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Recognition of carbohydrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156585/pan-cellulosomics-of-mesophilic-clostridia-variations-on-a-theme
#1
Bareket Dassa, Ilya Borovok, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Raphael Lamed, Edward A Bayer, Sarah Moraïs
The bacterial cellulosome is an extracellular, multi-enzyme machinery, which efficiently depolymerizes plant biomass by degrading plant cell wall polysaccharides. Several cellulolytic bacteria have evolved various elaborate modular architectures of active cellulosomes. We present here a genome-wide analysis of a dozen mesophilic clostridia species, including both well-studied and yet-undescribed cellulosome-producing bacteria. We first report here, the presence of cellulosomal elements, thus expanding our knowledge regarding the prevalence of the cellulosomal paradigm in nature...
November 18, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154855/identification-and-characterization-of-a-calcium-dependent-lily-type-lectin-from-black-rockfish-sebastes-schlegelii-molecular-antennas-are-involved-in-host-defense-via-pathogen-recognition
#2
Roopasingam Kugapreethan, Qiang Wan, Jehanathan Nilojan, Jehee Lee
Lily-type lectins (LTLs) are soluble pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that contain one or more characteristic carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs), through which LTLs bind reversibly and specifically to cognate sugar moieties present on the invading pathogen membrane and trigger the host innate immune responses. In this study, we identified a LTL homolog (SsLTL) from black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) transcriptome database and its functional roles in innate immunity was investigated in vitro and in vivo...
November 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146448/sialic-acid-binding-lectins-sabls-from-solen-grandis-function-as-prrs-ensuring-immune-recognition-and-bacterial-clearance
#3
Xiumei Wei, Dinglong Yang, Huiying Li, Hailin Jiang, Xiangquan Liu, Qin Zhang, Jialong Yang
Sialic acid-binding lectins (SABLs) are ubiquitous ancient molecules with binding properties to N-acetyl or N-glycolyl carbohydrates, and play crucial roles in both adaptive and innate immune responses. In present study, recombinant protein and antibodies of two SABLs from mollusk Solen grandis (SgSABL-1 and SgSABL-2) were prepared to investigate their functions in innate immunity. The recombinant protein of SgSABL-1 (rSgSABL-1) could bind LPS, PGN and β-glucan in vitro, while rSgSABL-2 could only bind PGN rather than LPS and β-glucan...
November 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144837/evolution-of-alternative-adaptive-immune-systems-in-vertebrates
#4
Thomas Boehm, Masayuki Hirano, Stephen J Holland, Sabyasachi Das, Michael Schorpp, Max D Cooper
Adaptive immunity in jawless fishes is based on antigen recognition by three types of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) composed of variable leucinerich repeats, which are differentially expressed by two T-like lymphocyte lineages and one B-like lymphocyte lineage. The T-like cells express either VLRAs or VLRCs of yet undefined antigen specificity, whereas the VLRB antibodies secreted by B-like cells bind proteinaceous and carbohydrate antigens. The incomplete VLR germline genes are assembled into functional units by a gene conversion-like mechanism that employs flanking variable leucine-rich repeat sequences as templates in association with lineage-specific expression of cytidine deaminases...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142050/collectin-11-promotes-the-development-of-renal-tubulointerstitial-fibrosis
#5
Weiju Wu, Chengfei Liu, Conrad A Farrar, Liang Ma, Xia Dong, Steven H Sacks, Ke Li, Wuding Zhou
Collectin-11 is a recently described soluble C-type lectin, a pattern recognition molecule of the innate immune system that has distinct roles in host defense, embryonic development, and acute inflammation. However, little is known regarding the role of collectin-11 in tissue fibrosis. Here, we investigated collectin-11 in the context of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Compared with wild-type littermate controls, Collec11 deficient (CL-11(-/-) ) mice had significantly reduced renal functional impairment, tubular injury, renal leukocyte infiltration, renal tissue inflammation/fibrogenesis, and collagen deposition in the kidneys after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133252/l-rhamnose-binding-lectins-rbls-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-characterization-and-expression-profiling-in-mucosal-tissues
#6
Dongdong Zhang, Benjamin H Beck, Haitham Mohammed, Honggang Zhao, Wilawan Thongda, Zhi Ye, Qifan Zeng, Craig A Shoemaker, S Adam Fuller, Eric Peatman
Rhamnose-binding lectins (RBLs) are crucial elements associated with innate immune responses to infections and have been characterized from a variety of teleost fishes. Given the importance of RBL in teleost fishes, we sought to study the diversity and expression profiles of RBLs in an important cultured fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) following experimental infection with Streptococcus agalactiae, a major cause of streptococcosis in farmed tilapia. In this study, four predicted RBL genes were identified from Nile tilapia and were designated as OnRBL3a, OnRBL3b, OnRBL3c, and OnRBL3d...
