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Recognition of carbohydrate

Harmanpreet Singh, Chateshwar Kumar, Narpinder Singh, Surinder Paul, Subheet Kumar Jain
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a vital structural component of neuronal tissue, which is critically required during pre- and post-natal brain development. Its liquid nature, fishy odor, poor bioavailability and oxidative stability are the major challenges in the development of a pharmaceutically elegant and stable formulation. In the present study, nanocapsules of DHA from microalgae oil were prepared using different combinations of wall materials (carbohydrates, polymers, gum and proteins). The encapsulation using spray drying was done to prepare a pharmaceutically stable DHA formulation...
March 16, 2018: Food & Function
Marian L Miller, Aleksey Porollo, Susan Wert
Alveolar type II cells from seven mammalian species were examined for a protein in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), which showed a multi-layered, repeating motif. Each motif, 100nm in width, comprised two parallel outer dense layers, a less dense central layer, and often 1-3 faint layers on either side of the latter. Outer layers showed periodicities at 3-4 densities/100nm of width, while layers on either side of the central layer showed 5-7 densities/100nm of width. RER membranes were ribosome-free when parallel to these layers, but showed 4 ribosomes per motif at the growing ends: one ribosome at each outer dense layer, and one on either side of the less dense central layer...
March 15, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Karolina Nowicka-Bauer, Małgorzata Ozgo, Adam Lepczynski, Marzena Kamieniczna, Agnieszka Malcher, Wiesław Skrzypczak, Maciej Kurpisz
The aim of this study was to identify and analyse human sperm proteins from normozoospermic men using 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). We identified 73 different sperm proteins, including two less characterized human sperm proteins, Annexin A7 (ANXA7) and c14orf105. Bioinformatic analysis of detected sperm proteins revealed new carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways, which supply energy to motile sperm. A comparison of our data with available mRNA microarray data from the human testis allows for validation of identified sperm proteins and aids in the recognition of their physiological pathways...
March 8, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Katherine Lavelle, James Murphy, Brian Fitzgerald, Gabriele A Lugli, Aldert Zomer, Horst Neve, Marco Ventura, Charles M Franz, Christian Cambillau, Douwe van Sinderen, Jennifer Mahony
Phages of Streptococcus thermophilus present a major threat to the production of many fermented dairy products. To date, only a handful of studies have assessed the biodiversity of S. thermophilus phages in dairy fermentations. In order to develop strategies to limit phage predation in this important industrial environment, it is imperative that such studies are undertaken and that phage-host interactions of this species are better defined. The present study investigated the biodiversity and evolution of phages within an Irish dairy fermentation facility over an eleven year period...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Gabriele Cordara, Kaare Bjerregaard-Andersen, Ute Krengel
Fungi and plants do not have an adaptive immune system. Innate immunity serves as their sole defense, often based on carbohydrate recognition by lectins. In a twist of nature, as revealed by Sommer et al. (2018) in this issue of Structure, a conserved fungal immunoprotein adopts the shape of a miniature virus.
March 6, 2018: Structure
Alessia Battigelli, Jae Hong Kim, Dilani C Dehigaspitiya, Caroline Proulx, Ellen J Robertson, Daniel J Murray, Behzad Rad, Kent Kirshenbaum, Ronald N Zuckermann
Glycoproteins adhered on the cellular membrane play a pivotal role in a wide range of cellular functions. Their importance is particularly relevant in the recognition process between infectious pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, toxins) and their host cells. Multivalent interactions at the pathogen-cell interfaces govern binding events and can result in a strong and specific interaction. Here we report an approach to mimic the cell surface presentation of carbohydrate ligands by the multivalent display of sugars on the surface of peptoid nanosheets...
March 7, 2018: ACS Nano
Weilin Wang, Xiaorui Song, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Self-nonself discrimination is a common theme for all of the organisms in different evolutionary branches, which is also the most fundamental step for host immune protection. Plenty of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) with great diversity have been identified from different organisms to recognize various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in the last two decades, depicting a complicated scene of host-pathogen interaction. However, the detailed mechanism of the complicate PAMPs-PRRs interactions at the contacting interface between pathogens and hosts is still not well understood...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Oscar Francesconi, Marco Martinucci, Lorenzo Badii, Cristina Nativi, Stefano Roelens
Carbohydrate recognition in water by biomimetic receptors is an attractive but very challenging goal. Despite the advances achieved on glucose recognition, little or no success has been obtained in the recognition of other saccharidic epitopes of paramount importance in biological processes. Here we report the unprecedented recognition of fucose in water by an artificial receptor that shows affinities closely comparable to those of several lectins. The receptor has been build-up by assembling a hydrogen bonding element (carbazole), a hydrophobic aromatic moiety (anthracene), and a water-solubilizing function (phosphonate) into a macrocyclic structure providing the appropriate binding geometry...
