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calcific aortic valve disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456878/non-destructive-two-photon-excited-fluorescence-imaging-identifies-early-nodules-in-calcific-aortic-valve-disease
#1
Lauren M Baugh, Zhiyi Liu, Kyle P Quinn, Sam Osseiran, Conor L Evans, Gordon S Huggins, Philip W Hinds, Lauren D Black, Irene Georgakoudi
Calcifications occur during the development of healthy bone, and at the onset of calcific aortic-valve disease (CAVD) and many other pathologies. Although the mechanisms regulating early calcium deposition are not fully understood, they may provide targets for new treatments and for early interventions. Here, we show that two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) can provide quantitative and sensitive readouts of calcific nodule formation, in particular in the context of CAVD. Specifically, by means of the decomposition of TPEF spectral images from excised human CAVD valves and from rat bone prior to and following demineralization, as well as from calcific nodules formed within engineered gels, we identified an endogenous fluorophore that correlates with the level of mineralization in the samples...
November 2017: Nature Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438214/ncrnas-in-cavd-a-review-of-recent-studies
#2
Wen-Juan Ni, Dong-Hong Ma, Xiao-Min Leng
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common heart valve disorder in human populations. Nevertheless, there are presently no effective means for its prevention and treatment. It is therefore critical to comprehensively define key mechanisms of the disease. A major focus of cardiovascular research has been characterization of how regulation of gene expression maintains healthy physiologic status of the component tissues of the system and how derangements of gene regulation may become pathological...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431108/health-behaviors-and-calcific-aortic-valve-disease
#3
EDITORIAL
Julio A Lamprea-Montealegre, Catherine M Otto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408789/automatic-calcium-scoring-in-low-dose-chest-ct-using-deep-neural-networks-with-dilated-convolutions
#4
Nikolas Lessmann, Bram van Ginneken, Majd Zreik, Pim A de Jong, Bob D de Vos, Max A Viergever, Ivana Isgum
Heavy smokers undergoing screening with low-dose chest CT are affected by cardiovascular disease as much as by lung cancer. Low-dose chest CT scans acquired in screening enable quantification of atherosclerotic calcifications and thus enable identification of subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. This paper presents a method for automatic detection of coronary artery, thoracic aorta, and cardiac valve calcifications in low-dose chest CT using two consecutive convolutional neural networks. The first network identifies and labels potential calcifications according to their anatomical location and the second network identifies true calcifications among the detected candidates...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393145/osteocardiology-defining-the-go-no-go-time-point-for-therapy
#5
Nalini M Rajamannan
Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that the risk factors associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC), including male gender, smoking, hypertension, and elevated serum cholesterol, are similar to the risk factors associated with the development of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). The results of the experimental and clinical studies demonstrate that traditional risk factors initiate early atherosclerosis which over time differentiates to form bone in the heart causing clinical CAC and CAVD...
January 27, 2018: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384880/risk-factors-for-heart-valve-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Shu Rong, Xin Qiu, Xiucai Jin, Minghua Shang, Yixin Huang, Zhihuan Tang, Weijie Yuan
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Aortic and mitral valve calcification (AVC and MVC, respectively) are critical indicators of CVD and all-cause mortality in CKD patients.We conducted a single center retrospective study of Chinese inpatients with CKD to identify risk factors associated with valve calcification (VC).Of 288 enrolled CKD patients, 22.9% had VC, all of which exhibited AVC, while 21.2% exhibited MVC. The VC group were significantly older than the non-VC group (70...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359271/molecular-imaging-of-calcific-aortic-valve-disease
#7
Jae-Joon Jung, Farid Jadbabaie, Mehran M Sadeghi
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) can progress to symptomatic aortic stenosis in a subset of patients. The severity of aortic stenosis and the extent of valvular calcification can be evaluated readily by echocardiography, CT, and MRI using well-established imaging protocols. However, these techniques fail to address optimally other important aspects of CAVD, including the propensity for disease progression, risk of complications in asymptomatic patients, and the effect of therapeutic interventions on valvular biology...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325642/nhlbi-working-group-recommendations-to-reduce-lipoprotein-a-mediated-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-aortic-stenosis
#8
REVIEW
Sotirios Tsimikas, Sergio Fazio, Keith C Ferdinand, Henry N Ginsberg, Marlys L Koschinsky, Santica M Marcovina, Patrick M Moriarty, Daniel J Rader, Alan T Remaley, Gissette Reyes-Soffer, Raul D Santos, George Thanassoulis, Joseph L Witztum, Simhan Danthi, Michelle Olive, Lijuan Liu
