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Recognition of carbohydrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348821/glycan-microarray-reveal-induced-iggs-repertoire-shift-against-a-dietary-carbohydrate-in-response-to-rabbit-anti-human-thymocyte-therapy
#1
Ron Amon, Shani Leviatan Ben-Arye, Limor Engler, Hai Yu, Noha Lim, Ludmilla Le Berre, Kristina M Harris, Mario R Ehlers, Stephen E Gitelman, Xi Chen, Jean-Paul Soulillou, Vered Padler-Karavani
Humans have circulating antibodies against diverse glycans containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) due to function-loss mutation of the CMAH gene. This xenogenic non-human carbohydrate is abundant in red meat, xenografts and biotherapeutics. Low levels of diet-derived Neu5Gc is also present on normal human endothelial cells, and together with anti-Neu5Gc antibodies could potentially mediate "xenosialitis" chronic-inflammation. Rabbit anti-human thymocyte globulin (ATG) is a drug containing polyclonal IgG glycoproteins commonly used as an immunosuppressant in human transplantation and autoimmune diseases...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345346/galectin-3-type-c-self-association-on-neutrophil-surfaces-the-carbohydrate-recognition-domain-regulates-cell-function
#2
Martina Sundqvist, Amanda Welin, Jonas Elmwall, Veronica Osla, Ulf J Nilsson, Hakon Leffler, Johan Bylund, Anna Karlsson
Galectin-3 is an endogenous β-galactoside-binding lectin comprising a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) linked to a collagen-like N-domain. Both domains are required for galectin-3 to induce cellular effects; a C-terminal fragment of galectin-3, galectin-3C, containing the CRD but lacking the N-domain, binds cell surface glycoconjugates but does not induce cellular effects since cross-linking promoted by the N-domain is thought to be required. Instead, galectin-3C is proposed to antagonize the effects of galectin-3 by competing for binding sites...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339766/the-crystal-structure-of-d-xylonate-dehydratase-reveals-functional-features-of-enzymes-from-the-ilv-ed-dehydratase-family
#3
Mohammad Mubinur Rahman, Martina Andberg, Anu Koivula, Juha Rouvinen, Nina Hakulinen
The Ilv/ED dehydratase protein family includes dihydroxy acid-, gluconate-, 6-phosphogluconate- and pentonate dehydratases. The members of this family are involved in various biosynthetic and carbohydrate metabolic pathways. Here, we describe the first crystal structure of D-xylonate dehydratase from Caulobacter crescentus (CcXyDHT) at 2.7 Å resolution and compare it with other available enzyme structures from the IlvD/EDD protein family. The quaternary structure of CcXyDHT is a tetramer, and each monomer is composed of two domains in which the N-terminal domain forms a binding site for a [2Fe-2S] cluster and a Mg2+ ion...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327126/antipyretic-effect-of-herba-ephedrae-ramulus-cinnamomi-herb-pair-on-yeast-induced-pyrexia-rats-a-metabolomics-study
#4
Xiao-Ming Wang, Wen-Jie Xu, Liang-Kui Xu, Shuai Song, Xue-Feng Xing, Jia-Bo Luo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antipyretic mechanism of Herba Ephedrae (Eph)-Ramulus Cinnamomi (RC) herb pair on yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. METHODS: Totally 30 qualifified male SD rats were randomly assigned to the normal control (NC) group, the pyrexia model (model) group, the Eph, RC and Eph-RC treatment groups by a random digital table, 6 rats in each group. Each rat received a 20% aqueous suspension of yeast (10 mL/kg) except the NC group. The 3 treatment groups were administered 8...
