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Beta cells AND Genistein

Hua Li, Jeong-Hyun Yoon, Hyo-Jun Won, Hyeon-Seon Ji, Heong Joo Yuk, Ki Hun Park, Ho-Yong Park, Tae-Sook Jeong
Soybeans, produced by Glycine max (L.) Merr., contain high levels of isoflavones, such as genistein and daidzein. However, soy leaves contain more diverse and abundant flavonol glycosides and coumestans, as compared to the soybean. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the major coumestans present in soy leaf (coumestrol, isotrifoliol, and phaseol) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Coumestans significantly reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; isotrifoliol had the most potent anti-inflammatory activity...
April 2017: International Immunopharmacology
Monica Currò, Chiara Gangemi, Maria Laura Giunta, Nadia Ferlazzo, Michele Navarra, Riccardo Ientile, Daniela Caccamo
Deposition of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides has been shown to induce the release of inflammatory factors by activated microglia and brain infiltrating monocytes/macrophages. Interestingly, the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has been shown to play a key role in neuroinflammation and regulation of transcription factors involved in immunomodulation. In this study, we aimed to better elucidate the mechanisms underlying TG2 involvement in the pro-inflammatory signaling pathway activated by fibrillar Aβ1-42 in THP-1 monocytes...
March 2017: Amino Acids
Yoon-Jin Park, Je Won Ko, Sookyoung Jeon, Young Hye Kwon
Altered cholesterol metabolism is believed to play a causal role in major pathophysiological changes in neurodegeneration. Several studies have demonstrated that the absence of apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a predominant apolipoprotein in the brain, leads to an increased susceptibility to neurodegeneration. Previously, we observed that genistein, a soy isoflavone, significantly alleviated apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of dietary genistein supplementation (0...
October 31, 2016: Nutrients
Kasi Pandima Devi, Balakrishnan Shanmuganathan, Azadeh Manayi, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating brain disorder characterized by an increased level of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide deposition and neuronal cell death leading to an impairment of learning and thinking skills. The Aβ deposition is a key factor in senile plaques of the AD brain which cause the elevation of intracellular calcium ions and the production of formidable free radicals, both of which greatly contribute to the AD-associated cascade, leading to unstoppable neuronal loss in the hippocampal region of the brain...
November 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Geum-A Lee, Kyung-A Hwang, Kyung-Chul Choi
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in tumor progression. The cells undergoing EMT upregulate the expression of cell motility-related proteins and show enhanced migration and invasion. The hallmarks of EMT in cancer cells include changed cell morphology and increased metastatic capabilities in cell migration and invasion. Therefore, prevention of EMT is an important tool for the inhibition of tumor metastasis. A novel preventive therapy is needed, such as treatment of natural dietary substances that are nontoxic to normal human cells, but effective in inhibiting cancer cells...
May 24, 2016: Toxins
T A Fedotcheva, K E Shirokih, A I Matyushin, V M Rzheznikov, V Y Kovtun, N L Shimanovskii
In this paper we study the effect of synthetic isoflavonoid genistein against cancer HeLa cells, which contain estrogen receptors alpha but not beta, with the aim to determine the cytotoxic or cytoprotective effect of genistein. It is shown that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of genistein (0.2 mM) for the growth inhibition of HeLa cells is at least ten times higher than that one of tamoxifen and cisplatin--drugs, used in cervical cancer treatment. In micromolar concentrations (0.1-10 μM) genistein decreased the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin and tamoxifen...
November 2015: Biofizika
Gargi Chatterjee, Debashree Roy, Vineet Kumar Khemka, Mrittika Chattopadhyay, Sasanka Chakrabarti
The isoflavone, genistein, present in soybean is being actively investigated for its potential beneficial effect against Alzheimer's disease. Our data, however, show that in SHSY5Y cells genistein causes increased expression (mRNA and protein) of amyloid precursor protein (APP), increased mRNA expression and activity of β-secretase and diminished level of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) which also degrades amyloid beta peptide. These effects of genistein lead to enhanced accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ42) in SHSY5Y cells...
