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Recognition of carbohydrate

Valentina E Nikitina, Ekaterina A Loshchinina, Elena P Vetchinkina
Lectins are proteins of a nonimmunoglobulin nature that are capable of specific recognition of and reversible binding to the carbohydrate moieties of complex carbohydrates, without altering the covalent structure of any of the recognized glycosyl ligands. They have a broad range of biological activities important for the functioning of the cell and the whole organism and, owing to the high specificity of reversible binding to carbohydrates, are valuable tools used widely in biology and medicine. Lectins can be produced by many living organisms, including basidiomycetes...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Koji Tanaka, Jose M M Caaveiro, Koldo Morante, Kouhei Tsumoto
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are proteins endowed with metamorphic properties that enable them to stably fold in water solutions as well as in cellular membranes. PFTs produce lytic pores on the plasma membranes of target cells conducive to lesions, playing key roles in the defensive and offensive molecular systems of living organisms. Actinoporins are a family of potent haemolytic toxins produced by sea anemones vigorously studied as a paradigm of α-helical PFTs, in the context of lipid-protein interactions, and in connection with nanopore technologies...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Gabriela F O Marques, Vinicius J S Osterne, Livia M Almeida, Luiz A C Brizeno, Vanir R Pinto-Junior, Mayara Q Santiago, Antonio H B Neco, Mario R L Mota, Luiz A G Souza, Kyria S Nascimento, Alana F Pires, Benildo S Cavada, Ana M S Assreuy
Vatairea guianensis lectin (VGL), Dalbergiae tribe, is a N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc)/Galactose (Gal) lectin previously purified and characterized. In this work, we report its structural features, obtained from bioinformatics tools, and its inflammatory effect, obtained from a rat paw edema model. The VGL model was obtained by homology with the lectin of Vatairea macrocarpa (VML) as template, and we used it to demonstrate the common characteristics of legume lectins, such as the jellyroll motif and presence of a metal-binding site in the vicinity of the carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD)...
June 16, 2017: Biochimie
Cynthia L Bethea, Kevin Mueller, Arubala P Reddy, Steven G Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
The beneficial effects of bioidentical ovarian steroid hormone therapy (HT) during the perimenopause are gaining recognition. However, the positive effects of estrogen (E) plus or minus progesterone (P) administration to ovariectomized (Ovx) lab animals were recognized in multiple systems for years before clinical trials could adequately duplicate the results. Moreover, very large numbers of women are often needed to find statistically significant results in clinical trials of HT; and there are still opposing results being published, especially in neural and cardiovascular systems...
2017: PloS One
Chong Yang, Ling Xu, Na Zhang, Faisal Islam, Wenjian Song, Luyang Hu, Dan Liu, Xiaonan Xie, Weijun Zhou
Orobanche cumana is an obligate root parasite causing severe damage to many economically important crops, including sunflowers worldwide. For efficient control measures, it is necessary to understand the resistant mechanism during interaction at molecular level. The present study emphasizes on comparative proteomics to investigate the mechanistic basis of compatible and incompatible interaction of O. cumana with resistant (JY207) and susceptible (TK0409) sunflowers. More than 3500 proteins were identified from two cultivars by iTRAQ analysis...
June 15, 2017: Proteomics
Toufeeq Shahzad, Ming-Yue Zhan, Pei-Jin Yang, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Xiang-Jun Rao
C-type lectins (CTLs) play a variety of roles in plants and animals. They are involved in animal development, pathogen recognition, and the activation of immune responses. CTLs carry one or more non-catalytic carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) to bind specific carbohydrates reversibly. Here, we report the molecular cloning and functional analysis of a single-CRD CTL, named C-type lectin-S2 (BmCTL-S2) from the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). The ORF of CTL-S2 is 666 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 221 amino acids...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
A M M Rosa, D M F Prazeres, P M R Paulo
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was used to characterize the molecular interactions between the four components of a DNA recognition system. A fluorescent DNA probe was used to assess: (i) the hybridization with a complementary biotin-labeled target, (ii) the complexation of the resulting hybrid and an anti-biotin antibody, and (iii) the binding of the latter complex to a ZZ-CBM fusion protein that combines small synthetic IgG Fc-binding Z domains with a carbohydrate binding module (CBM). These binding interactions were monitored by exposing the fluorescent DNA probe to different amounts and combinations of the other molecules in solution...
