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Recognition of carbohydrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425464/metabolic-labelling-of-the-carbohydrate-core-in-bacterial-peptidoglycan-and-its-applications
#1
Hai Liang, Kristen E DeMeester, Ching-Wen Hou, Michelle A Parent, Jeffrey L Caplan, Catherine L Grimes
Bacterial cells are surrounded by a polymer known as peptidoglycan (PG), which protects the cell from changes in osmotic pressure and small molecule insults. A component of this material, N-acetyl-muramic acid (NAM), serves as a core structural element for innate immune recognition of PG fragments. We report the synthesis of modifiable NAM carbohydrate derivatives and the installation of these building blocks into the backbone of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial PG utilizing metabolic cell wall recycling and biosynthetic machineries...
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418238/specific-and-differential-binding-of-n-acetylgalactosamine-glycopolymers-to-the-human-macrophage-galactose-lectin-and-asialoglycoprotein-receptor
#2
Joji Tanaka, Anne S Gleinich, Qiang Zhang, Richard Whitfield, Kristian Kempe, David M Haddleton, Thomas P Davis, Sébastien Perrier, Daniel A Mitchell, Paul Wilson
A range of glycopolymers composed of N-acetylgalactosamine were prepared via sequential Cu(I)-mediated polymerization and alkyne-azide click (CuAAC). The resulting polymers were shown, via multichannel surface plasmon resonance, to interact specifically with human macrophage galactose lectin (MGL; CD301) with high affinity (KD = 1.11 μM), but they did not bind to the mannose/fucose-selective human lectin dendritic-cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN; CD209). The effect of sugar ligand valency on the binding (so-called "glycoside cluster effect") of poly(N-acetylgalactosamine) to MGL was investigated by varying first the polymer chain length (DP: 100, 64, 40, 23, 12) and then the architecture (4- and 8-arm star glycopolymers)...
April 18, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417509/a-biomolecular-recognition-approach-for-the-functionalization-of-cellulose-with-gold-nanoparticles
#3
A Almeida, A M M Rosa, A M Azevedo, D M F Prazeres
Materials with new and improved functionalities can be obtained by modifying cellulose with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via the in situ reduction of a gold precursor or the deposition or covalent immobilization of pre-synthesized AuNPs. Here, we present an alternative biomolecular recognition approach to functionalize cellulose with biotin-AuNPs that relies on a complex of 2 recognition elements: a ZZ-CBM3 fusion that combines a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) with the ZZ fragment of the staphylococcal protein A and an anti-biotin antibody...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414807/interactions-between-the-breast-cancer-associated-muc1-mucins-and-c-type-lectin-characterized-by-optical-tweezers
#4
Soosan Hadjialirezaei, Gianfranco Picco, Richard Beatson, Joy Burchell, Bjørn Torger Stokke, Marit Sletmoen
Carbohydrate-protein interactions govern many crucial processes in biological systems including cell recognition events. We have used the sensitive force probe optical tweezers to quantify the interactions occurring between MGL lectins and MUC1 carrying the cancer-associated glycan antigens mucins Tn and STn. Unbinding forces of 7.6 pN and 7.1 pN were determined for the MUC1(Tn)-MGL and MUC1(STn)-MGL interactions, at a force loading rate of ~40 pN/s. The interaction strength increased with increasing force loading rate, to 27 and 37 pN at a force loading rate of ~ 310 pN/s...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413373/electrochemical-impedance-spectroscopy-study-of-carbohydrate-terminated-alkanethiol-monolayers-on-nanoporous-gold-implications-for-pore-wetting
#5
Abeera Sharma, Jay K Bhattarai, Swati S Nigudkar, Salvatore G Pistorio, Alexei V Demchenko, Keith J Stine
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to compare the apparent electron transfer rate constant (kapp) for a series of alkanethiol and of carbohydrate-terminated alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on both flat gold and on nanoporous gold (np-Au). Using the surface area for np-Au determined by oxide stripping, the values of kapp for the alkanethiol modified np-Au are initially over two orders of magnitude smaller than the values found on flat Au. This result provides evidence that the diffusing redox probe Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) only accesses a fraction of the np-Au surface after alkanethiol modification suggesting very limited wetting of the internal pores due to the hydrophobic nature of these surfaces...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403817/homology-to-peptide-pattern-for-annotation-of-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-and-prediction-of-function
#6
P K Busk, B Pilgaard, M J Lezyk, A S Meyer, L Lange
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate-active enzymes are found in all organisms and participate in key biological processes. These enzymes are classified in 274 families in the CAZy database but the sequence diversity within each family makes it a major task to identify new family members and to provide basis for prediction of enzyme function. A fast and reliable method for de novo annotation of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes is to identify conserved peptides in the curated enzyme families followed by matching of the conserved peptides to the sequence of interest as demonstrated for the glycosyl hydrolase and the lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase families...