November 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130464/boronic-acid-recognition-of-non-interacting-carbohydrates-for-biomedical-applications-increasing-fluorescence-signals-of-minimally-interacting-aldoses-and-sucralose
#7
Angel Resendez, Md Abdul Halim, Jasmeet Singh, Dominic-Luc Webb, Bakthan Singaram
To address carbohydrates that are commonly used in biomedical applications with low binding affinities for boronic acid based detection systems, two chemical modification methods were utilized to increase sensitivity. Modified carbohydrates were analyzed using a two component fluorescent probe based on boronic acid-appended viologen-HPTS (4,4'-o-BBV). Carbohydrates normally giving poor signals (fucose, l-rhamnose, xylose) were subjected to sodium borohydride (NaBH4) reduction in ambient conditions for 1 h yielding the corresponding sugar alcohols from fucose, l-rhamnose and xylose in essentially quantitative yields...
November 13, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121497/mannosylcalix-n-arenes-as-multivalent-ligands-for-dc-sign
#8
Ilaria Morbioli, Vanessa Porkolab, Andrea Magini, Alessandro Casnati, Franck Fieschi, Francesco Sansone
DC-SIGN is a receptor protruded from the membrane of immature dendritic cells (DCs) that participates in the activation of the immune response through the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). On the other hand, HIV exploits the interaction between high-mannose structures of its envelope glycoprotein gp120 and DC-SIGN to be transported towards and infect T-cells. DC-SIGN is involved in the recognition process in the form of a tetramer and the multiple exposition of carbohydrate recognition sites (CRSs) is amplified by the formation on the DCs membrane of patches of tetramers...
October 31, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107743/allelic-variation-partially-regulates-galactose-dependent-hydrogen-peroxide-release-from-circulating-hemocytes-of-the-snail-biomphalaria-glabrata
#9
Euan R O Allan, Michael S Blouin
Freshwater snails are the intermediate hosts for numerous parasitic worms that are detrimental to human and agricultural health. Understanding the immune responses of these snails could be vital for finding ways to block transmission of those parasites. Allelic variation in a recently discovered genomic region in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, influences their susceptibility to schistosomes. Here we tested whether genes in that region, termed the Guadeloupe Resistance Complex (GRC), are involved in recognition of common pathogen-associated molecules that have been shown to be stimulants of the hydrogen peroxide defense pathway...
October 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099761/the-role-of-carbohydrates-in-the-lipopolysaccharide-lps-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-signalling
#10
REVIEW
Florent Cochet, Francesco Peri
The interactions between sugar-containing molecules from the bacteria cell wall and pattern recognition receptors (PRR) on the plasma membrane or cytosol of specialized host cells are the first molecular events required for the activation of higher animal's immune response and inflammation. This review focuses on the role of carbohydrates of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS, lipooligosaccharide, LOS, and lipid A), in the interaction with the host Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (TLR4/MD-2) complex...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071557/collectins-in-urinary-tract-and-kidney-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Yongfang Qin, Jingjing Liu, Jiao Liu, Fengqi Hu
The innate immune system serves as the frontline defense against invading pathogens and initiates an inflammatory response to microorganisms. Collectins are C-type lectins that are structurally characterized by a collagen-like sequence and a carbohydrate recognition domain. Moreover, they are widely expressed throughout the body and are involved in the innate immunity against a variety of pathogens, regulating inflammation, and protecting the lungs from pathogens. Recently, two classical collectins, surfactant protein A (SP-A) and surfactant protein D (SP-D), as well as novel collectin 11, were found present in urinary tract tissues...
October 25, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064669/highly-specific-binding-on-antifouling-zwitterionic-polymer-coated-microbeads-as-measured-by-flow-cytometry
#12
Esther van Andel, Ian de Bus, Edwin J Tijhaar, Maarten M J Smulders, Huub F J Savelkoul, Han Zuilhof
Micron- and nano-sized particles are extensively used in various biomedical applications. However, their performance is often drastically hampered by the nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules, a process called biofouling, which can cause false-positive and false-negative outcomes in diagnostic tests. Although antifouling coatings have been extensively studied on flat surfaces, their use on micro- and nanoparticles remains largely unexplored, despite the widespread experimental (specifically, clinical) uncertainties that arise because of biofouling...
November 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055189/a-mannose-specific-c-type-lectin-from-fenneropenaeus-merguiensis-exhibited-antimicrobial-activity-to-mediate-shrimp-innate-immunity
#13
Phanthipha Runsaeng, Peerapong Puengyam, Prapaporn Utarabhand
Being one type of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), lectins exhibit a crucial role in the defense mechanism of invertebrates which are deficient in an adaptive immune system. A new C-type lectin called FmLC3 was isolated from hepatopancreas of Fenneropenaeus merguiensis by cloning approaches, RT-PCR and 5' and 3' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). A full-length cDNA of FmLC3 contains 607 bp with one open reading frame of 480bp, encoding a 159-amino acids peptide. The predicted primary structure of FmLC3 is composed of a signal peptide, a carbohydrate recognition domain with an EPN motif and one Ca(2+) binding site-2, including a double-loop region assisted by two conserved disulfide linkages...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048880/interactions-of-native-cyclodextrins-with-metal-ions-and-inorganic-nanoparticles-fertile-landscape-for-chemistry-and-materials-science
#14
Daniel Prochowicz, Arkadiusz Kornowicz, Janusz Lewiński
Readily available cyclodextrins (CDs) with an inherent hydrophobic internal cavity and hydrophilic external surface are macrocyclic entities that display a combination of molecular recognition and complexation properties with vital implications for host-guest supramolecular chemistry. While the host-guest chemistry of CDs has been widely recognized and led to their exploitation in a variety of important functions over the last five decades, these naturally occurring macrocyclic systems have emerged only recently as promising macrocyclic molecules to fabricate environmentally benign functional nanomaterials...
