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Recognition of carbohydrate

Zhi Zhou, Shuimiao Zhao, Junyi Ni, Yilu Su, Lingui Wang, Yanlai Xu
C-type lectin is a superfamily of Ca2+ -dependent carbohydrate-recognition proteins that play significant roles in nonself-recognition and pathogen clearance. In the present study, a C-type lectin (PdC-Lectin) was chosen from stony coral Pocillopora damicornis to understand its recognition characteristics to zooxanthellae. PdC-Lectin protein contained a signal peptide and a carbohydrate-recognition domain with EPN motif in Ca2+ -binding site 2. The PdC-Lectin recombinant protein was expressed and purified in vitro...
May 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Maja G Rydahl, Aleksander R Hansen, Stjepan K Kračun, Jozef Mravec
Plant cell walls are highly complex structures composed of diverse classes of polysaccharides, proteoglycans, and polyphenolics, which have numerous roles throughout the life of a plant. Significant research efforts aim to understand the biology of this cellular organelle and to facilitate cell-wall-based industrial applications. To accomplish this, researchers need to be provided with a variety of sensitive and specific detection methods for separate cell wall components, and their various molecular characteristics in vitro as well as in situ ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dinghao Zhuo, Xiang Li, Feng Guan
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs), which consist of a hydrophobic ceramide backbone and a hydrophilic carbohydrate residue, are an important type of glycolipid expressed in surface membranes of all animal cells. GSLs play essential roles in maintenance of plasma membrane stability, in regulation of numerous cellular processes (including adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, and recognition), and in modulation of signal transduction pathways. GSLs have traditionally been classified as ganglio-series, lacto-series, or globo-series on the basis of their diverse types of oligosaccharide chains...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hui Wang, Zhuang Xue, Zhaoqun Liu, Weilin Wang, Feifei Wang, Ying Wang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
C-type lectins (CTLs) are Ca2+ dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins that share structural homology in their carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). In the present study, a novel CTL was identified from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (named as AjCTL-2). The deduced amino acid sequence of AjCTL-2 was homologous to CTLs from other animals with the identities ranging from 33% to 40%. It contained a canonical signal peptide at the N-terminus, a low density lipoprotein receptor class A (LDLa), a C1r/C1s/Uegf/bone morphogenetic protein 1 (CUB), and a CRD with two motif Glu-Pro-Asn (EPN) and Trp-Asn-Asp (WND) in Ca2+ binding site 2...
May 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Martin van Eijk, Michael J Rynkiewicz, Kshitij Khatri, Nancy Leymarie, Joseph Zaia, Mitchell R White, Kevan L Hartshorn, Tanya R Cafarella, Irma Van Die, Martin Hessing, Barbara A Seaton, Henk P Haagsman
Innate immunity is critical in the early containment of influenza A virus (IAV) infection, and surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a crucial role in the pulmonary defense against IAV. In pigs, which are important intermediate hosts during the generation of pandemic IAVs, SP-D uses its unique carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) to interact with IAV. An N-linked CRD-glycosylation provides interactions with the sialic acid binding site of IAV, and a tripeptide loop at the lectin binding site facilitates enhanced interactions with IAV glycans...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Julie Y Zhou, Douglas M Oswald, Kelsey D Oliva, Lori S C Kreisman, Brian A Cobb
Carbohydrates, or glycans, are as integral to biology as nucleic acids and proteins. In immunology, glycans are well known to drive diverse functions ranging from glycosaminoglycan-mediated chemokine presentation and selectin-dependent leukocyte trafficking to the discrimination of self and non-self through the recognition of sialic acids by Siglec (sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin) receptors. In recent years, a number of key immunological discoveries are driving a renewed and burgeoning appreciation for the importance of glycans...
May 11, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Wengang Chai, Yibing Zhang, Laura Mauri, Maria G Ciampa, Barbara Mulloy, Sandro Sonnino, Ten Feizi
Gangliosides, as plasma membrane-associated sialylated glycolipids, are antigenic structures and they serve as ligands for adhesion proteins of pathogens, for toxins of bacteria, and for endogenous proteins of the host. The detectability by carbohydrate-binding proteins of glycan antigens and ligands on glycolipids can be influenced by the differing lipid moieties. To investigate glycan sequences of gangliosides as recognition structures, we have underway a program of work to develop a "gangliome" microarray consisting of isolated natural gangliosides and neoglycolipids (NGLs) derived from glycans released from them, and each linked to the same lipid molecule for arraying and comparative microarray binding analyses...
