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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564625/a-randomized-open-label-non-inferiority-study-to-compare-palonosetron-and-ondansetron-for-prevention-of-acute-chemotherapy-induced-vomiting-in-children-with-cancer-receiving-moderate-or-high-emetogenic-chemotherapy
#1
Sandeep Jain, Gauri Kapoor, Sahitya Koneru, Gayatri Vishwakarma
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced vomiting is a common adverse effect of cancer treatment. We assessed the non-inferiority of palonosetron versus ondansetron in prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced vomiting in children with cancer in 2-18 years of age. METHODS: In this single-center, open-label, randomized study, children receiving moderate and high emetogenic chemotherapy were assigned to get either ondansetron or palonosetron in addition to other antiemetic prophylaxis...
March 22, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077725/ondansetron-treatment-reduces-rotavirus-symptoms-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#2
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Marie Hagbom, Daniel Novak, Malin Ekström, Younis Khalid, Maria Andersson, Magnus Lindh, Johan Nordgren, Lennart Svensson
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus and norovirus cause acute gastroenteritis with severe diarrhoea and vomiting, symptoms that may lead to severe dehydration and death. The objective of this randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled study was to investigate whether ondansetron, a serotonin receptor antagonist could attenuate rotavirus- and norovirus-induced vomiting and diarrhoea, which would facilitate oral rehydration and possibly accelerate recovery and reduce need for hospitalization. METHODS: Children with acute gastroenteritis, aged 6 months to 16 years where enrolled (n = 104) and randomized to one single oral dose (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040247/use-of-ondansetron-for-vomiting-after-head-trauma-does-it-mask-clinically-significant-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Israel Green-Hopkins, Michael C Monuteaux, Lois Lee, Lise Nigrovic, Rebekah Mannix, Sara Schutzman
OBJECTIVES: We describe ondansetron use in children with head injury evaluated in pediatric emergency departments and its association with return visits and late diagnoses of intracranial injuries requiring intervention. METHODS: Children ages 6 months to 18 years discharged without neuroimaging from 35 pediatric emergency departments with a diagnosis of head injury from 2009 to 2013 were identified retrospectively from the Pediatric Health Information System. We evaluated the rates of ondansetron use during the study period and of the association of ondansetron treatment with the diagnosis of intracranial injury, skull fracture, and return visits within 72 hours requiring admission or operative intervention...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031010/evaluation-of-aprepitant-for-acute-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-children-and-adolescents-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-receiving-high-dose-methotrexate
#4
Femi Felix-Ukwu, Kate Reichert, M Brooke Bernhardt, Eric S Schafer, Amanda Berger
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) negatively impacts patients' quality of life. The emetogenicity of high-dose methotrexate in children and adolescents with cancer is incompletely characterized. At our institution, a number of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have received aprepitant with courses of high-dose methotrexate after poor CINV control with prior courses. PROCEDURE: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis on patients with ALL who received methotrexate 5 g/m2 /dose with and without concomitant aprepitant at Texas...
February 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029798/effect-of-intravenous-ondansetron-on-qtc-interval-in-children-with-gastroenteritis
#5
Robert J Hoffman, Khalid Alansari
BACKGROUND: The potential for ondansetron to cause QT prolongation and fatal dysrhythmia is well-reported, including a 2011 FDA report on the topic. Few clinical trials evaluating this phenomenon in the ED setting exist, and only one is pediatric. OBJECTIVE: We have sought to determine the effect of a standardized dose of intravenous ondansetron on the QTc duration of children under 14years of age treated for gastroenteritis-associated vomiting in a pediatric ED...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963679/clinical-practice-nausea-and-vomiting-in-acute-gastroenteritis-physiopathology-and-management
#6
REVIEW
Beatrice C Canziani, Peter Uestuener, Emilio F Fossali, Sebastiano A G Lava, Mario G Bianchetti, Carlo Agostoni, Gregorio P Milani
Currently recommended management of acute gastroenteritis is supportive. Although the affected children habitually have vomiting, recommendations do not focus on the correction of this symptom. In this condition, elevated ketone bodies and stimuli initiated by gut mucosa damage produced by the enteral pathogen likely underlay nausea and vomiting. As compared to 0.9% saline, intravenous administration of a dextrose-containing bolus of 0.9% saline is associated with a greater reduction of circulating ketones and a shorter duration of nausea and vomiting...
