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Recognition of carbohydrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532078/enhancement-of-fibroblast-growing-on-the-mannosylated-surface-of-cellulose-membranes
#1
Simone Birkheur, Paula Cristina de Sousa Faria-Tischer, Cesar A Tischer, Elisângela Flávia Pimentel, Marcio Fronza, Denise Coutinho Endringer, Anna Paola Butera, Renato Márcio Ribeiro-Viana
Bacterial cellulose membrane is a biomaterial with high value in the biomedical field. Many groups have been making efforts to promote chemical modifications of its structure and, consequently, add new characteristics. Recently, our group has developed a methodology to insert monoester succinic acid in bacterial cellulose membrane without disrupting the microfibril network and bind a protein on it. Considering the role of carbohydrates in the molecular recognition process in biological events, we continued these studies by inserting covalently multiples copies of aryl monosaccharide to bacterial cellulose succinylated and to study the in vitro tissue compatibility using fibroblasts...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508651/sugar-breathing-glycopolymersomes-for-regulating-glucose-level
#2
Yufen Xiao, Hui Sun, Jianzhong Du
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, life-threatening illness that affects people of every age and ethnicity. It is a long-suffering pain for those who are affected and must regulate their blood glucose level by frequent subcutaneous injection of insulin every day. Herein, we propose a non-insulin and antidiabetic-drug-free strategy for regulating blood glucose level by a nano-sized "sugar sponge" which is a lectin-bound glycopolymersome capable of regulating glucose due to the dynamic recognition between the lectin and different carbohydrates...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503789/exploring-the-structural-space-of-galectin-1-ligand-interaction
#3
Nadja Bertleff-Zieschang, Julian Bechold, Clemens Grimm, Michael Reutlinger, Petra Schneider, Gisbert Schneider, Juergen Seibel
Galectin-1 is a tumor-associated protein which, recognizing the Galβ1-4GlcNAc motif of cell surface glycoconjugates. Here, we report on the stepwise expansion of a multifunctional natural scaffold based on N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc). We obtained a LacNAc mimetic equipped with an alkyne function on the 3'-hydroxyl group of the disaccharide facing towards a binding pocket adjacent to the carbohydrate recognition domain. It served as an anchor motif for further expansion via Sharpless-Huisgen-Meldal reaction, resulting in ligands with an almost identical binding mode to the natural carbohydrate template...
May 14, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494724/c-type-lectin-receptor-old-friend-and-new-player
#4
Hai Hou, Yahui Guo, Qing Chang, Tianming Luo, Xin Wu, Xueqiang Zhao
During the last two decades, C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) have been demonstrated to play key roles in initiating the host immune response upon fungal infection. It is well established that CLRs, such as Dectin-1, Dectin-2, Dectin-3 and Mincle, recognize the cell wall component from the infected microorganisms by using their carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Upon stimulation, CLRs induce multiple signal transduction cascades through their own immune-receptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) or interacting with ITAM-containing adaptor proteins such as FcRγ, which then lead to the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) through Syk- and CARD9-dependent pathway...
May 9, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482337/recognition-of-microbial-glycans-by-soluble-human-lectins
#5
REVIEW
Darryl A Wesener, Amanda Dugan, Laura L Kiessling
Human innate immune lectins that recognize microbial glycans can conduct microbial surveillance and thereby help prevent infection. Structural analysis of soluble lectins has provided invaluable insight into how these proteins recognize their cognate carbohydrate ligands and how this recognition gives rise to biological function. In this opinion, we cover the structural features of lectins that allow them to mediate microbial recognition, highlighting examples from the collectin, Reg protein, galectin, pentraxin, ficolin and intelectin families...
