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Recognition of carbohydrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931061/binding-of-a-c-type-lectin-s-coiled-coil-domain-to-the-domeless-receptor-directly-activates-the-jak-stat-pathway-in-the-shrimp-immune-response-to-bacterial-infection
#1
Jie-Jie Sun, Jiang-Feng Lan, Xiao-Fan Zhao, Gerardo R Vasta, Jin-Xing Wang
C-type lectins (CTLs) are characterized by the presence of a C-type carbohydrate recognition domain (CTLD) that by recognizing microbial glycans, is responsible for their roles as pattern recognition receptors in the immune response to bacterial infection. In addition to the CTLD, however, some CTLs display additional domains that can carry out effector functions, such as the collagenous domain of the mannose-binding lectin. While in vertebrates, the mechanisms involved in these effector functions have been characterized in considerable detail, in invertebrates they remain poorly understood...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925965/studying-the-structural-significance-of-galectin-design-by-playing-a-modular-puzzle-homodimer-generation-from-human-tandem-repeat-type-heterodimeric-galectin-8-by-domain-shuffling
#2
Anna-Kristin Ludwig, Malwina Michalak, Nadya Shilova, Sabine André, Herbert Kaltner, Nicolai V Bovin, Jürgen Kopitz, Hans-Joachim Gabius
Tissue lectins are emerging (patho)physiological effectors with broad significance. The capacity of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins to form functional complexes with distinct cellular glycoconjugates is based on molecular selection of matching partners. Engineering of variants by changing the topological display of carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) provides tools to understand the inherent specificity of the functional pairing. We here illustrate its practical implementation in the case of human tandem-repeat-type galectin-8 (Gal-8)...
September 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918230/biosensing-methods-for-determination-of-triglycerides-a-review
#3
REVIEW
C S Pundir, Vinay Narwal
Triglycerides (TGs) are the major transporters of dietary fats throughout the bloodstream. Besides transporting fat, TGs also act as stored fat in adipose tissue, which is utilized during insufficient carbohydrates supply. TG level is below 150mg/dL in healthy persons. Elevated TGs level in blood over 500mg/dL is a biomarker for cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer disease, pancreatitis and diabetes. Numerous methods are accessible for recognition of TGs, among them, most are cumbersome, time-consuming, require sample pre-treatment, high cost instrumental set-up and experienced personnel to operate...
September 9, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916358/the-functional-characterization-and-comparison-of-two-single-crd-containing-c-type-lectins-with-novel-and-typical-key-motifs-from-portunus-trituberculatus
#4
Mengmeng Huang, Changkao Mu, Yuehong Wu, Fei Ye, Dan Wang, Cong Sun, Zhengbing Lv, Bingnan Han, Chunlin Wang, Xue-Wei Xu
C-type lectins are a superfamily of Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-recognition proteins, which play crucial roles in innate immunity including nonself-recognition and pathogen elimination. In the present study, two single-CRD containing C-type lectins were identified from swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus (designated as PtCTL-2 and PtCTL-3). The open reading frame (ORF) of PtCTL-2 encoded polypeptides of 485 amino acids with a signal peptide and a single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), while PtCTL-3's ORF encoded polypeptides of 241 amino acids with a coiled-coil region and a single-CRD...