June 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Laura Díaz-Alvarez, Enrique Ortega
Galectins are a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins with the ability to bind β-galactosides through characteristic carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD). Galectin-3 is structurally unique among all galectins as it contains a C-terminal CRD linked to an N-terminal protein-binding domain, being the only chimeric galectin. Galectin-3 participates in many functions, both intra- and extracellularly. Among them, a prominent role for Galectin-3 in inflammation has been recognized. Galectin-3 has also been shown to directly bind to pathogens and to have various effects on the functions of the cells of the innate immune system...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Antoine Hoang, Eugénie Laigre, David Goyard, Eric Defrancq, Françoise Vinet, Pascal Dumy, Olivier Renaudet
Carbohydrate microarrays represent powerful tools to study and detect carbohydrate-binding proteins, pathogens or cells. In this paper, we report two original oxime-based methods to prepare surfaces displaying well-defined structures and valency in a given microspot with improved recognition potency with lectins. In a first "direct" approach, fully synthetic aminooxylated glycoclusters have been coated onto aldehyde-activated SiO2 (silicium substrate doped with 50 nm thermal oxide layer). To improve the preparation of the microarray in terms of rapidity and simplicity and to provide addressable surfaces on which sugars can be linked chemoselectively as clusters at defined plots, a second "indirect" strategy has been developed using successive oxime ligation steps...
June 21, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Liangliang Mu, Xiaoxue Yin, Jing Liu, Liting Wu, Xia Bian, Yuhong Wang, Jianmin Ye
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a pattern recognition protein that plays an important role in innate immunity capable of activating the lectin pathway of the complement system. In this study, a MBL homologue (OnMBL) was identified from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and characterized at expression and agglutination functional levels. The open reading frame of OnMBL is 687 bp of nucleotide sequence encoding polypeptides of 228 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence is highly homology to teleost and similar to mammalian MBL, containing a canonical collagen-like region, a carbohydrate recognition domain and a neck region...
June 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Li Wang, Jie Zhang, Xianghui Kong, Xianliang Zhao, Chao Pei, Li Li
C-type lectins (CTLs), as the members of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), play the significant roles in innate immunity through binding with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on the surface of microbe. In the present study, a novel CTL, Nattectin-like protein (named as CaNTC), was investigated in Qihe crucian carp Carassius auratus. The full-length cDNA of CaNTC was composed of 776 bp, with a 152 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 492 bp ORF encoding a 163-aa protein, and a 132 bp 3'-UTR with a polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a poly(A) tail...
June 6, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Guillaume Poiroux, Annick Barre, Els J M van Damme, Hervé Benoist, Pierre Rougé
Aberrant O-glycans expressed at the surface of cancer cells consist of membrane-tethered glycoproteins (T and Tn antigens) and glycolipids (Lewis a, Lewis x and Forssman antigens). All of these O-glycans have been identified as glyco-markers of interest for the diagnosis and the prognosis of cancer diseases. These epitopes are specifically detected using T/Tn-specific lectins isolated from various plants such as jacalin from Artocarpus integrifola, and fungi such as the Agaricus bisporus lectin. These lectins accommodate T/Tn antigens at the monosaccharide-binding site; residues located in the surrounding extended binding-site of the lectins often participate in the binding of more extended epitopes...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yunjie Zhao, Yiren Jian, Zhichao Liu, Hang Liu, Qin Liu, Chanyou Chen, Zhangyong Li, Lu Wang, H Howie Huang, Chen Zeng
The bulb-type lectins are proteins consist of three sequential beta-sheet subdomains that bind to specific carbohydrates to perform certain biological functions. The active states of most bulb-type lectins are dimeric and it is thus important to elucidate the short- and long-range recognition mechanism for this dimer formation. To do so, we perform comparative sequence analysis for the single- and double-domain bulb-type lectins abundant in plant genomes. In contrast to the dimer complex of two single-domain lectins formed via protein-protein interactions, the double-domain lectin fuses two single-domain proteins into one protein with a short linker and requires only short-range interactions because its two single domains are always in close proximity...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gustavo Arruda Bezerra, Yuko Ohara-Nemoto, Irina Cornaciu, Sofiya Fedosyuk, Guillaume Hoffmann, Adam Round, José A Márquez, Takayuki K Nemoto, Kristina Djinović-Carugo
Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis are important bacteria related to periodontitis, the most common chronic inflammatory disease in humans worldwide. Its comorbidity with systemic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, oral cancers and cardiovascular diseases, continues to generate considerable interest. Surprisingly, these two microorganisms do not ferment carbohydrates; rather they use proteinaceous substrates as carbon and energy sources. However, the underlying biochemical mechanisms of their energy metabolism remain unknown...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shoko Motohashi, Mitsuru Jimbo, Tomohiro Naito, Takefumi Suzuki, Ryuichi Sakai, Hisao Kamiya
Egg lectins occur in a variety of animals ranging from mollusks to vertebrates. A few examples of molluscan egg lectins have been reported, including that of the sea hare Aplysia kurodai; however, their biological functions in the egg remain unclarified. We report the isolation, determination of primary structure, and possible functions of A.kurodai lectin (AKL) from the egg mass of A. kurodai. We obtained AKL as an inseparable mixture of isoproteins with a relative molecular mass of approximately 32 kDa by affinity purification...
