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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906789/new-and-noteworthy-in-tuberculosis-diagnostics-and-treatment
#1
Susan Swindells
People with HIV infection with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) are at a 10-fold greater risk of developing active disease. Interferon gamma release assays and tuberculin skin testing have approximately 65% to 70% specificity for diagnosing LTBI in HIV-infected patients. LTBI can be successfully treated with isoniazid preventive therapy and early antiretroviral therapy (ART). Rapid molecular diagnostics have approximately 88% sensitivity and 98% specificity for identifying active TB. ART should be started early in patients with TB...
June 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906597/saliva-as-a-diagnostic-specimen-for-testing-respiratory-virus-by-a-point-of-care-molecular-assay-a-diagnostic-validity-study
#2
Kelvin Kw To, Cyril Cy Yip, Cherie Yw Lai, Carlos Kh Wong, Deborah Ty Ho, Polly Kp Pang, Anthony Ck Ng, Kit-Hang Leung, Rosana Ws Poon, Kwok-Hung Chan, Vincent Cc Cheng, Ivan Fn Hung, Kwok-Yung Yuen
OBJECTIVES: Automated point-of-care molecular assays have greatly shortened the turnaround time of respiratory virus testing. One of the major bottlenecks now lies at the step of the specimen collection especially in a busy clinical setting. Saliva is a convenient specimen type which can be provided easily from adult patients. This study assessed the diagnostic validity, specimen collection time, and cost associated with the use of saliva. METHODS: This was a prospective diagnostic validity study comparing the detection rate of respiratory viruses between saliva and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) among adult hospitalized patients using Xpert® Xpress Flu/RSV...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906594/diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-prototype-rapid-chlamydia-and-gonorrhoea-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assay-a-multi-centre-cross-sectional-pre-clinical-evaluation
#3
Emma M Harding-Esch, Sebastian S Fuller, S-L Christine Chow, Achyuta V Nori, Mark A Harrison, Mathew Parker, Olaf Piepenburg, Matthew S Forrest, David G Brooks, Rajul Patel, Phillip Hay, Nicola Fearnley, Marcus J Pond, J Kevin Dunbar, Philip D Butcher, Timothy Planche, Catherine M Lowndes, S Tariq Sadiq
OBJECTIVES: Rapid and accurate sexually transmitted infection diagnosis can reduce onward transmission and improve treatment efficacy. We evaluated the accuracy of a 15-minute run-time recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA)-based prototype point-of-care test (TwistDx) for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). METHODS: Prospective, multi-centre study of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients attending three English sexual health clinics. Research samples provided were: additional self-collected vulvo-vaginal swab (SCVS) (females); first-catch urine (FCU) aliquot (females and males)...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906593/evaluation-of-self-collected-vaginal-specimens-for-the-detection-of-high-risk-hpv-infection-and-the-prediction-of-high-grade-cervical-intraepithelial-lesions-in-a-high-burden-low-resource-setting
#4
P J Toliman, J M Kaldor, S G Badman, S Phillips, G Tan, J M L Brotherton, M Saville, A J Vallely, S N Tabrizi
OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance of self-collected vaginal (V) specimens with clinician-collected cervical (C) specimens for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and cervical disease using the Cepheid Xpert HPV, Roche Cobas 4800 HPV, and Hologic Aptima HPV assays. METHODS: Women aged 30-59 years (N=1005) were recruited at two clinics in Papua New Guinea, and provided specimens for testing at point-of-care using the Xpert HPV Test, and for subsequent testing using the Cobas HPV (n=981) and Aptima HPV (n=983) assays...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906455/randomized-clinical-trial-of-a-mucoadhesive-formulation-containing-curcuminoids-zingiberaceae-and-bidens-pilosa-linn-asteraceae-extract-fitoprot-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-oral-mucositis-phase-i-study
#5
Edvande Xavier Dos Santos Filho, Diego Antonio Costa Arantes, Angélica Ferreira Oton Leite, Aline Carvalho Batista, Elismauro Francisco de Mendonça, Ricardo Neves Marreto, Letícia Nasser Naves, Eliana Martins Lima, Marize Campos Valadares
Preclinical repeated-dose toxicity and efficiency studies developed by our group suggest the potential of FITOPROT in treating mucositis. This serious limiting side effect is observed at a rate of 40-100% in patients under antineoplastic therapy and despite different palliative measures and therapeutic agents have been investigated, still no therapy was completely successful. Therefore, this study aimed to establish the safety and recommended phase II dose of FITOPROT for the prevention and treatment of chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis (OM) in patients with head and neck cancer...