May 11, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Taeko Miyagi, Kohta Takahashi, Koji Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Shiozaki, Kazunori Yamaguchi
Sialidases are glycosidases responsible for the removal of α-glycosidically linked sialic acid residues from carbohydrate portions of glycoproteins and glycolipids, this process being the initial step in the degradation of such glycoconjugates. Sialic acids are considered to play important roles in various biological processes largely in two ways, one related to their hydrophilic and acidic properties exerting physicochemical effects on the glycoconjugates to which they are attached, and the other as recognition sites or in an opposing fashion as masking sites...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Jeffrey M Denney, Kristen H Quinn
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycemia with onset during pregnancy. The article aims to provide clinicians with a working framework to minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity. Landmark historical and recent data are reviewed and presented to provide clinicians with a quick, easy reference for recognition and management of GDM. Data presented tie in insights with underlying pathophysiologic processes leading to GDM. Screening and diagnostic thresholds are discussed along with management upon diagnosis...
June 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Augustin Long, Olivier Perraud, Muriel Albalat, Vincent Robert, Jean-Pierre Dutasta, Alexandre Martinez
A new chiral hemicryptophane cage combining electron rich CTV unit and polar amine functions has been synthesized. The resolution of the racemic mixture has been performed by chiral HPLC, and the assignment of the absolute configuration of the two enantiomers has been achieved using ECD spectroscopy. In contrast with other hemicryptophane receptors, the two enantiomeric hosts display both remarkable enantioselectivities in the recognition of carbohydrates and good binding constants. Moreover, by switching the chirality of the CTV unit from M to P, a strong preference shift from glucose to mannose derivatives is observed...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Herbert Kaltner, Gabriel García Caballero, Anna-Kristin Ludwig, Joachim C Manning, Hans-Joachim Gabius
About 60 years ago, the efforts to identify blood group-specific haemagglutinins in plant extracts by broad-scale testing were beginning to make a large panel of these proteins available as laboratory tools. Their ability to 'read' cell surface signals like antibodies do was the reason for W. C. Boyd to call them lectins, from Latin legere (to read). These proteins turned out to be as widely present in nature as glycans (polysaccharides or carbohydrate chains of cellular glycoconjugates) are. Since carbohydrates have the virtue to facilitate high-density coding in a minimum of space and lectins (initially mostly from plants called phytohaemagglutinins) turned out to be receptors for glycans, their pairing made many applications possible...
May 5, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Tammy R Chaudoin, Stephen J Bonasera
BACKGROUND: Galectins are a large family of proteins evolved to recognize specific carbohydrate moieties. Given the importance of pattern recognition processes for multiple biological tasks, including CNS development and immune recognition, we examined the home cage behavioral phenotype of mice lacking galectin-3 (Lgals3) function. Using a sophisticated monitoring apparatus capable of examining feeding, drinking, and movement at millisecond temporal and 0.5 cm spatial resolutions, we observed daily behavioral patterns from 10 wildtype male C57BL/6J and 10 Lgals3 constitutive knockout (Lgals3-/- ; both cohorts aged 2-3 months) mice over 17 consecutive days...