March 6, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Marinalva Cardoso Dos Santos, Thais Kroetz, Cristiana Lima Dora, Fernando Carlos Giacomelli, Tiago Elias Allievi Frizon, Claus Tröger Pich, Luciano da Silva Pinto, Amanda Sigal Soares, Fabiano Severo Rodembusch, Vânia Rodrigues de Lima, Alexandre Gonçalves Dal-Bó
Investigations focused on the interactions of nanoparticles with lectins are relevant since it is well accepted that such proteins can be recognized by carbohydrates as parts of cell membranes. This can ultimately enhance the cellular uptake of the produced assemblies. In this framework, the physical interactions of phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes and the Bauhinia variegate lectin (BVL) are reported here. BVL-liposome interactions were characterized by a variety of techniques to understand the influence of BVL in the structural features, thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties of the hybrid material...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Lulu Cai, Zhipeng Gu, Jian Zhong, Di Wen, Guojun Chen, Lin He, Jun Wu, Zhen Gu
To enhance efficacy and safety, therapeutic antitumor agents are expected to target the desired locations where the ligand-receptor binding acts as a typical recognition approach. Among the various ligands, carbohydrates represent a crucial structure of tumor cell membranes and have been shown effective for cell-selective drug delivery. Recently, glycosylation-mediated therapeutic targeting strategies have been increasingly developed to form a variety of nanoscale delivery carriers. In this review, a variety of glycosylated drug delivery systems and their applications for cancer therapy have been surveyed...
February 28, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Ed Aanhane, Iris A Schulkens, Roy Heusschen, Kitty Castricum, Hakon Leffler, Arjan W Griffioen, Victor L Thijssen
Galectin-9 consists of two peptide-linked carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs), but alternative splicing and proteolytic processing can give rise to multiple galectin-9 isoforms. Some of these consist of a single CRD and can exert different functions in cell biology. Here, we explored the role of these galectin-9 isoforms in endothelial cell function and angiogenesis. For this, we compared the effects of the two separate CRDs (Gal-9N and Gal-9C) with the tandem repeat galectin-9M on endothelial cell proliferation, migration, sprouting and tube formation in vitro as well as on angiogenesis in vivo using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay...
March 2, 2018: Angiogenesis
Jodi Kraus, Rupal Gupta, Manman Lu, Jenna B Yehl, David A Case, Angela M Gronenborn, Mikael Akke, Tatyana Polenova
Magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy is uniquely suited to probe the structure and dynamics of insoluble proteins and protein assemblies at atomic resolution, with NMR chemical shifts containing rich information about biomolecular structure. Access to this information, however, is problematic since accurate quantum mechanical calculation of chemical shifts in proteins remains challenging, particularly for15 NH . Here we report on isotropic chemical shift predictions for the carbohydrate recognition domain of microcrystalline galectin-3, obtained from using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations, implemented using an automated fragmentation approach, and using very high resolution (0...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Mark A Hearris, Kelly M Hammond, J Marc Fell, James P Morton
Since the introduction of the muscle biopsy technique in the late 1960s, our understanding of the regulation of muscle glycogen storage and metabolism has advanced considerably. Muscle glycogenolysis and rates of carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation are affected by factors such as exercise intensity, duration, training status and substrate availability. Such changes to the global exercise stimulus exert regulatory effects on key enzymes and transport proteins via both hormonal control and local allosteric regulation...
March 2, 2018: Nutrients
Elise Chiffoleau
Over the last decade, C-type lectin-like receptors (CTLRs), expressed mostly by myeloid cells, have gained increasing attention for their role in the fine tuning of both innate and adaptive immunity. Not only CTLRs recognize pathogen-derived ligands to protect against infection but also endogenous ligands such as self-carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids to control homeostasis and tissue injury. Interestingly, CTLRs act as antigen-uptake receptors via their carbohydrate-recognition domain for internalization and subsequent presentation to T-cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
W Landon Jackson
The alpha-gal allergy is an emerging IgE-mediated reaction against the galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose carbohydrate found in mammalian meats. Patients with this condition will develop anaphylactic symptoms 3-6 h after the ingestion of mammalian meat food products such as beef, pork or lamb. The prevalence of this allergy is drastically increasing and severe reactions including anaphylactic shock have been reported, yet many patients experience symptoms for years before a diagnosis is made. We describe the presentation, diagnosis and management of a patient with the alpha-gal allergy in attempt to improve early recognition and management of patients with this condition...