June 12, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906406/the-malignancy-index-in-plasma-samples-as-a-prostate-cancer-biomarker
#6
Antonio M Serafin, Angela Chinhengo, Pedro Fernandez, John M Akudugu
No unambiguous role of the involvement of uroplasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) in prostate cancer has emerged, with current evidence suggesting that neither biomarker is likely of significant clinical value, save as an overall contributor. In this study, we attempt to discriminate prostate cancer from non-cancer in a cohort of plasma samples, using the Imubind ELISA assay. In this cohort, PAI-1 levels are higher in prostate cancer patients than healthy donors; uPA levels are higher in healthy donors than prostate cancer patients; and the uPA/PAI-1 ratio is higher in healthy donors than in prostate cancer patients...
May 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906391/enhanced-rotator-cuff-repair-using-platelet-rich-plasma-adsorbed-on-branched-poly-ester-urea-s
#7
Erin P Childers, Nathan Z Dreger, Alex B Ellenberger, Mary Beth Wandel, Karen Domino, Yanyi Xu, Derek Luong, Jiayi Yu, David Orsini, Robert H Bell, Christopher Premanandan, Stephen D Fening, Matthew L Becker
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a clinically relevant source of growth factors used commonly by surgeons. The clinical efficacy of PRP use as reported in the literature is widely variable which is likely attributed to poorly defined retention time of PRP at the repair site. To overcome this limitation, branched poly(ester urea) (PEU) nanofibers were used to adsorb and retain PRP at the implant site in an acute rotator-cuff tear model in rats. The adsorption of PRP to branched-PEU was characterized using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and immuno-protein assay...
June 15, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906029/gene%C3%A2-s-expression-profile-for-breast-cancer-clinical-and-therapeutic-approach
#8
Víctor Manuel Vargas-Aguilar, Karina Arroyo-Alvarez
The genes assay provides a clearer picture of individual tumor biology, hormonal- receptor and proliferation. Triple negative breast cancer have high proliferation index and no prognostic with this test. The first generation of gene assay (OncotypeDX, MammaPrint) predice recurrence at 5 years. The next generation (Prosigna, Endopredict) have better prognosis value for recurrence and predictive of early relapse. There are no useful genetic tests for tumors hormonal- negative with pronostic and predictive value...