Pathophysiological, epidemiological, and genetic studies provide strong evidence that lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a causal mediator of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). Specific therapies to address Lp(a)-mediated CVD and CAVD are in clinical development. Due to knowledge gaps, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute organized a working group that identified challenges in fully understanding the role of Lp(a) in CVD/CAVD. These included the lack of research funding, inadequate experimental models, lack of globally standardized Lp(a) assays, and inadequate understanding of the mechanisms underlying current drug therapies on Lp(a) levels...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286439/isolation-and-characterization-of-primary-rat-valve-interstitial-cells-a-new-model-to-study-aortic-valve-calcification
#9
Cui Lin, Dongxing Zhu, Greg Markby, Brendan M Corcoran, Colin Farquharson, Vicky E Macrae
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is characterized by the progressive thickening of the aortic valve leaflets. It is a condition frequently found in the elderly and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, who commonly suffer from hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia. At present, there are no medication therapies that can stop its progression. The mechanisms that underlie this pathological process remain unclear. The aortic valve leaflet is composed of a thin layer of valve endothelial cells (VECs) on the outer surfaces of the aortic cusps, with valve interstitial cells (VICs) sandwiched between the VECs...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282325/creation-of-disease-inspired-biomaterial-environments-to-mimic-pathological-events-in-early-calcific-aortic-valve-disease
#10
Ana M Porras, Jennifer A Westlund, Austin D Evans, Kristyn S Masters
An insufficient understanding of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) pathogenesis remains a major obstacle in developing treatment strategies for this disease. The aim of the present study was to create engineered environments that mimic the earliest known features of CAVD and apply this in vitro platform to decipher relationships relevant to early valve lesion pathobiology. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) enrichment is a dominant hallmark of early CAVD, but culture of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) in biomaterial environments containing pathological amounts of hyaluronic acid (HA) or chondroitin sulfate (CS) did not directly increase indicators of disease progression such as VIC activation or inflammatory cytokine production...
December 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276909/-management-of-patients-with-isolated-aortic-stenosis-considering-negative-prognostic-factors
#11
I G Nikitin, G E Gendlin, E I Emelina, A I Kovaleva
BACKGROUND: Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valve defect in developed countries; its prevalence increases with age of the population. The most frequent cause for isolated AS in adults is calcification of normal tricuspid or congenital bicuspid aortic valve (AV). The only effective treatment of AS is aortic valve replacement (AVR). Major negative prognostic factors include low LV ejection fraction (EF), age older than 70, female gender, and comorbidities such as renal dysfunction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and neural disorders...
2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273600/deficiency-of-natriuretic-peptide-receptor-2-promotes-bicuspid-aortic-valves-aortic-valve-disease-left-ventricular-dysfunction-and-ascending-aortic-dilatations-in-mice
#12
Mark C Blaser, Kuiru Wei, Rachel L Adams, Yu-Qing Zhou, Laura-Lee Caruso, Zahra Mirzaei, Alan Lam, Richard K Tam, Hangjun Zhang, Scott P Heximer, Mark Henkelman, Craig A Simmons
Rationale: Aortic valve disease is a cell-mediated process without effective pharmacotherapy. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) inhibits myofibrogenesis and osteogenesis of cultured valve interstitial cells (VICs), and is downregulated in stenotic aortic valves. However, it is unknown whether CNP signaling regulates aortic valve health in vivo. Objective: To determine whether a deficient CNP signaling axis in mice causes accelerated progression of aortic valve disease. Methods and Results: In cultured porcine VICs, CNP inhibited pathological differentiation via the guanylate cyclase natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) and not the G-protein-coupled clearance receptor NPR3...
December 22, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244962/expression-of-the-frizzled-receptors-and-their-co-receptors-in-calcified-human-aortic-valves
#13
Ateeque Siddique, Bin Yu, Kashif Khan, Ryan Buyting, Hamood Al-Kindi, Hossny Alaws, Eric Rhéaume, Jean-Claude Tardif, Renzo Cecere, Adel Schwertani
The cellular mechanisms that induce calcific aortic stenosis are yet to be unravelled. Wnt signaling is increasingly being considered as a major player in the disease process. However, the presence of Wnt Frizzled receptors (Fzd) and co-receptors LRP5 and 6 in normal and diseased human aortic valves remains to be elucidated. Immunohistochemistry and qPCR were used to determine Fzd receptor expression in normal and calcified human aortic valve tissue, as well as human aortic valve interstitial cells (HAVICs) isolated from calcified and normal human aortic valves...
