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Recognition of carbohydrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924829/diverse-specificity-of-cellulosome-attachment-to-the-bacterial-cell-surface
#1
Joana L A Brás, Benedita A Pinheiro, Kate Cameron, Fiona Cuskin, Aldino Viegas, Shabir Najmudin, Pedro Bule, Virginia M R Pires, Maria João Romão, Edward A Bayer, Holly L Spencer, Steven Smith, Harry J Gilbert, Victor D Alves, Ana Luísa Carvalho, Carlos M G A Fontes
During the course of evolution, the cellulosome, one of Nature's most intricate multi-enzyme complexes, has been continuously fine-tuned to efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant carbohydrates. To facilitate the uptake of released sugars, anaerobic bacteria use highly ordered protein-protein interactions to recruit these nanomachines to the cell surface. Dockerin modules located within a non-catalytic macromolecular scaffold, whose primary role is to assemble cellulosomal enzymatic subunits, bind cohesin modules of cell envelope proteins, thereby anchoring the cellulosome onto the bacterial cell...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922006/structural-basis-of-myelin-associated-glycoprotein-adhesion-and-signalling
#2
Matti F Pronker, Suzanne Lemstra, Joost Snijder, Albert J R Heck, Dominique M E Thies-Weesie, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Bert J C Janssen
Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a myelin-expressed cell-adhesion and bi-directional signalling molecule. MAG maintains the myelin-axon spacing by interacting with specific neuronal glycolipids (gangliosides), inhibits axon regeneration and controls myelin formation. The mechanisms underlying MAG adhesion and signalling are unresolved. We present crystal structures of the MAG full ectodomain, which reveal an extended conformation of five Ig domains and a homodimeric arrangement involving membrane-proximal domains Ig4 and Ig5...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921298/female-induced-remote-regulation-of-sperm-physiology-may-provide-opportunities-for-gamete-level-mate-choice
#3
Jukka Kekäläinen, Jonathan P Evans
In sedentary externally fertilizing species, direct interactions between mating partners are limited and pre-fertilization communication between sexes occur largely at the gamete level. Certain combinations of eggs and sperm often have higher fertilization success than others, which may be contingent on egg-derived chemical factors that preferentially attract sperm from compatible males. Here, we examine the mechanisms underlying such effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, where differential sperm attraction has recently been shown to be associated with variation in offspring viability...
December 6, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911216/validation-of-antibody-reagents-for-mucin-analysis-in-chronic-inflammatory-airway-diseases
#4
Thorsten Krause, Niels Röckendorf, Karoline I Gaede, Katrin Ramaker, Heike Sinnecker, Andreas Frey
In chronic inflammatory airway diseases, mucins display disease-related alterations in quantity, composition and glycosylation. This opens the possibility to diagnose and monitor inflammatory airway disorders and their exacerbation based on mucin properties. For such an approach to be reasonably versatile and diagnostically meaningful, the mucin of interest must be captured in a reliable, patient-independent way. To identify appropriate mucin-specific reagents, we tested anti-mucin antibodies on mucin-content-standardized, human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples in immunoblot assays...
December 2, 2016: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906079/muscle-specific-loss-of-bmal1-leads-to-disrupted-tissue-glucose-metabolism-and-systemic-glucose-homeostasis
#5
Brianna D Harfmann, Elizabeth A Schroder, Maureen T Kachman, Brian A Hodge, Xiping Zhang, Karyn A Esser
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the USA, and disruption of circadian rhythms is gaining recognition as a contributing factor to disease prevalence. This disease is characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance and symptoms caused by failure to produce and/or respond to insulin. The skeletal muscle is a key insulin-sensitive metabolic tissue, taking up ~80 % of postprandial glucose. To address the role of the skeletal muscle molecular clock to insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, we generated an inducible skeletal muscle-specific Bmal1 (-/-) mouse (iMSBmal1 (-/-))...
March 30, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890857/structural-insights-into-a-family-39-glycoside-hydrolase-from-the-gut-symbiont-bacteroides-cellulosilyticus-wh2
#6
Ahmad Ali-Ahmad, Marie-Line Garron, Véronique Zamboni, Nicolas Lenfant, Didier Nurizzo, Bernard Henrissat, Jean-Guy Berrin, Yves Bourne, Florence Vincent
Bacteria from the human gut are equipped with an arsenal of carbohydrate-active enzymes that degrade dietary and host-derived glycans. In this study, we present the 2.5Å resolution crystal structure of a member (GH39wh2) from the human gut bacteria Bacteroides cellulosilyticus WH2 representative of a new subgroup within family GH39. Together with 6 other GHs, GH39wh2 belongs to a polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) that could be involved in detecting, binding and hydrolysing a specific carbohydrate species from the intestinal tract...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876622/a-novel-c-type-lectin-in-the-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon-functions-as-a-pattern-recognition-receptor-by-binding-and-causing-bacterial-agglutination
#7
Ratree Wongpanya, Panjana Sengprasert, Piti Amparyup, Anchalee Tassanakajon
C-type lectins are pattern recognition proteins that play important roles in innate immunity in invertebrates by mediating the recognition of pathogens. In this study, a novel C-type lectin gene, PmCLec, was cloned and characterized from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. The open reading frame of PmCLec is 657 bp in length. It encodes a predicted protein of 218 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass and an isoelectric point of 24086 Da and 4.67, respectively. Sequence analysis of PmCLec showed similarity to members of the C-type lectin gene superfamily...