February 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Mark H T Stappers, Alexandra E Clark, Vishukumar Aimanianda, Stefan Bidula, Delyth M Reid, Patawee Asamaphan, Sarah E Hardison, Ivy M Dambuza, Isabel Valsecchi, Bernhard Kerscher, Anthony Plato, Carol A Wallace, Raif Yuecel, Betty Hebecker, Maria da Glória Teixeira Sousa, Cristina Cunha, Yan Liu, Ten Feizi, Axel A Brakhage, Kyung J Kwon-Chung, Neil A R Gow, Matteo Zanda, Monica Piras, Chiara Zanato, Martin Jaeger, Mihai G Netea, Frank L van de Veerdonk, João F Lacerda, António Campos, Agostinho Carvalho, Janet A Willment, Jean-Paul Latgé, Gordon D Brown
Resistance to infection is critically dependent on the ability of pattern recognition receptors to recognize microbial invasion and induce protective immune responses. One such family of receptors are the C-type lectins, which are central to antifungal immunity. These receptors activate key effector mechanisms upon recognition of conserved fungal cell-wall carbohydrates. However, several other immunologically active fungal ligands have been described; these include melanin, for which the mechanism of recognition is hitherto undefined...
February 28, 2018: Nature
Liangliang Mu, Xiaoxue Yin, Yanhui Xiao, Xia Bian, Yanjian Yang, Liting Wu, Jianmin Ye
Collectins, a subfamily of the C-type lectins, are able to bind non-self glycoconjugates on the surface of microorganisms and inhibit infection by direct neutralization, agglutination and/or opsonization, which play important roles in innate immunity. In this study, a CL11X1-like collectin (OnCL11X1) was identified from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and characterized at expression and agglutination functional levels. The open reading frame of OnCL11X1 is 840 bp of nucleotide sequence encoding polypeptides of 279 amino acids...
February 24, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Xiaoyuan Wei, Limin Wang, Wanwei Sun, Ming Zhang, Hongyu Ma, Yueling Zhang, Xinxu Zhang, Shengkang Li
As pattern recognition receptors, C-type lectins (CTLs) play important roles in immune system of crustaceans through identifying and binding to the conservative pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on pathogen surfaces. In this study, a new CTL, SpCTL-B, was identified from the hemocytes of mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The full-length of SpCTL-B cDNA was 1278 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 348 bp. The predicted SpCTL-B protein contains a single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD). SpCTL-B transcripts were distributed in all examined tissues with the highest levels in hepatopancreas...
February 21, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Michael Gromiha, N R Siva Shanmugam, J Fermin Angelo Selvin, K Veluraja
Protein-carbohydrate interactions play vital roles in several biological processes in living organisms. The comparative analysis of binding site residues along with stabilizing residues in protein-carbohydrate complexes provides ample insights to understand the structure, function and recognition mechanism. In this work, we have identified 2.45% binding site residues in a non-redundant dataset of 1130 complexes using distance-based criteria and 7.07% stabilizing residues using the concepts of hydrophobicity, long-range interactions and conservation of residues...
February 21, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Eun-Hyo Cho, Mahmoud Soliman, Mia Madel Alfajaro, Ji-Yun Kim, Ja-Young Seo, Jun-Gyu Park, Deok-Song Kim, Yeong-Bin Baek, Mun-Il Kang, Sang-Ik Park, Jacques Le Pendu, Kyoung-Oh Cho
Some viruses within the Caliciviridae family initiate their replication cycle by attachment to cell surface carbohydrate moieties, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) and/or terminal sialic acids (SAs). Although bovine nebovirus (BNeV), one of the enteric caliciviruses, is an important causative agent of acute gastroenteritis in cattle, its attachment factors and possibly other cellular receptors remain unknown. Using a comprehensive series of protein-ligand biochemical assays, we sought to determine whether BNeV recognizes cell surface HBGAs and/or SAs as attachment factors...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
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