January 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941006/palonosetron-is-nonsuperior-to-ondansetron-in-acute-phase-but-provides-superior-antiemetic-control-in-delayed-phase-for-pediatric-patients-administered-highly-emetogenic-chemotherapy
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Juan Tan, Shan Wang, Xiaohua Liang, Chang-Chun Li, Jun Zhang, Zhenzhen Zhao, Xiang-Ru Kong, Xiaobin Deng, Liang Peng, Chao Yang
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children remains to be a major side effect despite antiemetic treatment. Palonosetron is a new generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists effective against acute and delayed nausea and vomiting. This study aimed to compare the therapeutic values of palonosetron and ondansetron in preventing pediatric CINV. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel controlled study was conducted in 0-18 years old cancer patients administered highly emetogenic chemotherapy, with different dosage of palonosetron or ondansetron, both followed by dexamethasone...
February 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887737/child-with-vomiting
#8
REVIEW
Madhusudan Samprathi, Muralidharan Jayashree
Vomiting is a common problem in children for which parents seek health care consultation. It has a varied etiology encompassing many organ systems, ranging from a benign physiological behavior to a life-threatening systemic disease. Most often, it is benign and self-limiting. Infections within and outside the gastrointestinal tract are the commonest causes. A good history and meticulous physical examination can discern the cause and help in delineating the benign cause from the sinister. Red flags include unstable vital signs, acidotic breathing, presence of bile or blood stained vomitus, features of gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction, encephalopathy and papilledema...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882877/clinical-pathway-produces-sustained-improvement-in-acute-gastroenteritis-care
#9
Lori Rutman, Eileen J Klein, Julie C Brown
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite widespread use of the rotavirus vaccine in the last decade, dehydrating illnesses impact almost 2 billion children worldwide annually. Evidence supports oral rehydration therapy as a first-line treatment of mild to moderate dehydration. Ondansetron has proven to be a safe and effective adjunct in children with vomiting. We implemented a clinical pathway in our pediatric emergency department (ED) in January 2005 to improve care for this common condition...
October 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856448/olanzapine-for-prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-children-and-adolescents-a-multi-center-feasibility-study
#10
J Flank, T Schechter, P Gibson, D L Johnston, A D Orsey, C Portwine, L Sung, L L Dupuis
CONTEXT: There are no prospective pediatric trials evaluating olanzapine for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) prevention. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the feasibility of a trial of olanzapine to evaluate the contribution of olanzapine to CINV control in pediatric oncology patients. METHODS: Patients < 18 years receiving CINV prophylaxis with ondansetron/granisetron/palonosetron ± dexamethasone ± aprepitant were eligible to participate in this prospective, single-arm, open-label study...
February 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737202/-euglycemic-ketosis-in-an-adolescent-with-type-1-diabetes-on-insulin-and-dapaglifozin-case-report
#11
Marcia Pereyra A, Cristhian Ramírez, Rossana Román
Dapagliflozin, an insulin-independent sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2-I) induces glycosuria and reduces hyperglycemia in adults with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To present an “euglycemic” diabetic ketosis in an adolescent with type 1 diabetes (T1D) receiving dapagliflozin, to alert about the risk of a drug not approved in children nor in T1D. CASE REPORT: A 17 years old adolescent with T1D during 9 years, was started on dapagliflozin 10 mg / day to reduce insulin dose and weight...