November 19, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875311/single-binding-mode-integration-of-hemicellulose-degrading-enzymes-via-adaptor-scaffoldins-in-ruminococcus-flavefaciens-cellulosome
#8
Pedro Bule, Victor Diogo Alves, André Leitão, Luis M A Ferreira, Edward A Bayer, Steven P Smith, Harry J Gilbert, Shabir Najmudin, Carlos M G A Fontes
The assembly of one of Nature most elaborate multi-enzyme complexes, the cellulosome, results from the binding of enzyme-borne dockerins to reiterated cohesin domains located in a non-catalytic primary scaffoldin. Generally, dockerins present two similar cohesin binding interfaces that support a dual binding mode. The dynamic integration of enzymes in cellulosomes, afforded by the dual binding mode, is believed to incorporate additional flexibility in highly populated multi-enzyme complexes. Ruminococcus flavefaciens, the primary degrader of plant structural carbohydrates in the rumen of mammals, uses a portfolio of more than 220 different enzymes to assemble the most intricate cellulosome known to date...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873199/fabrication-of-carbohydrate-microarrays-by-boronate-formation
#9
Avijit K Adak, Ting-Wei Lin, Ben-Yuan Li, Chun-Cheng Lin
The interactions between soluble carbohydrates and/or surface displayed glycans and protein receptors are essential to many biological processes and cellular recognition events. Carbohydrate microarrays provide opportunities for high-throughput quantitative analysis of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Over the past decade, various techniques have been implemented for immobilizing glycans on solid surfaces in a microarray format. Herein, we describe a detailed protocol for fabricating carbohydrate microarrays that capitalizes on the intrinsic reactivity of boronic acid toward carbohydrates to form stable boronate diesters...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859859/oligomerization-domains-in-the-glycan-binding-receptors-dc-sign-and-dc-signr-sequence-variation-and-stability-differences
#10
Ália Dos Santos, Andreas Hadjivasiliou, Felipe Ossa, Novandy K Lim, Aylin Turgut, Maureen E Taylor, Kurt Drickamer
Human dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-1 grabbing nonintegrin, DC-SIGN, and the sinusoidal endothelial cell receptor DC-SIGNR or L-SIGN, are closely related sugar-binding receptors. DC-SIGN acts both as a pathogen-binding endocytic receptor and as a cell adhesion molecule, while DC-SIGNR has only the pathogen-binding function. In addition to differences in the sugar-binding properties of the carbohydrate-recognition domains in the two receptors, there are sequence differences in the adjacent neck domains, which are coiled-coil tetramerization domains comprised largely of 23-amino acid repeat units...
November 17, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845730/development-of-amylose-and-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-based-chiral-fluorescent-sensors-bearing-terthienyl-pendants
#11
Tomoyuki Ikai, Changsik Yun, Yutaka Kojima, Daisuke Suzuki, Katsuhiro Maeda, Shigeyoshi Kanoh
Phenylcarbamate derivatives of amylose and β-cyclodextrin show excellent chiral recognition when used as chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for high-performance liquid chromatography. To open up new possibilities of carbohydrate-based materials, we developed chiral fluorescent sensors based on amylose and β-cyclodextrin (Am-1b and CyD-1b, respectively) by attaching fluorescent π-conjugated units on their side chains. Their recognition abilities toward chiral analytes containing a nitrophenyl unit were evaluated by measuring the enantioselective fluorescence quenching behavior...
November 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825525/multienzyme-decorated-polysaccharide-amplified-electrogenerated-chemiluminescence-biosensor-for-cytosensing-and-cell-surface-carbohydrate-profiling
#12
Ling Zhang, Yangzhong Wang, Qianqian Tian, Yang Liu, Jinghong Li
A novel ECL biosensor for cytosensing and cell surface carbohydrate expression evaluation was developed, by the integration of the peptide modified interface for highly specific carbohydrate recognition and sodium alginate loaded glucose oxidase as the signal probe with high signal amplification efficiency. A cysteine-terminated peptide self-assembled on the electrode through Au-S bond to construct a functional interface for cell capture, with decent biocompatibility and high affinity for the human breast cancer cell MCF-7...
October 19, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821276/antibody-recognition-of-aberrant-glycosylation-on-the-surface-of-cancer-cells
#13
REVIEW
Caroline Soliman, Elizabeth Yuriev, Paul A Ramsland
Carbohydrate-binding antibodies and carbohydrate-based vaccines are being actively pursued as targeted immunotherapies for a broad range of cancers. Recognition of tumor-associated carbohydrates (glycans) by antibodies is predominantly towards terminal epitopes on glycoproteins and glycolipids on the surface of cancer cells. Crystallography along with complementary experimental and computational methods have been extensively used to dissect antibody recognition of glycan epitopes commonly found in cancer. We provide an overview of the structural biology of antibody recognition of tumor-associated glycans and propose potential rearrangements of these targets in the membrane that could dictate the complex biological activities of these antibodies against cancer cells...