January 9, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320431/galectin-targeted-therapy-in-oncology-current-knowledge-and-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Kamil Wdowiak, Tomasz Francuz, Enrique Gallego-Colon, Natalia Ruiz-Agamez, Marcin Kubeczko, Iga Grochoła, Jerzy Wojnar
The incidence and mortality of cancer have increased over the past decades. Significant progress has been made in understanding the underpinnings of this disease and developing therapies. Despite this, cancer still remains a major therapeutic challenge. Current therapeutic research has targeted several aspects of the disease such as cancer development, growth, angiogenesis and metastases. Many molecular and cellular mechanisms remain unknown and current therapies have so far failed to meet their intended potential...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316658/galectin-12-in-cellular-differentiation-apoptosis-and-polarization
#6
REVIEW
Lei Wan, Ri-Yao Yang, Fu-Tong Liu
Galectin-12 is a member of a family of mammalian lectins characterized by their affinity for β-galactosides and consensus amino acid sequences. The protein structure consists of a single polypeptide chain containing two carbohydrate-recognition domains joined by a linker region. Galectin-12 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, but is also detected in macrophages and other leukocytes. Downregulation of galectin-12 in mouse 3T3-L1 cells impairs their differentiation into adipocytes. Conversely, overexpression of galectin-12 in vitro induces cell cycle arrest in G1 and apoptosis...
January 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315388/galectin-3-and-cancer-stemness
#7
Pratima Nangia-Makker, Victor Hogan, Avraham Raz
Over the last few decades galectin-3, a carbohydrate binding protein, with affinity for N-acetyllactosamine residues, has been unique due to the regulatory roles it performs in processes associated with tumor progression and metastasis such as cell proliferation, homotypic/ heterotypic aggregation, dynamic cellular transformation, migration and invasion, survival and apoptosis. Structure-function association of galectin-3 reveals that it consists of a short amino terminal motif, which regulates its nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling; a collagen α-like domain, susceptible to cleavage by matrix metalloproteases and prostate specific antigen (PSA); accountable for its oligomerization and lattice formation, and a carbohydrate recognition/binding domain containing the anti-death motif of the Bcl2 protein family...
January 5, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315346/a-detection-and-quantification-label-free-tool-to-speed-up-downstream-processing-of-model-mucins
#8
Sofia B Carvalho, Ana Sofia Moreira, Joana Gomes, Manuel J T Carrondo, David J Thornton, Paula M Alves, Julia Costa, Cristina Peixoto
Mucins are high-molecular weight glycoproteins (0.25-20 MDa) containing one or more domains that are heavily O-glycosylated. Their implications as targets for cancer treatment have increased the interest in these glycoproteins, mainly in the fields of vaccines and antibodies. However, mucins present high heterogeneity, posing challenges that affect purification processes and quality control analysis. In that sense, it is necessary to develop and improve downstream processes and analytical methods to characterize these products...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313961/impaired-phagocytosis-directs-human-monocyte-activation-in-response-to-fungal-derived-%C3%AE-glucan-particles
#9
Giorgio Camilli, Elif Eren, David L Williams, Vishukumar Aimanianda, Etienne Meunier, Jessica Quintin
Recognition of the fungal cell wall carbohydrate β-glucan by the host receptor Dectin-1 elicits broad immunomodulatory responses, such as phagocytosis and activation of oxidative burst. These responses are essential for engulfing and killing fungal pathogens. Phagocytic monocytes are key mediators of these early host inflammatory responses to infection. Remarkably, whether phagocytosis of fungal β-glucan leads to an inflammatory response in human monocytes remains to be established. Here, we show that phagocytosis of heat-killed Candida albicans is essential to trigger inflammation and cytokine release...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306566/bispecific-chimeric-antigen-receptors-targeting-the-cd4-binding-site-and-high-mannose-glycans-of-gp120-optimized-for-anti-human-immunodeficiency-virus-potency-and-breadth-with-minimal-immunogenicity
#10
Mustafa H Ghanem, Sara Bolivar-Wagers, Barna Dey, Agnes Hajduczki, Diego A Vargas-Inchaustegui, David T Danielson, Virgilio Bundoc, Li Liu, Edward A Berger
BACKGROUND AIMS: Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) offer great potential toward a functional cure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To achieve the necessary long-term virus suppression, we believe that CARs must be designed for optimal potency and anti-HIV specificity, and also for minimal probability of virus escape and CAR immunogenicity. CARs containing antibody-based motifs are problematic in the latter regard due to epitope mutation and anti-idiotypic immune responses against the variable regions...
