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Recognition of carbohydrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223515/rational-design-of-adjuvants-targeting-the-c-type-lectin-mincle
#1
Alexiane Decout, Sandro Silva-Gomes, Daniel Drocourt, Sophie Barbe, Isabelle André, Francisco J Cueto, Thierry Lioux, David Sancho, Eric Pérouzel, Alain Vercellone, Jacques Prandi, Martine Gilleron, Gérard Tiraby, Jérôme Nigou
The advances in subunit vaccines development have intensified the search for potent adjuvants, particularly adjuvants inducing cell-mediated immune responses. Identification of the C-type lectin Mincle as one of the receptors underlying the remarkable immunogenicity of the mycobacterial cell wall, via recognition of trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), has opened avenues for the rational design of such molecules. Using a combination of chemical synthesis, biological evaluation, molecular dynamics simulations, and protein mutagenesis, we gained insight into the molecular bases of glycolipid recognition by Mincle...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220411/peptidoglycan-isolation-and-binding-studies-with-lysm-type-pattern-recognition-receptors
#2
Ute Bertsche, Andrea A Gust
In the last decade, more and more plant receptors for complex carbohydrate structures have been described. However, studies on receptor binding to glycan ligands are often hampered due to the technical challenge to obtain pure preparations of homogeneous carbohydrate ligands such as bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) in amounts suitable for studying protein-glycan interactions. Also, most approaches rely on the availability of defined soluble ligands, which in the case of glycans can rarely be synthesized but have to be purified from the respective microorganism...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217496/a-study-of-bone-turnover-markers-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Sheelu Shafiq Siddiqi, Abhijit Girish Borse, Anjum Pervez, Shaheen Anjum
INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycemia of variable severity with the first recognition during pregnancy. Established risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are maternal age, obesity, family history of diabetes, etc. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and various other hormones are known for their function in maintaining calcium and phosphorous homeostatic. Furthermore, Vitamin D, PTH serum ionized calcium, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been reported to be altered with glucose homeostasis...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215168/contributions-of-the-interaction-between-dietary-protein-and-gut-microbiota-to-intestinal-health
#4
Ning Ma, Yanan Tian, Yi Wu, Xi Ma
There is growing recognition that composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota can be modulated by the dietary proteins which in turn impact health. The amino acid composition and digestibility of proteins, which are influenced by its source and amount of intake, play a pivotal role in determining the microbiota. Reciprocally, it appears that the gut microbiota is also able to affect protein metabolism which give rise to the view that function between the microbiota and protein can proceed in both directions...
February 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215157/glycans-in-infectious-diseases-a-molecular-recognition-perspective
#5
Luca Unione, Ana Gimeno, Pablo Valverde, Ilaria Calloni, Helena Coelho, Stefania Mirabella, Ana Poveda, Ana Arda, Jesús Jiménez-Barbero
The importance of glycans in infection processes has been demonstrated during the past few years. Indeed, it is today a hot topic with diverse branches and perspectives. The field is therefore attracting increased attention and it is expected that will provide spectacular developments. In this non-exhaustive review, we have focused on the molecular recognition aspects that involve the participation of glycans in different infection processes of paramount importance, with special attention to the applications of NMR spectroscopy and other biophysical techniques...
February 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209973/structural-basis-for-fragmenting-the-exopolysaccharide-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-by-bacteriophage-%C3%AE-ab6-tailspike-protein
#6
I-Ming Lee, I-Fan Tu, Feng-Ling Yang, Tzu-Ping Ko, Jiahn-Haur Liao, Nien-Tsung Lin, Chung-Yi Wu, Chien-Tai Ren, Andrew H-J Wang, Ching-Ming Chang, Kai-Fa Huang, Shih-Hsiung Wu
With an increase in antibiotic-resistant strains, the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii has become a serious threat to global health. Glycoconjugate vaccines containing fragments of bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) are an emerging therapeutic to combat bacterial infection. Herein, we characterize the bacteriophage ΦAB6 tailspike protein (TSP), which specifically hydrolyzed the EPS of A. baumannii strain 54149 (Ab-54149). Ab-54149 EPS exhibited the same chemical structure as two antibiotic-resistant A...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196397/evolved-distal-tail-carbohydrate-binding-modules-of-lactobacillus-phage-j-1-a-novel-type-of-anti-receptor-widespread-among-lactic-acid-bacteria-phages
#7
Maria-Eugenia Dieterle, Silvia Spinelli, Irina Sadovskaya, Mariana Piuri, Christian Cambillau
Bacteriophage replication requires specific host-recognition. Some siphophages harbour a large complex, the baseplate, at the tip of their non-contractile tail. This baseplate holds receptor binding proteins (RBPs) that can recognize the host cell-wall polysaccharide (CWPS) and specifically attach the phage to its host. While most phages possess a dedicated RBP, the phage J-1 that infects Lactobacillus casei seemed to lack one. We have shown that the phage J-1 distal tail protein (Dit) plays a role in host recognition and that its sequence comprises two inserted modules compared to "classical" Dits...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192664/nmr-and-molecular-recognition-of-n-glycans-remote-modifications-of-the-saccharide-chain-modulate-binding-features
#8
Ana Gimeno, Niels-Christian Reichardt, Francisco Javier Cañada, Lukas Perkams, Carlo Unverzagt, Jesus Jimenez-Barbero, Ana Arda
Glycans play a key role as recognition elements in the communication of cells and other organisms. Thus, the analysis of carbohydrate-protein interactions has gained significant importance. In particular, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques are considered powerful tools to detect relevant features in the interaction between sugars and their natural receptors. Here we present the results obtained in the study on the molecular recognition of different mannose-containing glycans by Pisum Sativum Agglutinin...