May 2, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Ghulam Md Ashraf, Maged Mostafa Mahmoud, Shams Tabrez
Galectins are mammalian lectins characterized by affinity for β-galactosides and the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Galectins play crucial role in causation and progression of deadly human diseases like cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and cardiovascular disorders. Available literature reports relevant roles of galectins in innate as well as adaptive immune responses, along with the modulation of acute inflammatory response. In the current study, we purified the goat heart galectin-1 (GHG-1) and carried out its extensive immunological studies...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Laura Thomas, Laura Andrea Pasquini
Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a chimeric protein structurally composed of unusual tandem repeats of proline and short glycine-rich segments fused onto a carbohydrate recognition domain. Our studies have previously demonstrated that Gal-3 drives oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation to control myelin integrity and function. The cytoskeleton plays a key role in OLG maturation: the initial stage of OLG process extension requires dynamic actin filament assembly, while subsequent myelin wrapping coincides with the upregulation of actin disassembly proteins which are dependent on myelin basic protein (MPB) expression...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Pedro M Nieto
Carbohydrates are biologically ubiquitous and are essential to the existence of all known living organisms. Although they are better known for their role as energy sources (glucose/glycogen or starch) or structural elements (chitin or cellulose), carbohydrates also participate in the recognition events of molecular recognition processes. Such interactions with other biomolecules (nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids) are fundamental to life and disease. This review focuses on the application of NMR methods to understand at the atomic level the mechanisms by which sugar molecules can be recognized by proteins to form complexes, creating new entities with different properties to those of the individual component molecules...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Zhibin Lu, Zhiming Ren, Changkao Mu, Ronghua Li, Yangfang Ye, Weiwei Song, Ce Shi, Lei Liu, Chunlin Wang
L-type lectins are involved in glycoprotein secretion and are associated with immune responses. Herein, an L-type lectin was identified in swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus). The 1347 bp PtLTL cDNA includes a 26 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 547 bp 3'-UTR with a poly(A) tail, and a 774 bp open reading frame encoding a 257 amino acid protein with a putative 21 residue signalling peptide. The protein includes an L-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain containing four conserved cysteines...
April 21, 2018: Gene
Yi Jiang, Denong Wang
Liquid biopsy uses noninvasive blood test to assess tumor heterogeneity and evolution in real time. It looks for tumor components in the blood circulation, such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), to provide tumor-specific information. By detecting multiplex tumor biomarkers, including nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and other tumor-derived substances, liquid biopsy helps with early tumor diagnosis, tumor evolution monitoring, and prognosis prediction. With the development of high-throughput OMICS tools like carbohydrate microarray and high-speed fiber-optic array scanning technology (FAST scan), it is now practical to identify glycan markers of CTCs and cancer stem cells (CSCs), especially those that are cell-surface exposed and readily accessible for immune recognition and targeting...
2018: Open access journal of biomedical engineering and its applications
Andrew G Hettle, Chelsea Vickers, Craig S Robb, Feng Liu, Stephen G Withers, Jan-Hendrik Hehemann, Alisdair B Boraston
Sulfatases play a biologically important role by cleaving sulfate groups from molecules. They can be identified on the basis of signature sequences within their primary structures, and the largest family, S1, has predictable features that contribute specifically to the recognition and catalytic removal of sulfate groups. However, despite advances in the prediction and understanding of S1 sulfatases, a major question regards the molecular determinants that drive substrate recognition beyond the targeted sulfate group...
April 12, 2018: Structure
Koichi Abe, Naoki Sunagawa, Tohru Terada, Yuta Takahashi, Takatoshi Arakawa, Kiyohiko Igarashi, Masahiro Samejima, Hiroyuki Nakai, Hayao Taguchi, Masahiro Nakajima, Shinya Fushinobu
β-1,2-Glucans are bacterial carbohydrates that exist in cyclic or linear forms and play an important role in infections and symbioses involving Gram-negative bacteria. Although several β-1,2-glucan-associated enzymes have been characterized, little is known about how β-1,2-glucan and its shorter oligosaccharides (Sopn s) are captured and imported into the bacterial cell. Here, we report the biochemical and structural characteristics of Sopn -binding protein (SO-BP, Lin1841) associated with the ABC transporter from the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria innocua Calorimetric analysis revealed that SO-BP specifically binds to Sopn s with degree of polymerization of 3 or more, with Kd  values in the micromolar range...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Mengmeng Huang, Tao Zhou, Yuehong Wu, Hui Fei, Gaoyang Wang, Zhi Li, Yutong Lei, Qian Liu, Cong Sun, Zhengbing Lv, Xue-Wei Xu
Galectins are β-galactoside binding lectins that play crucial roles in innate immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates through their conserved carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). In the present study, single- and four-CRD-containing galectins were identified in oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated CgGal-2 and CgGal-3). The open reading frames (ORFs) of CgGal-2 and CgGal-3 encode polypeptides of 200 and 555 amino acids, respectively. All CRDs of CgGal-3 include two consensus motifs essential for ligand-binding, and a novel motif is present in CgGal-2...
April 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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