approaches to psychometric modeling that are consistent with their philosophies of measurement, (b) confirm the dimensionality of life history indicators, and (c) establish measurement invariance for at least a subset of indicators...
January 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092709/the-centrality-of-philosophical-anthropology-to-a-future-environmental-ethics
#4
Arran Gare
While environmental ethics has successfully established itself in philosophy, as presently conceived it is still largely irrelevant to grappling the global ecological crisis because, as Alasdair MacIntyre has argued, ethical philosophy itself is in grave disorder. MacIntyre's historically oriented recovery of virtue ethics is defended, but it is argued that even MacIntyre was too constrained by received assumptions to overcome this disorder. As he himself realized, his ideas need to be integrated and defended through philosophical anthropology...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005974/bibliometrics-for-social-validation
#5
Daniel J Hicks
This paper introduces a bibliometric, citation network-based method for assessing the social validation of novel research, and applies this method to the development of high-throughput toxicology research at the US Environmental Protection Agency. Social validation refers to the acceptance of novel research methods by a relevant scientific community; it is formally independent of the technical validation of methods, and is frequently studied in history, philosophy, and social studies of science using qualitative methods...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896607/obsolete-laws-economic-and-moral-aspects-case-study-composting-standards
#6
Marek Vochozka, Anna Maroušková, Petr Šuleř
From the early days of philosophy, ethics and justice, there is wide consensus that the constancy of the laws establishes the legal system. On the other hand, the rate at which we accumulate knowledge is gaining speed like never before. Due to the recently increased attention of academics to climate change and other environmental issues, a lot of new knowledge has been obtained about carbon management, its role in nature and mechanisms regarding the formation and degradation of organic matter. A multidisciplinary techno-economic assessment of current composting standards and laws that took into account the current state of knowledge about carbon management was carried out as a case study...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453347/hairy-cellulose-nanocrystalloids-a-novel-class-of-nanocellulose
#7
Theo G M van de Ven, Amir Sheikhi
Nanomaterials have secured such a promising role in today's life that imagining the modern world without them is almost impossible. A large fraction of nanomaterials is synthesized from environmentally-dangerous elements such as heavy metals, which have posed serious side-effects to ecosystems. Despite numerous advantages of synthetic nanomaterials, issues such as renewability, sustainability, biocompatibility, and cost efficiency have drawn significant attention towards natural products such as cellulose-based nanomaterials...
August 18, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447654/environment-and-health-not-only-cancer
#8
EDITORIAL
Annamaria Colao, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Prisco Piscitelli
The Hippocratic tradition emphasized environmental causes of diseases and the need for harmony between the individual and the natural environment as the right philosophy to maintain a good health status. Public awareness and scientific attention concerning environmental pollution is usually focused on the consequent increased risk of developing cancer. Air pollution has been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) to cause cardiovascular and respiratroy diseases, as well as lung cancer, after acute/chronic exposure to fine particulates (PM2...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27321091/the-structure-of-occupational-health-nurses-support-for-return-to-work-to-workers-with-depression
#9
Junko Hatanaka
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to explore the structure of occupational health nurses' support for return-to-work to workers with depression. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 occupational health nurses who support workers returning to work. Data were analyzed using the Modified Grounded Theory Approach. RESULTS: The qualitatively analyzed data was grouped into 9 categories. The support for return-to-work was divided into 3 periods: (1) the first priority for recovery, (2) preparation for return-to-work, and (3) adaptation to work...
July 29, 2016: Sangyō Eiseigaku Zasshi, Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193553/novel-approaches-to-manipulating-bacterial-pathogen-biofilms-whole-systems-design-philosophy-and-steering-microbial-evolution
#10
REVIEW
Alexandra S Penn
Understanding and manipulating bacterial biofilms is crucial in medicine, ecology and agriculture and has potential applications in bioproduction, bioremediation and bioenergy. Biofilms often resist standard therapies and the need to develop new means of intervention provides an opportunity to fundamentally rethink our strategies. Conventional approaches to working with biological systems are, for the most part, "brute force", attempting to effect control in an input and effort intensive manner and are often insufficient when dealing with the inherent non-linearity and complexity of living systems...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192993/risk-uncertainty-and-precaution-in-science-the-threshold-of-the-toxicological-concern-approach-in-food-toxicology
#11
Karim Bschir
Environmental risk assessment is often affected by severe uncertainty. The frequently invoked precautionary principle helps to guide risk assessment and decision-making in the face of scientific uncertainty. In many contexts, however, uncertainties play a role not only in the application of scientific models but also in their development. Building on recent literature in the philosophy of science, this paper argues that precaution should be exercised at the stage when tools for risk assessment are developed as well as when they are used to inform decision-making...