September 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912268/structural-and-functional-diversity-in-listeria-cell-wall-teichoic-acids
#5
Yang Shen, Samy Boulos, Eric Sumrall, Benjamin Gerber, Alicia Julian-Rodero, Marcel R Eugster, Lars Fieseler, Laura Nyström, Marc-Olivier Ebert, Martin J Loessner
Wall teichoic acids (WTAs) are the most abundant glycopolymers found on the cell wall of many Gram-positive bacteria, whose diverse surface structures play key roles in multiple biological processes. Despite recent technological advances in glycan analysis, structural elucidation of WTAs remains challenging due to their complex nature. Here, we employed a combination of UPLC-MS/MS and NMR to determine the structural complexity of WTAs from Listeria species. We unveiled more than 10 different types of WTA polymers that vary in their linkage and repeating units...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906114/doglycans-tools-for-preparing-carbohydrate-structures-for-atomistic-simulations-of-glycoproteins-glycolipids-and-carbohydrate-polymers-with-gromacs
#6
Reinis Danne, Chetan Poojari, Hector Martinez-Seara, Sami Rissanen, Fabio Lolicato, Tomasz Rog, Ilpo Vattulainen
Carbohydrates constitute a structurally and functionally diverse group of biological and macromolecules. In cells they are involved in, e.g., energy storage, signaling, and cell-cell recognition. All of these phenomena take place in atomistic scales, thus atomistic simulation would be the method of choice to explore how carbohydrates function. However, the progress in the field is limited by the lack of appropriate tools for preparing carbohydrate structures and related topology files for the simulation models...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893908/the-intrinsically-disordered-n-terminal-domain-of-galectin-3-dynamically-mediates-multisite-self-association-of-the-protein-through-fuzzy-interactions
#7
Yu-Hao Lin, De-Chen Qiu, Wen-Han Chang, Yi-Qi Yeh, U-Ser Jeng, Fu-Tong Liu, Jie-Rong Huang
Galectins are a family of lectins that bind β-galactosides through their conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) and can induce aggregation with glycoproteins or glycolipids on the cell surface and thereby regulate cell activation, migration, adhesion, and signaling. Galectin-3 has an intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain (NTD) and a canonical CRD. Unlike the other 14 known galectins in mammalian cells, which have dimeric or tandem-repeated CRDs enabling multivalency for various functions, galectin-3 is monomeric, and its functional multivalency therefore is somewhat of a mystery...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871303/polymeric-mannosides-prevent-dc-sign-mediated-cell-infection-by-cytomegalovirus
#8
S Brument, C Cheneau, Y Brissonnet, D Deniaud, F Halary, S G Gouin
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a beta-herpesvirus with a high prevalence in the population. HCMV is asymptomatic for immunocompetent adults but is a leading cause of morbidity for new born and immunocompromised patients. It was recently shown that the envelope glycoprotein B (gB) of HCMV interacts with the Dendritic Cell-Specific ICAM-3 Grabbing Non integrin (DC-SIGN) to infect the host. In this work we developed a set of DC-SIGN blockers based on mono-, di-, tetra and polyvalent mannosides. The multivalent mannosides were designed to interact with the carbohydrate recognition domains of DC-SIGN in a chelate or bind and recapture process, and represent the first chemical antiadhesives of HCMV reported so far...
September 20, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870237/the-n-and-c-terminal-carbohydrate-recognition-domains-of-haemonchus-contortus-galectin-bind-to-distinct-receptors-of-goat-pbmc-and-contribute-differently-to-its-immunomodulatory-functions-in-host-parasite-interactions
#9
MingMin Lu, XiaoWei Tian, XinChao Yang, Cheng Yuan, Muhammad Ehsan, XinChao Liu, RuoFeng Yan, LiXin Xu, XiaoKai Song, XiangRui Li
BACKGROUND: Hco-gal-m is a tandem-repeat galectin isolated from the adult worm of Haemonchus contortus. A growing body of studies have demonstrated that Hco-gal-m could exert its immunomodulatory effects on host peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to facilitate the immune evasion. Our previous work revealed that C-terminal and N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) of Hco-gal-m had different sugar binding abilities. However, whether different domains of Hco-gal-m account differently for its multiple immunomodulatory functions in the host-parasite interaction remains to be elucidated...