November 2015: Aging and Disease
Yoriko Nishide, Yuko Tousen, Miki Tadaishi, Masaki Inada, Chisato Miyaura, Marlena C Kruger, Yoshiko Ishimi
Soy isoflavones, genistein, daidzein and its metabolite equol, as well as β-carotene have been reported to be effective for maintaining bone health. However, it remains to be elucidated whether combining soy isoflavones with β-carotene is beneficial to bone formation. This study investigated the combined effect of soy isoflavones and β-carotene on the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells. Daidzein and genistein alone did not affect cell growth but increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity...
November 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ye-Seul Kim, Kyung-Chul Choi, Kyung-A Hwang
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is activated by 17β-estradiol (E2) in estrogen-responsive cancers, is an important process in tumor migration or progression. As typical endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) have a potential to promote EMT and migration of estrogen-responsive cancers. On the contrary, genistein (GEN) as a phytoestrogen is known to have chemopreventive effects in diverse cancers. METHODS: In the present study, the effects of BPA and GEN on EMT and the migration of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells and the underlying mechanism were investigated...
October 15, 2015: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Karsten Beekmann, Laura H J de Haan, Lucas Actis-Goretta, René Houtman, Peter J van Bladeren, Ivonne M C M Rietjens
Non-prenylated isoflavone aglycones are known to have phyto-estrogenic properties and act as agonistic ligands on ERα and ERβ due to their structural resemblance to 17β-estradiol (E2). Genistein and daidzein are the two main dietary isoflavones; upon uptake they are extensively metabolized and exist nearly exclusively as their conjugated forms in biological fluids. Little is known about the effect of conjugation on the intrinsic estrogenic activities of these isoflavones. To characterize and compare the intrinsic estrogenic activities of genistein and daidzein, and their respective 7-O-glucuronide metabolites a cell-free assay system was employed that determines the ligand-induced changes in ERα- and ERβ-ligand binding domain (LBD) interactions with 154 different binding motifs derived from 66 different nuclear receptor coregulators...
November 2015: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
William T Moore, Suzanne M Bowser, Dane W Fausnacht, Linda L Staley, Kyung-Shin Suh, Dongmin Liu
Approximately 366 million people worldwide have been diagnosed with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Chronic insulin resistance, decreased functional β-cell mass, and elevated blood glucose are defining characteristics of T2D. Great advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of T2D with respect to the effects of dietary macronutrient composition and energy intake on β-cell physiology and glucose homeostasis. It has been further established that obesity is a leading pathogenic factor for developing insulin resistance...
October 2015: Current Diabetes Reports
Anna Nynca, Agnieszka Sadowska, Karina Orlowska, Monika Jablonska, Renata E Ciereszko
Genistein is a biologically active isoflavone with estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity which can be found in a variety of soy products. Since in pigs' diet soy is the main source of protein, genistein may affect the reproductive/endocrine systems in these animals. Genistein has been shown to alter porcine ovarian and adrenal steroidogenesis but the mechanism of this action is still not clear. It is known that genistein binds to both estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), although it has a higher affinity to ERβ...
2015: Folia Biologica (Krakow)
Corina Danciu, Codruta Soica, Cristina Dehelean, Istvan Zupko, Erzsebet Csanyi, Iulia Pinzaru
The present study focuses on the synthesis and analysis of a genistein ester derivative with myristic acid followed by beta cyclodextrin encapsulation; physicochemical analysis using consecrated techniques such as FTIR, MS, DSC, and SEM revealed both a successful esterification and inclusion inside the cyclodextrin cavity. Cytotoxic effects were measured in vitro on three human cell lines: HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma), A2780 (ovary carcinoma), and A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma). The in vitro biological analysis exhibited rather poor antiproliferative results on all three tested cancer cell lines, behavior that may be due to the high stability of the complex within the in vitro environment...