October 19, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037147/de-novo-assembly-of-genomes-from-long-sequence-reads-reveals-uncharted-territories-of-propionibacterium-freudenreichii
#15
Paulina Deptula, Pia K Laine, Richard J Roberts, Olli-Pekka Smolander, Helena Vihinen, Vieno Piironen, Lars Paulin, Eija Jokitalo, Kirsi Savijoki, Petri Auvinen, Pekka Varmanen
BACKGROUND: Propionibacterium freudenreichii is an industrially important bacterium granted the Generally Recognized as Safe (the GRAS) status, due to its long safe use in food bioprocesses. Despite the recognized role in the food industry and in the production of vitamin B12, as well as its documented health-promoting potential, P. freudenreichii remained poorly characterised at the genomic level. At present, only three complete genome sequences are available for the species. RESULTS: We used the PacBio RS II sequencing platform to generate complete genomes of 20 P...
October 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022615/principles-of-mucin-structure-implications-for-the-rational-design-of-cancer-vaccines-derived-from-muc1-glycopeptides
#16
Nuria Martínez-Sáez, Jesús M Peregrina, Francisco Corzana
Cancer is currently one of the world's most serious public health problems. Significant efforts are being made to develop new strategies that can eradicate tumours selectively without detrimental effects to healthy cells. One promising approach is focused on the design of vaccines that contain partially glycosylated mucins in their formulation. Although some of these vaccines are in clinical trials, a lack of knowledge about the molecular basis that governs the antigen presentation, and the interactions between antigens and the elicited antibodies has limited their success thus far...
October 12, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992163/pak1-mediates-the-stimulatory-effect-of-insulin-and-curcumin-on-hepatic-chrebp-expression
#17
Kejing Zeng, Lili Tian, Adam Sirek, Weijuan Shao, Ling Liu, Yu-Ting Chiang, Jonathan Chernoff, Dominic S Ng, Jianping Weng, Tianru Jin
Insulin can stimulate hepatic expression of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP). As recent studies revealed potential metabolic beneficial effects of ChREBP, we asked whether its expression can also be regulated by the dietary polyphenol curcumin. We also aimed to determine mechanisms underlying ChREBP stimulation by insulin and curcumin. The effect of insulin on ChREBP expression was assessed in mouse hepatocytes, while the effect of curcumin was assessed in mouse hepatocytes and with curcumin gavage in mice...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991403/breaking-the-limits-in-analyzing-carbohydrate-recognition-by-nmr-spectroscopy-resolving-branch-selective-interaction-of-a-tetra-antennary-n-glycan-with-lectins
#18
Angeles Canales, Irene Boos, Lukas Perkams, Lukas Karst, Thomas Luber, Theodoros Karagiannis, Gemma Domínguez, F Javier Cañada, Javier Pérez-Castells, Daniel Häussinger, Carlo Unverzagt, Jesus Jiménez-Barbero
The biological recognition of complex-type N-glycans is part of many key physiological and pathological events. Despite their importance, the structural characterization of these events remains unsolved. The inherent flexibility of N-glycans hampers crystallization and the chemical equivalence of individual branches precludes their NMR characterization. By using a chemoenzymatically synthesized tetra-antennary N-glycan conjugated to a lanthanide binding tag, the NMR signals under paramagnetic conditions discriminated all four N-acetyl lactosamine antennae with unprecedented resolution...
October 9, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989796/externally-controllable-glycan-presentation-on-nanoparticle-surfaces-to-modulate-lectin-recognition
#19
Sangho Won, Sarah-Jane Richards, Marc Walker, Matthew I Gibson
Nature dynamically controls carbohydrate expression on cells rather than static presentation. Here we report synthetic glycosylated nanoparticles that contain polymeric 'gates' to enable external control (via temperature changes) of glycan surface expression, as an alternative to enzymatic control in nature. This approach offers a new dynamic multivalent scaffold for glycan recognition.
March 1, 2017: Nanoscale Horiz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988747/structural-insights-into-vlr-fine-specificity-for-blood-group-carbohydrates
#20
Bernard C Collins, Robin J Gunn, Tanya R McKitrick, Richard D Cummings, Max D Cooper, Brantley R Herrin, Ian A Wilson
High-quality reagents to study and detect glycans with high specificity for research and clinical applications are severely lacking. Here, we structurally and functionally characterize several variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR)-based antibodies from lampreys immunized with O erythrocytes that specifically recognize the blood group H-trisaccharide type II antigen. Glycan microarray analysis and biophysical data reveal that these VLRs exhibit greater specificity for H-trisaccharide compared with the plant lectin UEA-1, which is widely used in blood typing...
November 7, 2017: Structure
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