April 12, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389644/assembly-of-ruminococcus-flavefaciens-cellulosome-revealed-by-structures-of-two-cohesin-dockerin-complexes
#7
Pedro Bule, Victor D Alves, Vered Israeli-Ruimy, Ana L Carvalho, Luís M A Ferreira, Steven P Smith, Harry J Gilbert, Shabir Najmudin, Edward A Bayer, Carlos M G A Fontes
Cellulosomes are sophisticated multi-enzymatic nanomachines produced by anaerobes to effectively deconstruct plant structural carbohydrates. Cellulosome assembly involves the binding of enzyme-borne dockerins (Doc) to repeated cohesin (Coh) modules located in a non-catalytic scaffoldin. Docs appended to cellulosomal enzymes generally present two similar Coh-binding interfaces supporting a dual-binding mode, which may confer increased positional adjustment of the different complex components. Ruminococcus flavefaciens' cellulosome is assembled from a repertoire of 223 Doc-containing proteins classified into 6 groups...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386256/host-immune-responses-in-hiv-1-infection-the-emerging-pathogenic-role-of-siglecs-and-their-clinical-correlates
#8
REVIEW
Joanna Mikulak, Clara Di Vito, Elisa Zaghi, Domenico Mavilio
A better understanding of the mechanisms employed by HIV-1 to escape immune responses still represents one of the major tasks required for the development of novel therapeutic approaches targeting a disease still lacking a definitive cure. Host innate immune responses against HIV-1 are key in the early phases of the infection as they could prevent the development and the establishment of two hallmarks of the infection: chronic inflammation and viral reservoirs. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) belong to a family of transmembrane proteins able to dampen host immune responses and set appropriate immune activation thresholds upon ligation with their natural ligands, the sialylated carbohydrates...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378189/cleavage-and-phosphorylation-important-post-translational-modifications-of-galectin-3
#9
REVIEW
Xiaoge Gao, Jingjie Liu, Xiangye Liu, Liantao Li, Junnian Zheng
As the unique chimeric member of the β-galactoside-binding protein family, galectin-3 is a multivalent and multifunctional oncogenic protein involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, cell adhesion, RNA splicing, cell apoptosis, and malignant transformation. Post-translational modifications can effectively increase a protein's functional diversity, either by degradation or adding chemical modifications, thus regulating activity, localization, and ligand interaction...
