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Recognition of carbohydrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109980/carbohydrate-recognition-and-lysis-by-bacterial-peptidoglycan-hydrolases
#1
REVIEW
Martín Alcorlo, Siseth Martínez-Caballero, Rafael Molina, Juan A Hermoso
The major component of bacterial cell wall is peptidoglycan (PG), a complex polymer formed by long glycan chains cross-linked by peptide stems. PG is in constant equilibrium requiring well-orchestrated coordination between synthesis and degradation. The resulting cell-wall fragments can be recycled, act as messengers for bacterial communication, as effector molecules in immune response or as signaling molecules triggering antibiotics resistance. Tailoring and recycling of PG requires the cleavage of different covalent bonds of the PG sacculi by a diverse set of specific enzymes whose activities are strictly regulated...
January 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106805/synthetic-assembly-of-mannose-moieties-using-polymer-chemistry-and-the-biological-evaluation-of-its-interaction-towards-concanavalin-a
#2
Deepti Diwan, Kohei Shinkai, Toshihiro Tetsuka, Bin Cao, Hidenao Arai, Tetsuo Koyama, Ken Hatano, Koji Matsuoka
Protein-carbohydrate interactions exhibit myriad intracellular recognition events, so understanding and investigating their specific interaction with high selectivity and strength are of crucial importance. In order to examine the effect of multivalent binding on the specificity of protein-carbohydrate interactions, we synthesized mannose glycosides as a novel type of glycosylated monomer and glycopolymers of polyacrylamide derivatives with α-mannose (α-Man) by radical polymerization and monitored their strength of interaction with concanavalin A (Con A) by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection...
January 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104787/binding-characteristics-of-galectin-3-fusion-proteins
#3
Sophia Böcker, Lothar Elling
Galectin-3 modulates cell adhesion and signaling events by specific binding and cross-linking galactoside containing carbohydrate ligands. Proteolytic cleavage by metalloproteinases yields in vivo N-terminally truncated galectin-3 still bearing the carbohydrate recognition domain. Truncated galectin-3 has been demonstrated to act in vivo as a negative inhibitor of galectin-3 due to higher affinity for carbohydrate ligands. We here present our studies on a series of twelve human galectin-3 protein constructs...
January 19, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097217/amylose-recognition-and-ring-size-determination-of-amylomaltase
#4
Christian Roth, Nicole Weizenmann, Nicola Bexten, Wolfram Saenger, Wolfgang Zimmermann, Timm Maier, Norbert Sträter
Starch is a major carbon and energy source throughout all kingdoms of life. It consists of two carbohydrate polymers, branched amylopectin and linear amylose, which are sparingly soluble in water. Hence, the enzymatic breakdown by glycoside hydrolases (GHs) is of great biological and societal importance. Amylomaltases (AMs) are GHs specialized in the hydrolysis of α-1,4-linked sugar chains such as amylose. They are able to catalyze an intramolecular transglycosylation of a bound sugar chain yielding polymeric sugar rings, the cycloamyloses (CAs), consisting of 20 to 100 glucose units...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096352/recognition-of-protein-linked-glycans-as-a-determinant-of-peptidase-activity
#5
Ilit Noach, Elizabeth Ficko-Blean, Benjamin Pluvinage, Christopher Stuart, Meredith L Jenkins, Denis Brochu, Nakita Buenbrazo, Warren Wakarchuk, John E Burke, Michel Gilbert, Alisdair B Boraston
The vast majority of proteins are posttranslationally altered, with the addition of covalently linked sugars (glycosylation) being one of the most abundant modifications. However, despite the hydrolysis of protein peptide bonds by peptidases being a process essential to all life on Earth, the fundamental details of how peptidases accommodate posttranslational modifications, including glycosylation, has not been addressed. Through biochemical analyses and X-ray crystallographic structures we show that to hydrolyze their substrates, three structurally related metallopeptidases require the specific recognition of O-linked glycan modifications via carbohydrate-specific subsites immediately adjacent to their peptidase catalytic machinery...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095348/immune-transcriptome-reveals-the-mincle-c-type-lectin-receptor-acts-as-a-partial-replacement-for-tlr4-in-lipopolysaccharide-mediated-inflammatory-response-in-barramundi-lates-calcarifer