May 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475956/a-novel-ecl-biosensor-for-the-detection-of-concanavalin-a-based-on-glucose-functionalized-nico2s4-nanoparticles-grown-on-carboxylic-graphene-as-quenching-probe
#6
Xiaojian Li, Yaoguang Wang, Li Shi, Hongmin Ma, Yong Zhang, Bin Du, Dan Wu, Qin Wei
An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor was developed for detection of Concanavalin A (Con A). Chitosan/Ru(bpy)3(2+)/silica/Fe3O4 nanomaterials (CRuSi-Fe3O4) were synthesized through W/O microemulsion route. The added Fe3O4 nanoparticles can simplify the prepared process and enhance the conductivity of nanomaterials which can increase the ECL intensity of luminophor CRuSi-Fe3O4. In addition, the layered structure of CRuSi-Fe3O4 can immobilize lots of Con A using glutaraldehyde as the coupling agent which can improve the sensitivity of the biosensor...
May 1, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470711/carbohydrate-recognition-by-the-rhamnose-binding-lectin-sul-i-with-a-novel-three-domain-structure-isolated-from-the-venom-of-globiferous-pedicellariae-of-the-flower-sea-urchin-toxopneustes-pileolus
#7
Tomomitsu Hatakeyama, Ayaka Ichise, Hideaki Unno, Shuichiro Goda, Tatsuya Oda, Hiroaki Tateno, Jun Hirabayashi, Hitomi Sakai, Hideyuki Nakagawa
The globiferous pedicellariae of the venomous sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus contains several biologically active proteins. We have cloned the cDNA of one of the toxin components, SUL-I, which is a rhamnose-binding lectin that acts as a mitogen through binding to carbohydrate chains on target cells. Recombinant SUL-I (rSUL-I) was produced in Escherichia coli cells, and its carbohydrate-binding specificity was examined with the glycoconjugate microarray analysis, which suggested that potential target carbohydrate structures are galactose-terminated N-glycans...
May 3, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449072/functions-of-galectins-as-self-non-self-recognition-and-effector-factors
#8
Gerardo R Vasta, Chiguang Feng, Nuria González-Montalbán, Justin Mancini, Lishi Yang, Kelsey Abernathy, Graeme Frost, Cheyenne Palm
Carbohydrate structures on the cell surface encode complex information that through specific recognition by carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins), modulates interactions between cells, cells and the extracellular matrix, or mediates recognition of potential microbial pathogens. Galectins are a family of ß-galactoside-binding lectins, which are evolutionary conserved and have been identified in most organisms, from fungi to invertebrates and vertebrates, including mammals. Since their discovery in the 1970s, their biological roles, initially understood as limited to recognition of endogenous carbohydrate ligands in embryogenesis and development, have expanded in recent years by the discovery of their roles in tissue repair and regulation of immune homeostasis...
April 25, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445622/thiocarbohydrates-on-gold-nanoparticles-strong-influences-of-stereocenters-on-binding-affinitiy-and-interparticle-forces
#9
Torsten Linker, Prashant Pavashe, Werner Fudickar
Carbohydrates carrying thiol groups at the C-2 position have been attached to gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with stereocenters in close proximity to the surface for the first time. Their configurations can be clearly distinguished by the tendency of particle aggregation. AuNP surface plasmon resonance (SPR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and IR spectroscopy indicate that the thiocarbohydrates replace citrate molecules at different rates causing aggregation and eventually precipitation. A quantitative formulation of this aggregation process shows that reactivities can vary by several magnitudes...
April 26, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441623/identification-of-a-macrobrachium-nipponense-c-type-lectin-with-a-close-evolutionary-relationship-to-vertebrate-lectins
#10
Xin Huang, Tingting Li, Min Jin, Shaowu Yin, Wen Wang, Qian Ren
C-type lectins (CTLs) are involved in the innate immune defense of vertebrates and invertebrates against invading pathogens. This study cloned and characterized a novel C-type lectin (MnCTL) of the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense. The cloned MnCTL cDNA encompasses an open reading frame of 774 nucleotides and encodes polypeptides of 257 residues. The deduced MnCTL protein contains a single carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with an EPN (Glu-Pro-Asn) motif in calcium-binding site 2. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that MnCTL has a closer evolutionary relationship with vertebrate lectins than with invertebrate lectins...