April 4, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374848/pathogen-recognition-of-a-novel-c-type-lectin-from-marsupenaeus-japonicus-reveals-the-divergent-sugar-binding-specificity-of-qap-motif
#10
Rod Russel R Alenton, Keiichiro Koiwai, Kohei Miyaguchi, Hidehiro Kondo, Ikuo Hirono
C-type lectins (CTLs) are calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins known to assist the innate immune system as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The binding specificity of CTLs lies in the motif of their carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), the tripeptide motifs EPN and QPD bind to mannose and galactose, respectively. However, variants of these motifs were discovered including a QAP sequence reported in shrimp believed to have the same carbohydrate specificity as QPD. Here, we characterized a novel C-type lectin (MjGCTL) possessing a CRD with a QAP motif...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371325/analysis-of-genetic-variants-of-transferrin-in-human-serum-after-desialylation-by-capillary-zone-electrophoresis-and-capillary-isoelectric-focusing
#11
Jitka Caslavska, Christian Lanz, Patricie Burda, Micha Tobler, Wolfgang Thormann
Capillary electrophoresis analysis of transferrin in human serum is used to assess genetic variants after desialylation with neuraminidase and iron saturation to reduce the complexity of the transferrin pattern and thus facilitate the recognition of transferrin polymorphisms. Asialo-transferrin forms are analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis using assay conditions as for the monitoring of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin or by capillary isoelectric focusing in a pH 5 to 8 gradient which requires immunoextraction of transferrin prior to analysis...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363529/potential-of-glucans-as-vaccine-adjuvants-a-review-of-the-%C3%AE-glucans-case
#12
REVIEW
Silvia Moreno-Mendieta, Daniel Guillén, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Sergio Sánchez, Romina Rodríguez-Sanoja
α-Glucans are present in virtually all domains of life, and these glucose chains linked by α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked branches form the most important storage carbohydrates in cells. It is likely for this reason that α-glucans are not generally considered as bioactive molecules as β-glucans are. Nevertheless, it is known that depending on their source, many α-glucans play important roles as modulators of immune response. Recent efforts have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms through which α-glucans exert their immunostimulant effects; however, the main challenge is the accurate identification of the receptors of immune cells involved in their recognition...
June 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351593/triazole-linked-fluorescent-bisboronic-acid-capable-of-selective-recognition-of-the-lewis-y-antigen
#13
Yan'en Wang, Ruixue Rong, Hua Chen, Mengyuan Zhu, Binghe Wang, Xiaoliu Li
Cell surface carbohydrates of the Lewis blood group antigens, Lewis X (Le(x)), Lewis Y (Le(y)), Lewis A (Le(a)), and their sialylated derivatives, such as sialy Lewis X (sLe(x)) and sialy Lewis A (sLe(a)), play important roles in various recognition processes. These cell surface carbohydrates have also been associated with the development and progression of many types of cancers. Recently, we synthesized four anthracene-based fluorescent bisboronic acid sensors (compounds 2a-d) linked by 'click' chemistry with tethers of different lengths to match the epitope of various Lewis group of sugars...
May 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337580/bacteriophage-encoded-virion-associated-enzymes-to-overcome-the-carbohydrate-barriers-during-the-infection-process
#14
REVIEW
Agnieszka Latka, Barbara Maciejewska, Grazyna Majkowska-Skrobek, Yves Briers, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that infect the host after successful receptor recognition and adsorption to the cell surface. The irreversible adherence followed by genome material ejection into host cell cytoplasm must be preceded by the passage of diverse carbohydrate barriers such as capsule polysaccharides (CPSs), O-polysaccharide chains of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules, extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) forming biofilm matrix, and peptidoglycan (PG) layers. For that purpose, bacteriophages are equipped with various virion-associated carbohydrate active enzymes, termed polysaccharide depolymerases and lysins, that recognize, bind, and degrade the polysaccharide compounds...
April 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318230/label-free-discovery-array-platform-for-the-characterization-of-glycan-binding-proteins-and-glycoproteins
#15
Christopher J Gray, Antonio Sánchez-Ruíz, Ivana Šardzíková, Yassir A Ahmed, Rebecca L Miller, Juana E Reyes Martinez, Edward Pallister, Kun Huang, Peter Both, Mirja Hartmann, Hannah N Roberts, Robert Šardzík, Santanu Mandal, Jerry E Turnbull, Claire E Eyers, Sabine L Flitsch
The identification of carbohydrate-protein interactions is central to our understanding of the roles of cell-surface carbohydrates (the glycocalyx), fundamental for cell-recognition events. Therefore, there is a need for fast high-throughput biochemical tools to capture the complexity of these biological interactions. Here, we describe a rapid method for qualitative label-free detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions on arrays of simple synthetic glycans, more complex natural glycosaminoglycans (GAG), and lectins/carbohydrate binding proteins using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry...