March 2018: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905845/a-lc-ms-ms-assay-for-simultaneous-determination-of-two-glycopeptides-and-two-small-molecule-compounds-in-human-plasma
#9
Meiyun Shi, Xiaojun Zhao, Tingting Wang, Lei Yin, Yanyan Li
In this study, a novel and high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS-MS) assay was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of two glycopeptides (vancomycin, teicoplanin) and two small molecule compounds (meropenem, voriconazole) in human plasma. Only 50 μL of human plasma is used to quantify these four drugs simultaneously at clinical concentration levels. After a relative simple protein precipitation, the supernatant was then diluted with mobile phase acetonitrile: 0...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905769/serologic-follow-up-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-cases-and-contacts-abu-dhabi-united-arab-emirates
#10
Farida Ismail Al Hosani, Lindsay Kim, Ahmed Khudhair, Huong Pham, Mariam Al Mulla, Zyad Al Bandar, Krishna Pradeep, Kheir Abou Elkheir, Stefan Weber, Mary Khoury, George Donnelly, Naima Younis, Feda El Saleh, Muna Abdalla, Hala Imambaccus, Lia M Haynes, Natalie J Thornburg, Jennifer L Harcourt, Congrong Miao, Azaibi Tamin, Aron J Hall, Elizabeth S Russell, Aaron M Harris, Craig Kiebler, Roger A Mir, Kimberly Pringle, Negar N Alami, Glen R Abedi, Susan I Gerber
Background: Although there is evidence of person-to-person transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in household and healthcare settings, more data are needed to describe and better understand the risk factors and transmission routes in both settings, as well as the extent that disease severity affects transmission. Methods: A sero-epidemiological investigation was conducted among Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) case-patients and their household contacts to investigate transmission risk in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905754/a-novel-signal-on-photoelectrochemical-sensor-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-alkaline-phosphatase-activity-based-on-a-tio-2-g-c-3-n-4-heterojunction
#11
Feng Xia Wang, Cui Ye, Shi Mo, Liu Li Liao, Xiao Fang Zhang, Yu Ling, Lu Lu, Hong Qun Luo, Nian Bing Li
The use of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as a biomarker in some diseases including hepatitis, obstructive jaundice, osteoblastic bone cancer, and osteomalacia is important in clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, ALP activity detection is an essential hot topic in environmental monitoring, biomedical research, and other research fields. In this study, a novel "signal-on" photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor based on the ALP-catalyzed phosphorylation reaction was designed to sensitively detect ALP activity...
June 15, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905629/local-vancomycin-effectively-reduces-surgical-site-infection-at-implant-site-in-rodents
#12
Jeffrey S Kroin, Jinyuan Li, Sasha Shafikhani, Kajal H Gupta, Mario Moric, Asokumar Buvanendran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infected implantable devices represent a clinical challenge, because the customary option is to surgically remove the device, and that is associated with substantial cost and morbidity to the patient, along with patient dissatisfaction with the physician. Although prophylactic systemic antibiotics and sterile technique are the mainstay of prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) after implant, the incidence of SSI remains relatively high. Although some surgeons add local antibiotic at implant site during surgery, there is no scientific research to demonstrate if there is a benefit...
June 13, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905559/-clinical-and-immunological-criteria-for-the-adverse-course-of-infectious-mononucleosis-in-children
#13
Ya Kolesnik, T Zharkova, O Rzhevskaya, T Kvaratskheliya, O Sorokina
The article presents the results of our own studies to determine the criteria for the adverse variants of the course of infectious mononucleosis (IM) in children. The study was conducted in the regional children's infectious clinical hospital in Kharkov. 161 children aged three to fifteen years were under observation with diagnosis of infectious moninucleosis. Out of 161 ill children, 140 (86.9%) had moderate severity of disease, and 21 (13.1%) had severe forms. All children were prescribed standard clinical and laboratory-instrumental examinations...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905547/calcium-hydroxylapatite-microspheres-biocompatibility-and-clinical-effects
#14
U Wollina, C Wiegand, U-C Hipler
Soft tissue fillers are used in aesthetic medicine for volumizing and for contouring. Calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) is a fully biodegradable biostimulatory filler. The study presents results of in vitro biocompatibility and cytotoxicity investigations performed on CaHA and illustrates its clinical effects. We used a human cell culture model for in vitro studies with HaCaT keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts, known to be a sensitive cell type for biocompatibility and cytotoxicity. Cells were exposed to different concentrations of CaHA (Radiesse®)...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905462/the-human-biomolecular-corona-of-liposomal-doxorubicin-the-overlooked-factor-in-anticancer-drug-delivery
#15
Giulio Caracciolo, Sara Palchetti, Luca Digiacomo, Riccardo Zenezini Chiozzi, Anna Laura Capriotti, Heinz Amenitsch, Paolo Maria Tentori, Valentina Palmieri, Massimiliano Papi, Francesco Cardarelli, Daniela Pozzi, Aldo Laganà
More than twenty years after its approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) liposomal doxorubicin (DOX) is still the drug of choice for the treatment of breast cancer and other conditions such as ovarian cancer and multiple myeloma. Yet, despite the efforts, liposomal DOX did not satisfy expectations at the clinical level. When liposomal drugs enter a physiological environment, their surface gets coated by a dynamic biomolecular corona (BC). The BC changes liposome's synthetic identity, providing it with a new one, referred to as 'biological identity' (size, aggregation state, and BC composition)...