February 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179427/stability-and-ligand-promiscuity-of-type-a-carbohydrate-binding-modules-are-illustrated-by-the-structure-of-spirochaeta-thermophila-stcbm64c
#9
Virginia M R Pires, Pedro M M Pereira, Joana L A Brás, Márcia Correia, Vânia Cardoso, Pedro Bule, Victor D Alves, Shabir Najmudin, Immacolata Venditto, Luís M A Ferreira, Maria João Romão, Ana Luísa Carvalho, Carlos M G A Fontes, Duarte M Prazeres
Deconstruction of cellulose, the most abundant plant cell wall polysaccharide, requires the cooperative activity of a large repertoire of microbial enzymes. Modular cellulases contain non-catalytic type A Carbohydrate-Binding Modules (CBMs) that specifically bind to the crystalline regions of cellulose, thus promoting enzyme efficacy through proximity and targeting effects. Although type A CBMs play a critical role in cellulose recycling, their mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Here we produced a library of recombinant CBMs representative of the known diversity of type A modules...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169527/molecular-biodynamers-dynamic-covalent-analogues-of-biopolymers
#10
Yun Liu, Jean-Marie Lehn, Anna K H Hirsch
Constitutional dynamic chemistry (CDC) features the use of reversible linkages at both molecular and supramolecular levels, including reversible covalent bonds (dynamic covalent chemistry, DCC) and noncovalent interactions (dynamic noncovalent chemistry, DNCC). Due to its inherent reversibility and stimuli-responsiveness, CDC has been widely utilized as a powerful tool for the screening of bioactive compounds, the exploitation of receptors or substrates driven by molecular recognition, and the fabrication of constitutionally dynamic materials...
February 7, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158290/diverse-modes-of-galacto-specific-carbohydrate-recognition-by-a-family-31-glycoside-hydrolase-from-clostridium-perfringens
#11
Julie M Grondin, Da Duan, Alyssa C Kirlin, Kento T Abe, Seth Chitayat, Holly L Spencer, Craig Spencer, Alisha Campigotto, Scott Houliston, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, John S Allingham, Alisdair B Boraston, Steven P Smith
Clostridium perfringens is a commensal member of the human gut microbiome and an opportunistic pathogen whose genome encodes a suite of putative large, multi-modular carbohydrate-active enzymes that appears to play a role in the interaction of the bacterium with mucin-based carbohydrates. Among the most complex of these is an enzyme that contains a presumed catalytic module belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 31 (GH31). This large enzyme, which based on its possession of a GH31 module is a predicted α-glucosidase, contains a variety of non-catalytic ancillary modules, including three CBM32 modules that to date have not been characterized...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155148/isolation-of-viable-glycosylation-specific-cell-populations-for-further-in-vitro-or-in-vivo-analysis-using-lectin-coated-magnetic-beads
#12
Ellie-May Beaman, David R F Carter, Susan A Brooks
The glycans displayed on the cell surface are highly heterogeneous and their function in cell recognition, identity, signaling, adhesion, and behavior is increasingly recognized. Moreover, as it is yet incompletely understood, it is a topic of significant current interest. Lectins (naturally occurring carbohydrate-binding proteins) are very useful tools for exploring cellular glycosylation. Cell populations, within or between different tissues or species, and in development, health and disease, exhibit different glycosylation and thus distinct lectin-binding characteristics...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155147/lectin-histochemistry-historical-perspectives-state-of-the-art-and-the-future
#13
Susan A Brooks
Lectins, discovered more than 100 years ago and defined by their ability to selectively recognize specific carbohydrate structures, are ubiquitous in living organisms. Their precise functions are as yet under-explored and incompletely understood but they are clearly involved, through recognition of their binding partners, in a myriad of biological mechanisms involved in cell identity, adhesion, signaling, growth regulation, in health and disease. Understanding the complex "sugar code" represented by the glycome is a major challenge and at the forefront of current biological research...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138099/polysaccharide-utilization-loci-fuelling-microbial-communities
#14
Julie M Grondin, Kazune Tamura, Guillaume Déjean, D Wade Abbott, Harry Brumer
The complex carbohydrates of terrestrial and marine biomass represent a rich nutrient source for free-living and mutualistic microbes alike. The enzymatic saccharification of these diverse substrates is of critical importance for fuelling a variety of complex microbial communities, including marine, soil, ruminant, and monogastric microbiota. Consequently, highly specific carbohydrate-active enzymes, recognition proteins, and transporters are enriched in the genomes of certain species, and are of critical importance in competitive environments...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131766/a-proto-type-galectin-2-from-rock-bream-oplegnathus-fasciatus-molecular-genomic-and-expression-analysis-and-recognition-of-microbial-pathogens-by-recombinant-protein
#15
William Shanthakumar Thulasitha, Navaneethaiyer Umasuthan, Qiang Wan, Bo-Hye Nam, Tae-Wook Kang, Jehee Lee
A β-galactoside binding lectin, designated as galectin-2, was identified and characterized from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (OfGal-2). The cDNA of OfGal-2 comprised of 692 bp with a coding sequence of 396 bp, encoding a putative polypeptide of 131 amino acids. Gene structure analysis of OfGal-2 revealed a four exon-three intron organization. A single carbohydrate-binding domain containing all seven important residues for carbohydrate binding was located in the third exon, which formed a carbohydrate-binding pocket...