March 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317919/scavenger-receptor-collectin-placenta-1-is-a-novel-receptor-involved-in-the-uptake-of-myelin-by-phagocytes
#16
Jeroen F J Bogie, Jo Mailleux, Elien Wouters, Winde Jorissen, Elien Grajchen, Jasmine Vanmol, Kristiaan Wouters, Niels Hellings, Jack Van Horsen, Tim Vanmierlo, Jerome J A Hendriks
Myelin-containing macrophages and microglia are the most abundant immune cells in active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Our recent transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that collectin placenta 1 (CL-P1) is one of the most potently induced genes in macrophages after uptake of myelin. CL-P1 is a type II transmembrane protein with both a collagen-like and carbohydrate recognition domain, which plays a key role in host defense. In this study we sought to determine the dynamics of CL-P1 expression on myelin-containing phagocytes and define the role that it plays in MS lesion development...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306237/the-glycan-microarray-story-from-construction-to-applications
#17
Ji Young Hyun, Jaeyoung Pai, Injae Shin
Not only are glycan-mediated binding processes in cells and organisms essential for a wide range of physiological processes, but they are also implicated in various pathological processes. As a result, elucidation of glycan-associated biomolecular interactions and their consequences is of great importance in basic biological research and biomedical applications. In 2002, we and others were the first to utilize glycan microarrays in efforts aimed at the rapid analysis of glycan-associated recognition events...
March 17, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303635/incident-microalbuminuria-and-complement-factor-mannan-binding-lectin-associated-protein-19-in-people-with-newly-diagnosed-type-1-diabetes
#18
J A Ostergaard, S Thiel, I T Hoffmann-Petersen, P Hovind, H-H Parving, L Tarnow, P Rossing, T K Hansen
BACKGROUND: Evidence links the lectin pathway of complement activation to diabetic kidney disease. Upon carbohydrate-recognition by pattern-recognition molecules, e.g., mannan-binding lectin (MBL), the MBL-associated serine protease (MASP-2) is activated and initiates the complement cascade. The MASP2 gene encodes MASP-2 and the alternative splice product MBL-associated protein 19 (MAp19). Both MAp19 and MASP-2 circulate in complex with MBL. We tested the hypothesis that MAp19 and MASP-2 concentrations predict the risk of incident microalbuminuria...
March 16, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298521/the-interaction-of-pneumocystis-with-the-c-type-lectin-receptor-mincle-exerts-a-significant-role-in-host-defense-against-infection
#19
Theodore J Kottom, Deanne M Hebrink, Paige E Jenson, Vijayalakshmi Nandakumar, Marcel Wüthrich, Huafeng Wang, Bruce Klein, Sho Yamasaki, Bernd Lepenies, Andrew H Limper
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality within immunocompromised patients. In this study, we examined the potential role of macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) for host defense against Pneumocystis Binding assays implementing soluble Mincle carbohydrate recognition domain fusion proteins demonstrated binding to intact Pneumocystis carinii as well as to organism homogenates, and they purified major surface glycoprotein/glycoprotein A derived from the organism. Additional experiments showed that rats with PCP expressed increased Mincle mRNA levels...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294600/histo-blood-group-antigen-presentation-is-critical-for-binding-of-norovirus-vlp-to-glycosphingolipids-in-model-membranes
#20
Waqas Nasir, Martin Frank, Angelika Kunze, Marta Bally, Francisco Parra, Per-Georg Nyholm, Fredrik Höök, Göran Larson
Virus entry depends on biomolecular recognition at the surface of cell membranes. In the case of glycolipid receptors, these events are expected to be influenced by how the glycan epitope close to the membrane is presented to the virus. This presentation of membrane-associated glycans is more restricted than that of glycans in solution, particularly because of orientational constraints imposed on the glycolipid through its lateral interactions with other membrane lipids and proteins. We have developed and employed a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy-based binding assay and a scheme for molecular dynamics (MD) membrane simulations to investigate the consequences of various glycan presentation effects...
March 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
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