November 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818342/a-c-type-lectin-mrlec-with-high-expression-in-intestine-is-involved-in-innate-immune-response-of-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#14
Jinling Feng, Xin Huang, Min Jin, Yi Zhang, Tingting Li, Kaimin Hui, Qian Ren
C-type lectins (CTLs) are pattern-recognition proteins that play an important role in innate immunity of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, a lectin cDNA named MrLec was cloned and characterized from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachiun rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrLec was 1431 bp, which contained an open reading frame of 1041 bp that encoded a protein with 346 amino acids. MrLec was found to contain a typical signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a single carbohydrate-recognition domain with 121 amino acids...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818049/versatile-aptasensor-for-electrochemical-quantification-of-cell-surface-glycan-and-naked-eye-tracking-glycolytic-inhibition-in-living-cells
#15
Jing-Jing Zhang, Fang-Fang Cheng, Ting-Ting Zheng, Jun-Jie Zhu
Quantifying the glycan expression status on cell surfaces is of vital importance for insight into the glycan function in biological processes and related diseases. Here we developed a versatile aptasensor for electrochemical quantification of cell surface glycan by taking advantage of the cell-specific aptamer, and the lectin-functionalized gold nanoparticles acting as both a glycan recognition unit and a signal amplification probe. To construct the aptasensor, amine-functionalized mucin 1 protein (MUC1) aptamer was first covalently conjugated to carboxylated-magnetic beads (MBs) using the succinimide coupling (EDC-NHS) method...
September 25, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816108/endoglycosidases-for-the-synthesis-of-polysaccharides-and-glycoconjugates
#16
Chao Li, Lai-Xi Wang
Recent advances in glycobiology have implicated essential roles of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in many important biological recognition processes, including intracellular signaling, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, cancer progression, host-pathogen interactions, and immune responses. A detailed understanding of the biological functions, as well as the development of carbohydrate-based therapeutics, often requires structurally well-defined oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates, which are usually difficult to isolate in pure form from natural sources...
2016: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782281/carbohydrate-receptors-combining-both-a-macrocyclic-building-block-and-flexible-side-arms-as-recognition-units-binding-properties-of-compounds-with-ch2oh-groups-as-side-arms
#17
Felix Amrhein, Jan Lippe, Monika Mazik
New representatives of compounds combining both a macrocyclic building block and two flexible side arms as recognition units were prepared and their binding properties toward selected carbohydrates were evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the replacement of the heterocycle-bearing side arms by smaller units, such as hydroxy groups, on the binding capability. The design of this type of receptor was inspired by the participation of the side chain hydroxy group of serine and threonine in the biorecognition of carbohydrates...
December 7, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780012/lectin-receptors-expressed-on-myeloid-cells
#18
Gordon D Brown, Paul R Crocker
Lectins recognize a diverse array of carbohydrate structures and perform numerous essential biological functions. Here we focus on only two families of lectins, the Siglecs and C-type lectins. Triggering of intracellular signaling cascades following ligand recognition by these receptors can have profound effects on the induction and modulation of immunity. In this chapter, we provide a brief overview of each family and then focus on selected examples that highlight how these lectins can influence myeloid cell functioning in health and disease...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765697/comparative-study-of-two-single-crd-c-type-lectins-cgclec-4-and-cgclec-5-from-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#19
Zhihao Jia, Huan Zhang, Shuai Jiang, Mengqiang Wang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
C-type lectins (CTLs), a superfamily of Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-recognition proteins, are involved in nonself-recognition and pathogen elimination, and play crucial roles in the innate immunity. In the present study, two single CRD C-type lectins, CgCLec-4 and CgCLec-5, were identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas. The open reading frame (ORF) of CgCLec-4 and CgCLec-5 encoded polypeptides of 152 and 150 amino acids, respectively. Both CgCLec-4 and CgCLec-5 contained one CRD with six conserved cysteines to form three disulfide bridges...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748583/molecular-recognition-of-muramyl-dipeptide-occurs-in-the-leucine-rich-repeat-domain-of-nod2
#20
Mackenzie L Lauro, Elizabeth A D'Ambrosio, Brian J Bahnson, Catherine Leimkuhler Grimes
Genetic mutations in the innate immune receptor nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing 2 (Nod2) have demonstrated increased susceptibility to Crohn's disease, an inflammatory bowel disease that is hypothesized to be accompanied by changes in the gut microbiota. Nod2 responds to the presence of bacteria, specifically a fragment of the bacterial cell wall, muramyl dipeptide (MDP). The proposed site of this interaction is the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain. Surface plasmon resonance and molecular modeling were used to investigate the interaction of the LRR domain with MDP...
October 31, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
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