January 3, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306444/probing-multivalent-protein-carbohydrate-interactions-by-quantum-dot-f%C3%A3-rster-resonance-energy-transfer
#11
Yuan Guo, W Bruce Turnbull, Dejian Zhou
Cell surface carbohydrate-binding proteins (also known as lectins) recognize surface carbohydrates of viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens to regulate host immune responses; however, such interactions are also often exploited by pathogens to enhance infection. Multivalent binding is typically involved to compensate for the intrinsically weak nature of protein-carbohydrate interactions. The spatial orientation of carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) in multimeric lectins plays a central role in governing their binding affinity and specificity...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306443/bacterial-surface-glycans-microarray-and-qcm-strategies-for-glycophenotyping-and-exploration-of-recognition-by-host-receptors
#12
Ioanna Kalograiaki, María A Campanero-Rhodes, Davide Proverbio, Begoña Euba, Junkal Garmendia, Teodor Aastrup, Dolores Solís
Bacterial surfaces are decorated with a diversity of carbohydrate structures that play important roles in the bacteria-host relationships. They may offer protection against host defense mechanisms, elicit strong antigenic responses, or serve as ligands for host receptors, including lectins of the innate immune system. Binding by these lectins may trigger defense responses or, alternatively, promote attachment, thereby enhancing infection. The outcome will depend on the particular bacterial surface landscape, which may substantially differ among species and strains...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306433/insights-into-glucan-polysaccharide-recognition-using-glucooligosaccharide-microarrays-with-oxime-linked-neoglycolipid-probes
#13
Yan Liu, Angelina S Palma, Ten Feizi, Wengang Chai
Glucans are polysaccharides of increasing biomedical interest because of their involvement in mechanisms of pathogen recognition, modulation of the immune system and anticancer, and health-promoting activities. Most of these biological activities occur through specific interactions with glucan-recognizing proteins. However, detailed molecular studies of glucan recognition remain a challenge mainly due to the inherent sequence heterogeneity and polydispersity of glucan polysaccharides, and associated difficulties in their purification and sequence characterization...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306029/proximity-ligation-detection-of-lectin-concanavalin-a-and-fluorescence-imaging-cancer-cells-using-carbohydrate-functionalized-dna-silver-nanocluster-probes
#14
Xiaoru Zhang, Fengting Chen, Xiaojie Song, Peng He, Shusheng Zhang
A novel method for study the interaction between carbohydrate and lectin was developed in homogenous solution. DNA was introduced to the recognition process of carbohydrate with protein. Due to the versatile detection mode of DNA, the detection efficiency for carbohydrate and protein was highly promoted. Herein, two kinds of mannose-DNA conjugates were synthesized. One of which was used to prepare DNA-templated silver nanocluster (AgNCs) and the other one contained guanine-rich DNA sequences. When the mannose of two conjugates binding to lectin Concanavalin A (Con A), great enhancement on fluorescence intensity was obtained due to the proximity ligation of the DNA-templated Ag NCs with guanine-rich DNA sequences...
December 31, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301216/novel-nutrition-profiling-of-new-zealanders-varied-eating-patterns
#15
Olivia Maclaren, Lisa Mackay, Grant Schofield, Caryn Zinn
There is increasing recognition that the relationship between nutrition and health is influenced by complex eating behaviors. The aims of this study were to develop novel nutrition profiles of New Zealanders and to describe the prevalence of these profiles. Observational, cross-sectional data from the Sovereign Wellbeing Index, 2014 was used to develop the profiles in an a-priori process. Descriptive prevalence for the total data (N = 10,012; 4797 males; 18+ years) and profiles were reported. Nutrition question responses were presented as: Includers (consumed few time a week or more), Avoiders (few time a month) and Limiters (not eaten)...