#6
Emmanuelle Zoccola, Stuart Kellie, Andrew C Barnes
Fish represent the most diverse and abundant extant vertebrate infraclass. They are also one of the earliest divergent phyla with adaptive immunity based on antigen recognition by MHC and immunoglobulin. The aquaculture industry, which currently provides more than half of the fish for human consumption globally, has successfully exploited the adaptive immune system of fish through mass vaccination programs. However, vaccination against highly diverse antigens, mostly carbohydrates, such as capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is challenging...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093404/development-and-application-of-an-algorithm-to-compute-weighted-multiple-glycan-alignments
#7
Masae Hosoda, Yukie Akune, Kiyoko F Aoki-Kinoshita
MOTIVATION: A glycan consists of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds, has branches and forms complex molecular structures. Databases have been developed to store large amounts of glycan-binding experiments, including glycan arrays with glycan binding proteins (GBPs). However, there are few bioinformatics techniques to analyze large amounts of data for glycans because there are few tools that can handle the complexity of glycan structures. Thus, we have developed the MCAW (Multiple Carbohydrate Alignment with Weights) tool that can align multiple glycan structures, to aid in the understanding of their function as binding recognition molecules...
January 16, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069433/dual-recognition-activity-of-a-rhamnose-binding-lectin-to-pathogenic-bacteria-and-zooxanthellae-in-stony-coral-pocillopora-damicornis
#8
Zhi Zhou, Xiaopeng Yu, Jia Tang, Yunjie Zhu, Guangmei Chen, Liping Guo, Bo Huang
Rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) is a type of Ca(2+)-independent lectin with tandem repeat carbohydrate-recognition domain, and is crucial for the innate immunity in many invertebrates. In this study, the cDNA sequence encoding RBL in coral Pocillopora damicornis (PdRBL-1) was cloned. The PdRBL-1 protein shared highest amino acid sequence similarity (55%) with the polyp of Hydra vulgaris, and contained a signal peptide and two tandem carbohydrate-recognition domains in which all cysteine residues were conserved...
January 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065604/characterization-of-galectin-1-from-chinese-giant-salamanders-andrias-davidianus-and-its-involvements-during-immune-response
#9
Hui Yang, Qingjing Lan, Ranran Liu, Dan Cui, Haixia Liu, Dongmei Xiong, Fenggang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Lixin Wang
Galectins are considered as a multifunctional protein which play essential roles in cell adhesion and apoptosis, inflammation, tumor progression and immune response. In spite of extensive studies of galectin importance in immune system among different animals, few studies have been devoted to their functions in amphibian. In the present study, we characterized one proto type of galectin (named AdGal1) from Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus and studied its function in immune response. AdGal1 cDNA possesses an open reading frame of 598 bp, which encodes a putative galectin of 134 amino acids containing one carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs)...
January 5, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049478/the-transcriptome-of-the-mosquito-aedes-fluviatilis-diptera-culicidae-and-transcriptional-changes-associated-with-its-native-wolbachia-infection
#10
E P Caragata, F S Pais, L A Baton, J B L Silva, M H F Sorgine, L A Moreira
BACKGROUND: Wolbachia is a bacterial endosymbiont that naturally infects a wide range of insect species, and causes drastic changes to host biology. Stable infections of Wolbachia in mosquitoes can inhibit infection with medically important pathogens such as dengue virus and malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites. However, some native Wolbachia strains can enhance infection with certain pathogens, as is the case for the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis, where infection with Plasmodium gallinaceum is enhanced by the native wFlu Wolbachia strain...