June 2, 2017: Marine Drugs
Kevin Bellande, Jean-Jacques Bono, Bruno Savelli, Elisabeth Jamet, Hervé Canut
Lectins are fundamental to plant life and have important roles in cell-to-cell communication; development and defence strategies. At the cell surface; lectins are present both as soluble proteins (LecPs) and as chimeric proteins: lectins are then the extracellular domains of receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs) and receptor-like proteins (LecRLPs). In this review; we first describe the domain architectures of proteins harbouring G-type; L-type; LysM and malectin carbohydrate-binding domains. We then focus on the functions of LecPs; LecRLKs and LecRLPs referring to the biological processes they are involved in and to the ligands they recognize...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yonggang Lu, Mingming Zhang, Pei Zhao, Min Jia, Bing Liu, Qian Jia, Jun Guo, Lin Dou, Jian Li
Galectin-3 is a carbohydrate-binding lectin, which has been implicated in the modulation of atherosclerotic pathophysiology, and is highly expressed in monocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells within atherosclerotic plaques. Modified citrus pectin (MCP) is produced from citrus pectin via pH and temperature modifications, which break it into shorter, non‑branched, galactose‑rich carbohydrate chains. MCP is able to tightly bind with galectin‑3, via recognition of its carbohydrate recognition domain, and facilitates the modulation of galectin‑3‑induced bioactivity...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Cédric Atmanene, Céline Ronin, Stéphane Téletchéa, François-Moana Gautier, Florence Djedaïni-Pilard, Fabrice Ciesielski, Valérie Vivat, Cyrille Grandjean
Combination of biophysical and structural techniques allowed characterizing and uncovering the mechanisms underlying increased binding affinity of lactosamine derivatives for galectin 3. In particular, complementing information gathered from X-ray crystallography, native mass spectrometry and isothermal microcalorimetry showed favorable enthalpic contribution of cation-π interaction between lactosamine aryl substitutions and arginine residues from the carbohydrate recognition domain, which resulted in two log increase in compound binding affinity...
May 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nansalmaa Amarsaikhan, Evan M O'Dea, Angar Tsoggerel, Steven P Templeton
The differential recognition of fungal cell wall polysaccharides that program innate and adaptive immunity to the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has been a focus of considerable interest. In a mouse model of fungal conidia aspiration, decreased relative levels of cell wall core carbohydrates β-1,3-glucan to chitin in A. fumigatus isolates and mutant strains were correlated with increased airway eosinophil recruitment. In addition, an increase in fungal surface chitin exposure induced by the β-1,3-glucan synthesis-targeting drug caspofungin was associated with increased murine airway eosinophil recruitment after a single challenge of conidia...
May 25, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Huiting Xue, Lu Liu, Zihan Zhao, Zhongyu Zhang, Yuan Guan, Hairong Cheng, Yifa Zhou, Guihua Tai
Galectin-3 is a galectin with a unique flexible N-terminal tail (NT) connected to the conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Galectin-3 is associated with tumor immune tolerance and exhibits an ability to induce T cell apoptosis. We used Jurkat, Jurkat E6-1 and CEM T-cell lines and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to investigate the specific roles of the CRD and NT in inducing T cell apoptosis. Galectin-3 triggered sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation that induced apoptosis...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
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