April 22, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441004/insights-into-the-mechanisms-by-which-clostridial-neurotoxins-discriminate-between-gangliosides
#11
Joshua R Burns, Gregory S Lambert, Michael R Baldwin
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. Entry of toxins into neurons is mediated through initial interactions with gangliosides, followed by binding to a protein co-receptor. Herein, we aimed to understand the mechanism through which individual neurotoxins recognize the carbohydrate motif of gangliosides. Using cell-based and in vitro binding assays, in conjunction with structure-driven site-directed mutagenesis, a conserved hydrophobic residue within the BoNTs that contributes to both affinity and specificity toward Sia5-containing gangliosides was identified...
May 9, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439022/structure-of-a-protective-epitope-of-group-b-streptococcus-type-iii-capsular-polysaccharide
#12
Filippo Carboni, Roberto Adamo, Monica Fabbrini, Riccardo De Ricco, Vittorio Cattaneo, Barbara Brogioni, Daniele Veggi, Vittoria Pinto, Irene Passalacqua, Davide Oldrini, Rino Rappuoli, Enrico Malito, Immaculada Y Ros Margarit, Francesco Berti
Despite substantial progress in the prevention of group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease with the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, this pathogen remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. Capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines have been tested in phase I/II clinical studies, showing promise for further development. Mapping of epitopes recognized by protective antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanism of action of vaccines and for enabling antigen design. In this study, we report the structure of the epitope recognized by a monoclonal antibody with opsonophagocytic activity and representative of the protective response against type III GBS polysaccharide...
May 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434916/the-tetrameric-plant-lectin-banlec-neutralizes-hiv-through-bidentate-binding-to-specific-viral-glycans
#13
Jonathan T S Hopper, Stephen Ambrose, Oliver C Grant, Stefanie A Krumm, Timothy M Allison, Matteo T Degiacomi, Mark D Tully, Laura K Pritchard, Gabriel Ozorowski, Andrew B Ward, Max Crispin, Katie J Doores, Robert J Woods, Justin L P Benesch, Carol V Robinson, Weston B Struwe
Select lectins have powerful anti-viral properties that effectively neutralize HIV-1 by targeting the dense glycan shield on the virus. Here, we reveal the mechanism by which one of the most potent lectins, BanLec, achieves its inhibition. We identify that BanLec recognizes a subset of high-mannose glycans via bidentate interactions spanning the two binding sites present on each BanLec monomer that were previously considered separate carbohydrate recognition domains. We show that both sites are required for high-affinity glycan binding and virus neutralization...
May 2, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425464/metabolic-labelling-of-the-carbohydrate-core-in-bacterial-peptidoglycan-and-its-applications
#14
Hai Liang, Kristen E DeMeester, Ching-Wen Hou, Michelle A Parent, Jeffrey L Caplan, Catherine L Grimes
Bacterial cells are surrounded by a polymer known as peptidoglycan (PG), which protects the cell from changes in osmotic pressure and small molecule insults. A component of this material, N-acetyl-muramic acid (NAM), serves as a core structural element for innate immune recognition of PG fragments. We report the synthesis of modifiable NAM carbohydrate derivatives and the installation of these building blocks into the backbone of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial PG utilizing metabolic cell wall recycling and biosynthetic machineries...
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418238/specific-and-differential-binding-of-n-acetylgalactosamine-glycopolymers-to-the-human-macrophage-galactose-lectin-and-asialoglycoprotein-receptor
#15
Joji Tanaka, Anne S Gleinich, Qiang Zhang, Richard Whitfield, Kristian Kempe, David M Haddleton, Thomas P Davis, Sébastien Perrier, Daniel A Mitchell, Paul Wilson
A range of glycopolymers composed of N-acetylgalactosamine were prepared via sequential Cu(I)-mediated polymerization and alkyne-azide click (CuAAC). The resulting polymers were shown, via multichannel surface plasmon resonance, to interact specifically with human macrophage galactose lectin (MGL; CD301) with high affinity (KD = 1.11 μM), but they did not bind to the mannose/fucose-selective human lectin dendritic-cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN; CD209). The effect of sugar ligand valency on the binding (so-called "glycoside cluster effect") of poly(N-acetylgalactosamine) to MGL was investigated by varying first the polymer chain length (DP: 100, 64, 40, 23, 12) and then the architecture (4- and 8-arm star glycopolymers)...