January 3, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045432/cancer-therapy-due-to-apoptosis-galectin-9
#11
REVIEW
Koji Fujita, Hisakazu Iwama, Kyoko Oura, Tomoko Tadokoro, Eri Samukawa, Teppei Sakamoto, Takako Nomura, Joji Tani, Hirohito Yoneyama, Asahiro Morishita, Takashi Himoto, Mitsuomi Hirashima, Tsutomu Masaki
Dysregulation of apoptosis is a major hallmark in cancer biology that might equip tumors with a higher malignant potential and chemoresistance. The anti-cancer activities of lectin, defined as a carbohydrate-binding protein that is not an enzyme or antibody, have been investigated for over a century. Recently, galectin-9, which has two distinct carbohydrate recognition domains connected by a linker peptide, was noted to induce apoptosis in thymocytes and immune cells. The apoptosis of these cells contributes to the development and regulation of acquired immunity...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031265/the-carbohydrate-lectin-receptor-dectin-1-mediates-immune-response-to-exserohilum-rostratum
#12
Jennifer L Reedy, Paige E Negoro, Marianela Feliu, Allison K Lord, Nida S Khan, Dan P Lukason, Nathan P Wiederhold, Jenny M Tam, Michael K Mansour, Thomas F Patterson, Jatin M Vyas
Dematiaceous molds are found ubiquitously in the environment and cause a wide spectrum of human disease including infections associated with high rates of mortality. Despite this, the mechanism of innate immune response has been less well studied, although it is key in the clearance of fungal pathogens. Here, we focus on Exserohilum rostratum, a dematiaceous mold that caused 751 infections during a multistate outbreak due to injection of contaminated methylprednisolone. We show that macrophages are incapable of phagocytosing Exserohilum Despite lack of phagocytosis, macrophage production of TNFα is triggered by hyphae, but not spores, and depends upon Dectin-1, a C-type lectin receptor...
December 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025250/glycosylation-of-muc1-influences-the-binding-of-a-therapeutic-antibody-by-altering-the-conformational-equilibrium-of-the-antigen
#13
Mohammadreza Movahedin, Teresa M Brooks, Nitin T Supekar, Naveen Gokanapudi, Geert-Jan Boons, Cory L Brooks
In cancer cells, the glycoprotein Mucin 1 (MUC1) undergoes abnormal, truncated glycosylation. The truncated glycosylation exposes cryptic peptide epitopes that can be recognized by antibodies. Since these immunogenic regions are cancer specific, they represent ideal targets for therapeutic antibodies. We investigated the role of tumor-specific glycosylation on antigen recognition by the therapeutic antibody AR20.5. We explored the affinity of AR20.5 to a synthetic cancer-specific MUC1 glycopeptide and peptide...
December 26, 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013175/isolation-and-expression-features-of-hexose-kinase-genes-under-various-abiotic-stresses-in-the-tea-plant-camellia-sinensis
#14
Na-Na Li, Wen-Jun Qian, Lu Wang, Hong-Li Cao, Xin-Yuan Hao, Ya-Jun Yang, Xin-Chao Wang
Hexokinases (HXKs, EC 2.7.1.1) and fructokinases (FRKs, EC 2.7.1.4) play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and sugar signaling during the growth and development of plants. However, the HXKs and FRKs in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) remain largely unknown. In this manuscript, we present the molecular characterization, phylogenetic relationships, conserved domains and expression profiles of four HXK and seven FRK genes of the tea plant. The 11 deduced CsHXK and CsFRK proteins were grouped into six main classes...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012132/galectins-their-network-and-roles-in-immunity-tumor-growth-control
#15
REVIEW
Herbert Kaltner, Stefan Toegel, Gabriel García Caballero, Joachim C Manning, Robert W Ledeen, Hans-Joachim Gabius
One route of realizing the information of glycans involves endogenous receptors (lectins). Occurrence at branch ends renders galactosides particularly accessible. Thus, they are suited for such a recognition process. Fittingly, these epitopes serve as physiological ligands. The ga(lactoside-binding) lectins share the β-sandwich fold with a sequence signature around a central tryptophan residue besides this specificity. Three modes of presentation of the carbohydrate recognition domain are known for galectins, and genome monitoring from fungi to mammals discloses that galectins form a network...