2015: Analytical Cellular Pathology (Amsterdam)
Youming Guo, Pengfei Li, Grant Bledsoe, Zhi-Rong Yang, Lee Chao, Julie Chao
Kallistatin, an endogenous protein, consists of two structural elements: active site and heparin-binding domain. Kallistatin exerts beneficial effects on fibrosis by suppressing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β synthesis in animal models. TGF-β is the most potent inducer of endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), which contributes to fibrosis and cancer. MicroRNA (miR)-21 is an important player in organ fibrosis and tumor invasion. Here we investigated the potential role of kallistatin in EndMT via modulation of miR-21 in endothelial cells...
September 10, 2015: Experimental Cell Research
Susanne Andres, Ulf Hansen, Birgit Niemann, Richard Palavinskas, Alfonso Lampen
Dietary supplements high in isolated isoflavones are commercially available for human consumption primarily to alleviate menopausal symptoms in women. The isoflavone composition, quantity and importantly their estrogenic potency are poorly standardised and can vary considerably between different products. The aim of this study was to analyse the isoflavone composition of 11 dietary supplements based on soy or red clover using the HPLC/MS/MS technique. Furthermore, we investigated the transactivational potential of the supplements on the estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, performing luciferase reporter gene assays...
June 2015: Food & Function
Abeer M Mahmoud, Umaima Al-Alem, Mohamed M Ali, Maarten C Bosland
Genistein has protective effects against prostate cancer (PCa) but whether this protection involves an estrogen receptor (ER) β dependent mechanism has yet to be elucidated. ER-β has a tumor suppressor role in PCa and its levels decline with cancer progression which was linked to ER-β promoter hypermethylation. Genistein has been suggested to have demethylating activities in cancer. However, the ability of genistein to reverse ER-β promoter hypermethylation in PCa has not been studied. In addition, there are great discrepancies among studies that examined the effect of genistein on ER-β gene expression...
August 2015: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Magdalena Jurzak, Katarzyna Adamczyk, Paweł Antończak, Agnieszka Garncarczyk, Dariusz Kuśmierz, Małgorzata Latocha
Keloids are characterized by overgrowth of connective tissue in the skin that arises as a consequence of abnormal wound healing. Normal wound healing is regulated by a complex set of interactions within a network of profibrotic and antifibrotic cytokines that regulate new extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and remodeling. These proteins include transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) isoforms and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). TGFβ1 stimulates fibroblasts to synthesize and contract ECM and acts as a central mediator of profibrotic response...
November 2014: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Rajeev Kumar, Vikas Verma, Vikas Sharma, Ashish Jain, Vishal Singh, Amit Sarswat, Jagdamba P Maikhuri, Vishnu L Sharma, Gopal Gupta
Dietary consumption of phytoestrogens like genistein has been linked with lower incidence of prostate cancer. The estradiol-like benzopyran core of genistein confers estrogen receptor-β (ER-β) selectivity that imparts weak anti-proliferative activity against prostate cancer cells. DL-2-[4-(2-piperidinoethoxy)phenyl]-3-phenyl-2H-1-benzopyran (BP), a SERM designed with benzopyran core, targeted androgen independent prostate cancer (PC-3) cells 14-times more potently than genistein, ~25% more efficiently than tamoxifen and 6...
March 15, 2015: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Noriko Tagawa, Sayaka Kubota, Yoshiharu Kobayashi, Ikuo Kato
Excess glucocorticoids promote visceral obesity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. The main regulator of intracellular glucocorticoid levels is 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts inactive glucocorticoids into bioactive forms such as cortisol in humans and corticosterone in rodents. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD), which is colocalized with 11β-HSD1 in the intralumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, supplies a crucial coenzyme, NADPH, for full reductase activity of 11β-HSD1...
January 2015: Steroids
Ding-Qian Wu, Hui-ming Zhong, Qian-hai Ding, Li Ba
BACKGROUND: Increased production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is closely related to the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). The present study was performed to investigate the potential value of biochanin A in inhibition of MMP expression in both rabbit chondrocytes and an animal model of OA. METHODS: MTT assay was performed to assess chondrocyte survival in monolayers. The mRNA and protein expression of MMPs (including MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in interleukin-1 < beta > (IL-1β)-induced rabbit chondrocytes were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively...
2014: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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