June 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905434/the-role-of-steroid-metabolome-analysis-for-the-diagnosis-and-follow-up-of-adrenocortical-tumours
#16
Vasileios Chortis
The diagnostic work up of adrenal tumours, often incidentally discovered, has emerged as an ever-increasing diagnostic problem for clinical endocrinologists. No imaging modality has sufficiently high sensitivity and specificity at differentiating benign from malignant adrenal lesions. It has long been observed that adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) present an immature pattern of steroidogenesis, dominated by steroid hormone precursors. Modern mass spectrometry-based assays can generate multi-steroid metabolite profiles in urine collections, which can detect differences between ACCs and benign adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs)...
June 14, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905068/affinity-binding-induced-hg2-releasing-and-quantum-dot-doping-for-general-label-free-and-homogenous-fluorescence-protein-assay
#17
Yishen Tian, Chen Xin, Shuang Liu, Ying Liu, Shufeng Liu
Herein, a general protein conversion and analysis strategy was well developed for homogenous, label-free, and sensitive protein detection, which was on the basis of the affinity binding-induced Hg2+ releasing for protein conversion, and the succeeding Hg2+ doping-induced ZnSe quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence for signal readout. Two DNA motifs were designed, and each of which was conjugated with a protein-specific recognition ligand. The mercury ions were initially introduced into one DNA motif by T-Hg2+-T interaction...
June 15, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905034/interferon-epsilon-in-the-reproductive-tract-of-healthy-and-genital-herpes-simplex-virus-infected-pregnant-women-results-of-a-pilot-study
#18
Colette Nickodem, Michael F Criscitiello, Fuller Bazer, Olayinka Abiodun-Ojo, Brandie D Taylor
PROBLEM: Recently characterized interferon epsilon (IFNe) protects against sexually transmitted infections, including genital herpes simplex virus (HSV), in animal models. There are no reports of IFNe in genital tract secretions of pregnant women, and data on IFNe in non-pregnant women are limited. This pilot study is the first to measure concentrations of IFNe in vaginal and cervical secretions during pregnancy and compare values between healthy and genital HSV-infected women. METHOD OF STUDY: Vaginal or cervical specimens from 30 pregnant women were obtained from the Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth (GAPPS) repository...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904939/the-lncrna-tp73-as1-promotes-ovarian-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-metastasis-via-modulation-of-mmp2-and-mmp9
#19
Xiaoqian Wang, Bing Yang, Yuanping She, Yuan Ye
Ovarian cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignancy with poor prognosis. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as key regulators in cancer development. The current study investigated the role of lncRNA P73 antisense RNA 1T (TP73-AS1) in ovarian cancer. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction determined the expression levels of TP-73AS1, matrix metallopeptidases (MMPs) messenger RNA. Cell proliferative ability, cell invasion, and migration were CCK-8 and colony formation, and transwell invasion and migration assays, respectively...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904644/neopterin-is-associated-with-hippocampal-subfield-volumes-and-cognition-in-hiv
#20
Debra A Fleischman, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Sue Leurgans, Sheila M Keating, Melissa Lamar, David A Bennett, Oluwatoyin M Adeyemi, Lisa L Barnes
Objective: HIV infection sets off an immediate immune response and inflammatory cascade that can lead to neuronal injury and cognitive impairment, but the relationship between immune markers, regional brain volumes, and cognition remains understudied in HIV-infected adults. Methods: Cross-sectional associations were examined between serum immune markers of activation (neopterin) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and C-reactive protein) with regional brain volumes (cortical, subcortical, total gray matter, hippocampus, and subfields) and cognition in 66 HIV-infected, virally suppressed, adults who underwent 3...
July 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
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