December 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003128/structural-and-binding-studies-of-a-c-type-galactose-binding-lectin-from-bothrops-jararacussu-snake-venom
#16
Marco A Sartim, Matheus P Pinheiro, Ricardo A P de Pádua, Suely V Sampaio, M Cristina Nonato
BJcuL is a snake venom galactoside-binding lectin (SVgalL) isolated from Bothrops jararacussu and is involved in a wide variety of biological activities including triggering of pro-inflammatory response, disruption of microbial biofilm structure and induction of apoptosis. In the present work, we determined the crystallographic structure of BJcuL, the first holo structure of a SVgalL, and introduced the fluorescence-based thermal stability assay (Thermofluor) as a tool for screening and characterization of the binding mechanism of SVgalL ligands...
December 19, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000682/electronic-single-molecule-identification-of-carbohydrate-isomers-by-recognition-tunnelling
#17
JongOne Im, Sovan Biswas, Hao Liu, Yanan Zhao, Suman Sen, Sudipta Biswas, Brian Ashcroft, Chad Borges, Xu Wang, Stuart Lindsay, Peiming Zhang
Carbohydrates are one of the four main building blocks of life, and are categorized as monosaccharides (sugars), oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Each sugar can exist in two alternative anomers (in which a hydroxy group at C-1 takes different orientations) and each pair of sugars can form different epimers (isomers around the stereocentres connecting the sugars). This leads to a vast combinatorial complexity, intractable to mass spectrometry and requiring large amounts of sample for NMR characterization...
December 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000556/therapeutic-approaches-blocking-glycan-synthesis-as-targeting-strategy-for-malaria
#18
Pollyanna Stephanie Gomes, Alexandre Morrot
Malaria annually infected million people around the world, especially in subtropical and tropical regions in the world. Thereby, the research effort is focused on new therapeutic targets to strike malaria, as drug resistance is one of the greatest challenges in malaria eradication. Carbohydrate recognition in Plasmodium-host interactions is one area for potential targets against disease. The glycan derivatives interfere with replication and invasion of Plasmodium falciparum. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are known to block merozoite and sporozoite invasion...
December 20, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995767/mannoside-recognition-and-degradation-by-bacteria
#19
Simon Ladevèze, Elisabeth Laville, Jordane Despres, Pascale Mosoni, Gabrielle Potocki-Véronèse
Mannosides constitute a vast group of glycans widely distributed in nature. Produced by almost all organisms, these carbohydrates are involved in numerous cellular processes, such as cell structuration, protein maturation and signalling, mediation of protein-protein interactions and cell recognition. The ubiquitous presence of mannosides in the environment means they are a reliable source of carbon and energy for bacteria, which have developed complex strategies to harvest them. This review focuses on the various mannosides that can be found in nature and details their structure...
December 20, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990523/teichoic-acids-synthesis-and-applications
#20
REVIEW
Daan van der Es, Wouter F J Hogendorf, Herman S Overkleeft, Gijsbert A van der Marel, Jeroen D C Codée
This review describes the developments in the synthesis of teichoic acids (TA) - glycosylated poly(alditolphosphates) - and the application of these fragments in immunological studies. These structurally diverse biopolymers are omnipresent constituents of the Gram-positive bacterial cell wall where they fulfill a variety of vital functions. They have been and continue to be attractive synthetic targets because of their challenging structures and the fact that their microheterogeneity precludes their isolation in single and pure enough form from natural sources...
December 19, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
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