December 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242202/calcific-aortic-valve-disease-insights-into-the-genetics-of-vascular-ageing
#14
EDITORIAL
Richmond W Jeremy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242201/familial-aggregation-of-aortic-valvular-stenosis-a-nationwide-study-of-sibling-risk
#15
Andreas Martinsson, Xinjun Li, Bengt Zöller, Pontus Andell, Charlotte Andersson, Kristina Sundquist, J Gustav Smith
BACKGROUND: Aortic valvular stenosis (AS) is the most common cause of cardiac valvular replacement surgery. During the last century, the pathogenesis of AS has undergone transitions in developed countries, from rheumatic heart disease to a degenerative calcific pathogenesis. Although a familial component has been described for a subset of cases with a bicuspid valve, data are limited on the overall familial aggregation of this disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Contemporary information on 6 117 263 Swedish siblings, of which 13 442 had a clinical diagnosis of AS, was collected from the nationwide Swedish Multi-Generation Register and the National Patient Register...
December 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212967/integrated-bioinformatics-analysis-predicts-the-key-genes-involved-in-aortic-valve-calcification-from-hemodynamic-changes-to-extracellular-remodeling
#16
Mu Liu, Ming Luo, Haoliang Sun, Buqing Ni, Yongfeng Shao
In our aging world, increasing numbers of people are suffering from calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). In this study, we used integrated bioinformatics analysis to predict several key genes that are involved in the initiation and progression of CAVD. Expression profiles of 15 calcific and 14 normal human aortic valve samples were generated from two gene expression datasets (GSE12644 and GSE51472). Dataset GSE26953 from the human aortic valve fibrosa-derived endothelial cells cultured under laminar or oscillatory shear stress was also evaluated...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212966/know-me-unraveling-the-riddle-of-calcific-aortic-valve-disease-by-bioinformatics
#17
Ares Pasipoularides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210840/conoscere-e-curare-il-cuore-1986-2016-how-the-heart-has-changed
#18
Alessandro Boccanelli
: The demographic transition, with longer life expectancy, is mainly due to prevention and care of atherosclerotic vascular and heart disease. The cardiovascular patient is now much older and often presents with coexisting geriatric syndromes that affect healthcare goals, outcomes, and the process of care. Numerous mechanisms at cellular level are responsible for cardiovascular aging such as replicative senescence, apoptosis, proteins misfolding, and inflammation. Aging-related modifications are increase in left-ventricular mass, increased left atrial size, myocardial collagen deposition, and calcium deposition in valvular structures and the coronary arteries...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207136/exploiting-novel-valve-interstitial-cell-lines-to-study-calcific-aortic-valve-disease
#19
Hiu-Gwen Tsang, Lin Cui, Colin Farquharson, Brendan M Corcoran, Kim M Summers, Vicky E Macrae
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) involves progressive valve leaflet thickening and severe calcification, impairing leaflet motion. The in vitro calcification of primary rat, human, porcine and bovine aortic valve interstitial cells (VICs) is commonly employed to investigate CAVD mechanisms. However, to date, no published studies have utilised cell lines to investigate this process. The present study has therefore generated and evaluated the calcification potential of immortalized cell lines derived from sheep and rat VICs...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198984/relation-of-an-echocardiographic-based-cardiac-calcium-score-to-mitral-stenosis-severity-and-coronary-artery-disease-in-patients-with-severe-aortic-stenosis
#20
Siyuan P Sheng, Lucius A Howell, Melissa C Caughey, Michael Yeung, John P Vavalle
Patients with calcific aortic stenosis (AS) often have diffuse cardiac calcification involving the mitral valve apparatus and coronary arteries. We examined the association between global cardiac calcification quantified by a previously validated echocardiographic calcium score (eCS) with the severity of mitral stenosis (MS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of severe calcific AS. In this sample of 147 patients (mean age 81 ± 9 years, 50% male), 81 patients (55%) were determined by echocardiography to have some degree of MS...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
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