April 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27183186/peer-support-services-in-the-behavioral-healthcare-workforce-state-of-the-field
#12
Keris Myrick, Paolo Del Vecchio
OBJECTIVE: This article examines how the history and philosophy of peer support services has shaped current mental health and substance use service delivery systems. The growth of peer-run and recovery community organizations in the changing health care environment are discussed, including issues related to workforce development, funding, relevant policies, and opportunities for expansion. These initiatives are designed to increase access to recovery-promoting services. METHODS: We conducted an environmental scan and analysis of peer support services within the behavioral health care field in the United States, with particular attention to initiatives of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration...
September 2016: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150424/field-notes
#13
(no author information available yet)
For the last six months or so, some of us at The Hastings Center have been participating in a kind of short-term book group. Together we have been thinking about the contribution of moral psychology to bioethics. One of our questions is whether bioethics' understanding of moral values should draw on what moral psychology tells us about moral values. Bioethics tends to look to philosophy for guidance. Can it learn from insights in moral psychology into the biological, environmental, and cultural influences on morality? The question can be taken in many directions...
May 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139678/optical-fiber-couplers-for-precision-spaceborne-metrology
#14
Christian J Killow, Ewan D Fitzsimons, Michael Perreur-Lloyd, David I Robertson, Henry Ward, Johanna Bogenstahl
We describe the optical and mechanical design, construction philosophy, and testing of a pair of matched, spaceflight-qualified fiber couplers. The couplers were developed for the LISA Pathfinder mission but are relevant for other applications-both on ground and in space-where a robust fiber coupler with well-controlled beam parameters and stable beam pointing is required. This particular implementation of the design called for two couplers providing collimated beams with individual waist sizes and positions...
April 1, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26820266/conservation-compromises-the-mab-and-the-legacy-of-the-international-biological-program-1964-1974
#15
Simone Schleper
This article looks at the International Biological Program (IBP) as the predecessor of UNESCO's well-known and highly successful Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB). It argues that international conservation efforts of the 1970s, such as the MAB, must in fact be understood as a compound of two opposing attempts to reform international conservation in the 1960s. The scientific framework of the MAB has its origins in disputes between high-level conservationists affiliated with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) about what the IBP meant for the future of conservation...
February 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26720095/low-emissions-and-delay-optimization-for-an-isolated-signalized-intersection-based-on-vehicular-trajectories
#16
Ciyun Lin, Bowen Gong, Xin Qu
A traditional traffic signal control system is established based on vehicular delay, queue length, saturation and other indicators. However, due to the increasing severity of urban environmental pollution issues and the development of a resource-saving and environmentally friendly social philosophy, the development of low-carbon and energy-efficient urban transport is required. This paper first defines vehicular trajectories and the calculation of vehicular emissions based on VSP. Next, a regression analysis method is used to quantify the relationship between vehicular emissions and delay, and a traffic signal control model is established to reduce emissions and delay using the enumeration method combined with saturation constraints...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26687147/a-new-approach-to-handle-missing-covariate-data-in-twin-research-with-an-application-to-educational-achievement-data
#17
Inga Schwabe, Dorret I Boomsma, Eveline L de Zeeuw, Stéphanie M van den Berg
The often-used ACE model which decomposes phenotypic variance into additive genetic (A), common-environmental (C) and unique-environmental (E) parts can be extended to include covariates. Collection of these variables however often leads to a large amount of missing data, for example when self-reports (e.g. questionnaires) are not fully completed. The usual approach to handle missing covariate data in twin research results in reduced power to detect statistical effects, as only phenotypic and covariate data of individual twins with complete data can be used...
July 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26440926/comparison-of-different-methods-to-include-recycling-in-lcas-of-aluminium-cans-and-disposable-polystyrene-cups
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Eugenie van der Harst, José Potting, Carolien Kroeze
Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of recycling loops, the recycled-content method, and the equal-share method. These six methods were first compared, with an assumed hypothetical 100% recycling rate, for an aluminium can and a disposable polystyrene (PS) cup...
February 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26419710/the-application-of-epic3-guidelines-the-complexity-of-practice
#19
Mark Cole
Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) is a major patient safety concern and is associated with morbidity, mortality and increased healthcare costs. Prevention and control requires a multi-modal approach, but the individual's accountability and rigorous application of standard infection prevention and control behaviours is at its core. The third instalment of the epic3 guidance ( Loveday et al, 2014a ) provided the evidence and advanced the importance of hand-hygiene behaviour, the use of non-sterile gloves and environmental cleanliness...
September 24, 2015: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26410956/-on-the-understanding-and-development-of-v-kh-vasilenko-s-philosophical-legacy-on-the-socio-biological-essence-of-the-disease
#20
REVIEW
Ya S Tsimmerman, A S Dimov
Social aspects of the concept of disease are considered in the context offurther development of philosophical tenets of V.Kh. Vasilenko. Biological aspects were discussed in earlier publications (see <Clinical Medicine> No 3, 4, 2014). The essence of human being is a socio-biological unity; the same is true of the human life and diseases viewed as biopsycho-socialphenomena. It is proposed to regard them as a result of incompatibility of two self-organizing systems, general (the environment or noosphere) and its part (an individuum)...
2015: Klinicheskaia Meditsina
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