April 18, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417509/a-biomolecular-recognition-approach-for-the-functionalization-of-cellulose-with-gold-nanoparticles
#16
A Almeida, A M M Rosa, A M Azevedo, D M F Prazeres
Materials with new and improved functionalities can be obtained by modifying cellulose with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via the in situ reduction of a gold precursor or the deposition or covalent immobilization of pre-synthesized AuNPs. Here, we present an alternative biomolecular recognition approach to functionalize cellulose with biotin-AuNPs that relies on a complex of 2 recognition elements: a ZZ-CBM3 fusion that combines a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) with the ZZ fragment of the staphylococcal protein A and an anti-biotin antibody...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414807/interactions-between-the-breast-cancer-associated-muc1-mucins-and-c-type-lectin-characterized-by-optical-tweezers
#17
Soosan Hadjialirezaei, Gianfranco Picco, Richard Beatson, Joy Burchell, Bjørn Torger Stokke, Marit Sletmoen
Carbohydrate-protein interactions govern many crucial processes in biological systems including cell recognition events. We have used the sensitive force probe optical tweezers to quantify the interactions occurring between MGL lectins and MUC1 carrying the cancer-associated glycan antigens mucins Tn and STn. Unbinding forces of 7.6 pN and 7.1 pN were determined for the MUC1(Tn)-MGL and MUC1(STn)-MGL interactions, at a force loading rate of ~40 pN/s. The interaction strength increased with increasing force loading rate, to 27 and 37 pN at a force loading rate of ~ 310 pN/s...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413373/electrochemical-impedance-spectroscopy-study-of-carbohydrate-terminated-alkanethiol-monolayers-on-nanoporous-gold-implications-for-pore-wetting
#18
Abeera Sharma, Jay K Bhattarai, Swati S Nigudkar, Salvatore G Pistorio, Alexei V Demchenko, Keith J Stine
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to compare the apparent electron transfer rate constant (kapp) for a series of alkanethiol and of carbohydrate-terminated alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on both flat gold and on nanoporous gold (np-Au). Using the surface area for np-Au determined by oxide stripping, the values of kapp for the alkanethiol modified np-Au are initially over two orders of magnitude smaller than the values found on flat Au. This result provides evidence that the diffusing redox probe Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) only accesses a fraction of the np-Au surface after alkanethiol modification suggesting very limited wetting of the internal pores due to the hydrophobic nature of these surfaces...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403817/homology-to-peptide-pattern-for-annotation-of-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-and-prediction-of-function
#19
P K Busk, B Pilgaard, M J Lezyk, A S Meyer, L Lange
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate-active enzymes are found in all organisms and participate in key biological processes. These enzymes are classified in 274 families in the CAZy database but the sequence diversity within each family makes it a major task to identify new family members and to provide basis for prediction of enzyme function. A fast and reliable method for de novo annotation of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes is to identify conserved peptides in the curated enzyme families followed by matching of the conserved peptides to the sequence of interest as demonstrated for the glycosyl hydrolase and the lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase families...
April 12, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389644/assembly-of-ruminococcus-flavefaciens-cellulosome-revealed-by-structures-of-two-cohesin-dockerin-complexes
#20
Pedro Bule, Victor D Alves, Vered Israeli-Ruimy, Ana L Carvalho, Luís M A Ferreira, Steven P Smith, Harry J Gilbert, Shabir Najmudin, Edward A Bayer, Carlos M G A Fontes
Cellulosomes are sophisticated multi-enzymatic nanomachines produced by anaerobes to effectively deconstruct plant structural carbohydrates. Cellulosome assembly involves the binding of enzyme-borne dockerins (Doc) to repeated cohesin (Coh) modules located in a non-catalytic scaffoldin. Docs appended to cellulosomal enzymes generally present two similar Coh-binding interfaces supporting a dual-binding mode, which may confer increased positional adjustment of the different complex components. Ruminococcus flavefaciens' cellulosome is assembled from a repertoire of 223 Doc-containing proteins classified into 6 groups...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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