September 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867234/structural-studies-and-nociceptive-activity-of-a-native-lectin-from-platypodium-elegans-seeds-npela
#10
Benildo Sousa Cavada, David Alencar Araripe, Ivanice Bezerra Silva, Vanir Reis Pinto-Junior, Vinicius Jose Silva Osterne, Antonio Hadson Bastos Neco, Eva Pollyanna Peixe Laranjeira, Claudia Figueiredo Lossio, Jorge Luis Almeida Correia, Alana Freitas Pires, Ana Maria Sampaio Assreuy, Kyria Santiago Nascimento
A native lectin (nPELa), purified from seeds of the species Platypodium elegans, Dalbergieae tribe, was crystallized and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction crystallography and bioinformatics tools. The obtained crystals diffracted to 1.6Å resolution, and nPELa structure were solved through molecular substitution. In addition, nPELa has a metal binding site and a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) similar to other Dalbergieae tribe lectins, such as PAL (Pterocarpus angolensis) and CTL (Centrolobium tomentosum)...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867209/identification-and-molecular-profiling-of-dc-sign-like-from-big-belly-seahorse-hippocampus-abdominalis-inferring-its-potential-relevancy-in-host-immunity
#11
Eunyoung Jo, Don Anushka Sandaruwan Elvitigala, Qiang Wan, Minyoung Oh, Chulhong Oh, Jehee Lee
Dendritic-cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) is a C-type lectin that functions as a pattern recognition receptor by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). It is also involved in various events of the dendritic cell (DC) life cycle, such as DC migration, antigen capture and presentation, and T cell priming. In this study, a DC-SIGN-like gene from the big belly seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis (designated as ShDCS-like) was identified and molecularly characterized. The putative, complete ORF was found to be 1368 bp in length, encoding a protein of 462 amino acids with a molecular mass of 52...
September 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845889/heterovalent-glycodendrimers-as-epitope-carriers-for-antitumoral-synthetic-vaccines
#12
Carlo Pifferi, Baptiste Thomas, David Goyard, Nathalie Berthet, Olivier Renaudet
The large majority of TACA-based antitumoral vaccines targets only one carbohydrate antigen, thereby often resulting in the incomplete destruction of cancer cells. However, the morphological heterogeneity of the tumor glycocalix, which is in constant evolution during malignant transformation, is a crucial point to consider in the design of vaccine candidates. In this paper, we report an efficient synthetic strategy based on orthogonal chemoselective ligations to prepare fully synthetic glycosylated cyclopeptide scaffolds grafted with both Tn and TF antigen analogues...
August 28, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844966/lipopolysaccharide-specific-binding-c-type-lectin-with-one-crd-domain-from-fenneropenaeus-merguiensis-fmlc4-functions-as-a-pattern-recognition-receptor-in-shrimp-innate-immunity
#13
Prapaporn Utarabhand, Supattra Thepnarong, Phanthipha Runsaeng
In crustaceans, an innate immune system is solely required because they lack an adaptive immunity. One kind of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that plays a particular role in the innate immunity of aquatic shrimp is lectin. A new diverse C-type lectin (FmLC4) was cloned from the hepatopancreas of Fenneropenaeus merguiensis by using RT-PCR and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends approaches. A full-length FmLC4 cDNA comprises 706 bp with an open reading frame of 552 bp, encoding a peptide of 184 amino acids...
August 24, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832911/different-strategies-for-diagnosing-gestational-diabetes-to-improve-maternal-and-infant-health
#14
REVIEW
Diane Farrar, Lelia Duley, Therese Dowswell, Debbie A Lawlor
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. If untreated, perinatal morbidity and mortality may be increased. Accurate diagnosis allows appropriate treatment. Use of different tests and different criteria will influence which women are diagnosed with GDM. This is an update of a review published in 2011 and 2015. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare different testing strategies for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus to improve maternal and infant health while assessing their impact on healthcare service costs...