December 31, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289654/an-alternative-function-of-c-type-lectin-comprising-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-domain-from-fenneropenaeus-merguiensis-to-act-as-a-binding-receptor-for-viral-protein-and-vitellogenin
#16
Pattamaporn Kwankaew, Rachanida Praparatana, Phanthipha Runsaeng, Prapaporn Utarabhand
A diversity of C-type lectins (CTLs) was coming reported and they are known to participate in invertebrate innate immunity by act as pattern recognition receptor (PRR). In the present study, a unique CTL containing low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) domain from Fenneropenaeus merguiensis (designated as FmLdlr) was cloned. Its sequence contained a single LDLR domain and one carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with a QAP motif putative for galactose-specific binding. The expression of FmLdlr was detected only in hemocytes of healthy shrimp...
December 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288461/screening-of-c-di-gmp-regulated-exopolysaccharides-in-host-interacting-bacteria
#17
Jochen Schmid, Broder Rühmann, Volker Sieber, Lorena Romero-Jiménez, Juan Sanjuán, Daniel Pérez-Mendoza
Bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPS) often confer a survival advantage by protecting the cell against abiotic and biotic stresses, including host defensive factors. They are also main components of the extracellular matrix involved in cell-cell recognition, surface adhesion and biofilm formation. Biosynthesis of a growing number of EPS has been reported to be regulated by the ubiquitous second messenger c-di-GMP, which promotes the transition to a biofilm mode of growth in an intimate association with the eukaryotic host...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274206/comparative-analysis-of-c-type-lectin-domain-proteins-in-the-ghost-moth-thitarodes-xiaojinensis-lepidoptera-hepialidae
#18
Qian Meng, Ji-Hong Zhang, Huan Zhang, Gui-Ling Zhou, Ruo-Rao Ni, Yan-Ni Zhao, Qi-Lian Qin, Zhen Zou
Insects have a large family of C-type lectins involved in cell adhesion, pathogen recognition, and activation of immune responses. In this study, 32 transcripts encoding C-type lectin domain proteins (CTLDPs) were identified from the Thitarodes xiaojinensis transcriptome. According to their domain structures, six CTLDPs with one carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) were classified into the CTL-S subfamily. The other 23 CTLDPs with two CRDs were grouped into the immulectin (IML) subfamily. The remaining three with extra regulatory domains were sorted into the CTL-X subfamily...
December 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259668/what-contributes-to-an-effective-mannose-recognition-domain
#19
REVIEW
Christoph P Sager, Deniz Eriş, Martin Smieško, Rachel Hevey, Beat Ernst
In general, carbohydrate-lectin interactions are characterized by high specificity but also low affinity. The main reason for the low affinities are desolvation costs, due to the numerous hydroxy groups present on the ligand, together with the typically polar surface of the binding sites. Nonetheless, nature has evolved strategies to overcome this hurdle, most prominently in relation to carbohydrate-lectin interactions of the innate immune system but also in bacterial adhesion, a process key for the bacterium's survival...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259165/unravelling-the-specificity-and-mechanism-of-sialic-acid-recognition-by-the-gut-symbiont-ruminococcus-gnavus
#20
C David Owen, Louise E Tailford, Serena Monaco, Tanja Šuligoj, Laura Vaux, Romane Lallement, Zahra Khedri, Hai Yu, Karine Lecointe, John Walshaw, Sandra Tribolo, Marc Horrex, Andrew Bell, Xi Chen, Gary L Taylor, Ajit Varki, Jesus Angulo, Nathalie Juge
Ruminococcus gnavus is a human gut symbiont wherein the ability to degrade mucins is mediated by an intramolecular trans-sialidase (RgNanH). RgNanH comprises a GH33 catalytic domain and a sialic acid-binding carbohydrate-binding module (CBM40). Here we used glycan arrays, STD NMR, X-ray crystallography, mutagenesis and binding assays to determine the structure and function of RgNanH_CBM40 (RgCBM40). RgCBM40 displays the canonical CBM40 β-sandwich fold and broad specificity towards sialoglycans with millimolar binding affinity towards α2,3- or α2,6-sialyllactose...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
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