January 25, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126555/bactericidal-activity-of-fish-galectin-4-derived-membrane-binding-peptide-tagged-with-oligotryptophan
#16
Abirami Arasu, Venkatesh Kumaresan, Munuswamy-Ramanujam Ganesh, Mukesh Pasupuleti, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jesu Arockiaraj
Galectins belong to the family of galactoside-binding proteins which act as pathogen recognition receptors by recognizing and binding to the carbohydrate present in the bacterial membranes. In this study, a Galectin-4 sequence was identified from the constructed cDNA library of Channa striatus and its structural features were reported. Gene expression analysis revealed that CsGal4 was highly expressed in liver and strongly induced by Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) causing pathogens such as Aphanomyces invadans, Aeromonas hydrophila and a viral analogue, poly I:C...
January 23, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125069/recent-advances-in-macrocyclic-fluorescent-probes-for-ion-sensing
#17
REVIEW
Joseph K-H Wong, Matthew H Todd, Peter J Rutledge
Small-molecule fluorescent probes play a myriad of important roles in chemical sensing. Many such systems incorporating a receptor component designed to recognise and bind a specific analyte, and a reporter or transducer component which signals the binding event with a change in fluorescence output have been developed. Fluorescent probes use a variety of mechanisms to transmit the binding event to the reporter unit, including photoinduced electron transfer (PET), charge transfer (CT), Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), excimer formation, and aggregation induced emission (AIE) or aggregation caused quenching (ACQ)...
January 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125065/chytridiomycosis-of-marine-diatoms-the-role-of-stress-physiology-and-resistance-in-parasite-host-recognition-and-accumulation-of-defense-molecules
#18
Bettina Scholz, Frithjof C Küpper, Wim Vyverman, Halldór G Ólafsson, Ulf Karsten
Little is known about the role of chemotaxis in the location and attachment of chytrid zoospores to potential diatom hosts. Hypothesizing that environmental stress parameters affect parasite-host recognition, four chytrid-diatom tandem cultures (Chytridium sp./Navicula sp., Rhizophydium type I/Nitzschia sp., Rhizophydium type IIa/Rhizosolenia sp., Rhizophydium type IIb/Chaetoceros sp.) were used to test the chemotaxis of chytrid zoospores and the presence of potential defense molecules in a non-contact-co-culturing approach...
January 25, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123516/c-type-lectins-facilitate-tumor-metastasis
#19
Dongbing Ding, Yao Yao, Songbai Zhang, Chunjie Su, Yonglian Zhang
Metastasis, a life-threatening complication of cancer, leads to the majority of cases of cancer-associated mortality. Unfortunately, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer metastasis remain to be fully elucidated. C-type lectins are a large group of proteins, which share structurally homologous carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and possess diverse physiological functions, including inflammation and antimicrobial immunity. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated the contribution of C-type lectins in different steps of the metastatic spread of cancer...
January 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115423/role-of-selectins-and-their-ligands-in-human-implantation-stage
#20
REVIEW
Ying Feng, Xue Ma, Liwen Deng, Bin Yao, Ying Xiong, Yilun Wu, Lin Wang, Qianhong Ma, Fang Ma
Selectins are a family of calcium-dependent, type I transmembrane, carbohydrate-binding glycoproteins. Selectins and their ligands are not only involved in physiological processes such as leukocyte homing and pathological processes such as cancer, but also play an essential role in the human implantation. L-selectin and its ligands participate in the adhesion of the blastocyst to the endometrium at the maternal-fetal interface. P-selectin and E-selectin are involved in immune recognition of maternal decidua to the embedded embryo as well as trophoblast migration within decidual spiral arterioles...
January 23, 2017: Glycobiology
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