August 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827308/properties-of-a-family-56-carbohydrate-binding-module-and-its-role-in-the-recognition-and-hydrolysis-of-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan
#15
Andrew Hettle, Alexander Fillo, Kento Abe, Patricia Massel, Benjamin Pluvinage, David N Langelaan, Steven P Smith, Alisdair B Boraston
BH0236 from Bacillus halodurans is a multimodular β-1,3-glucanase comprising an N-terminal family 81 glycoside hydrolase catalytic module, an internal family 6 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) that binds the nonreducing end of β-1,3-glucans chains, and an uncharacterized C-terminal module classified into CBM family 56. Here, we determined that this latter CBM, BhCBM56, bound the soluble β-1,3-glucan laminarin with a dissociation constant (Kd) of ~26 μM, displayed higher affinity for insoluble β-1,3-glucans with Kds of ~2-10 μM, but lacked affinity for β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821397/cardiac-metabolism-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-heart-failure
#16
REVIEW
Hannah Noordali, Brodie L Loudon, Michael P Frenneaux, Melanie Madhani
Heart failure, with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although many established pharmacological interventions exist for those patients with HFrEF, hospitalization and death rates remain high, and in those with HFpEF (over half of all heart failure patients), there are no effective therapies. Recently, the role of impaired cardiac energetic status in heart failure has gained increasing recognition with the identification of reduced metabolic capacity for carbohydrates and fatty acids, impaired function of the electron transport chain, reduced capacity to transfer ATP to the cytosol, and inefficient utilization of the energy produced...
August 15, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818784/does-polysaccharide-is-an-idea-template-selection-for-glycosyl-imprinting
#17
Jianping Li, Xionghui Ma, Mengxi Li, Yun Zhang
A novel glycoprotein imprinting strategy was proposed and was applied to the detection of the carbohydrate antigen 19-9. The glycosylated complex of glycoprotein was used as template to construct a glycosyl imprinted sensor. The eluted imprinted cavities showed good affinity for template glycosyls and glycoproteins carrying template glycosyl. The effect of template saccharide structure on glycosyl imprinted sensors is further discussed. More complex template structures can lead to better sensor performance including selectivity and sensitivity...
August 3, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809547/quantitative-evaluation-of-viral-protein-binding-to-phosphoinositide-receptors-and-pharmacological-inhibition
#18
Seong-Oh Kim, Joshua A Jackman, Menashe Elazar, Sang-Joon Cho, Jeffrey S Glenn, Nam-Joon Cho
There is significant interest in developing analytical methods to characterize molecular recognition events between proteins and phosphoinositides, which are a medically important class of carbohydrate-functionalized lipids. Within this scope, one area of high priority involves quantitatively evaluating drug candidates that pharmacologically inhibit protein-phosphoinositide interactions. As full-length proteins are often difficult to produce, establishing methods to study these interactions with shorter, bioactive peptides would be advantageous...
August 28, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808731/biomacromolecules-as-tools-and-objects-in-nanometrology-current-challenges-and-perspectives
#19
Payam Hashemi, Luise Luckau, Petra Mischnick, Sarah Schmidt, Rainer Stosch, Bettina Wünsch
Nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides are the most important classes of biopolymers. The inherent properties of biomacromolecules are contrary to those of well-defined small molecules consequently raising a number of specific challenges which become particularly apparent if biomacromolecules are treated as objects in quantitative analysis. At the same time, their specific functional ability of molecular recognition and self-organization (e.g., enzymes, antibodies, DNA) enables us to make biomacromolecules serving as molecular tools in biochemistry and molecular biology, or as precisely controllable dimensional platforms for nanometrological applications...
August 14, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804002/a-novel-glycoside-hydrolase-family-97-enzyme-bifunctional-%C3%AE-l-arabinopyranosidase-%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron
#20
Asako Kikuchi, Masayuki Okuyama, Koji Kato, Shohei Osaki, Min Ma, Yuya Kumagai, Kana Matsunaga, Patcharapa Klahan, Takayoshi Tagami, Min Yao, Atsuo Kimura
Glycoside hydrolase family 97 (GH97) is one of the most interesting glycosidase families, which contains inverting and retaining glycosidases. Currently, only two enzyme types, α-glucoside hydrolase and α-galactosidase, are registered in the carbohydrate active enzyme database as GH97 function-known proteins. To explore new specificities, BT3661 and BT3664, which have distinct amino acid sequences when compared with that of GH97 α-glucoside hydrolase and α-galactosidase, were characterized in this study...
August 10, 2017: Biochimie
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