June 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505233/addition-of-droperidol-to-prophylactic-ondansetron-and-dexamethasone-in-children-at-high-risk-for-postoperative-vomiting-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-study
#12
N Bourdaud, C François, O Jacqmarcq, M-L Guye, J Jean, C Studer, C Engrand-Donal, J-M Devys, F Boutin, E Guyot, N Bouazza, J-M Treluyer, G A Orliaguet
Background: : The combination of dexamethasone (DEX), ondansetron (OND) and droperidol (DRO) is efficacious in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults, but has not been well assessed in children. Methods: : Children undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia and considered at high risk for postoperative vomiting (POV) were randomly assigned to receive a combination of DEX, OND and placebo (Group A) or a combination of DEX, OND and DRO (Group B)...
June 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500750/nausea-and-vomiting-in-children-and-adolescents-receiving-intrathecal-methotrexate-a-prospective-observational-study
#13
COMMENT
Jacqueline Flank, Komail Nadeem, Sheliza Moledina, Mila Khanna, Christina Schindera, Angela Punnett, L Lee Dupuis
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of nausea and vomiting after receipt of intrathecal methotrexate (IT-MTX) in pediatric oncology patients is unknown. METHODS: Patients (4-18 years) about to receive IT-MTX were eligible to participate in this prospective, observational study. Patients received antiemetics as prescribed by their clinical team. Nausea severity (patient-assessed), timing of emetic episodes, and administration of antiemetics were recorded beginning immediately prior to IT-MTX administration, for the next 24 hr (acute phase), and for a maximum of 7 additional days (delayed phase)...
October 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449280/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-placebo-droperidol-or-ondansetron-to-prevent-nausea-and-vomiting-after-tonsillectomy-in-children-receiving-dexamethasone
#14
P Flubacher, N Fournier, J Cherpillod, F Waridel, M Nydegger, E Albrecht
We tested whether prophylactic droperidol and ondansetron, in combination with a moderate dose of dexamethasone, were equally effective in reducing nausea and vomiting after tonsillectomy in children and that both were superior to saline with dexamethasone. We randomly allocated 300 children to intravenous saline, droperidol 10 μg.kg-1 or ondansetron 150 μg.kg-1 , after induction of anaesthesia and the administration of intravenous dexamethasone 250 μg.kg-1 . The rates (95%CI) of nausea or vomiting within 24 postoperative hours were: 42/91 after saline, 46% (36%-57%); 43/87 after droperidol, 49% (39%-60%); reduced to 18/84 by ondansetron, 21% (13%-32%), p < 0...
July 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007031/comparative-safety-and-effectiveness-of-serotonin-receptor-antagonists-in-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Andrea C Tricco, Erik Blondal, Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Charlene Soobiah, Afshin Vafaei, John Ivory, Lisa Strifler, Roberta Cardoso, Emily Reynen, Vera Nincic, Huda Ashoor, Joanne Ho, Carmen Ng, Christy Johnson, Erin Lillie, Jesmin Antony, Derek J Roberts, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND: Although serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists are effective in reducing nausea and vomiting, they may be associated with increased cardiac risk. Our objective was to examine the comparative safety and effectiveness of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (e.g., dolasetron, granisetron, ondansetron, palonosetron, tropisetron) alone or combined with steroids for patients undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception until December 2015 for studies comparing 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with each other or placebo in chemotherapy patients...
December 23, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880811/oral-ondansetron-versus-domperidone-for-acute-gastroenteritis-in-pediatric-emergency-departments-multicenter-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Federico Marchetti, Maurizio Bonati, Alessandra Maestro, Davide Zanon, Francesca Rovere, Alberto Arrighini, Egidio Barbi, Paolo Bertolani, Paolo Biban, Liviana Da Dalt, Andrea Guala, Elisa Mazzoni, Anna Pazzaglia, Paolo Francesco Perri, Antonino Reale, Salvatore Renna, Antonio Francesco Urbino, Enrico Valletta, Antonio Vitale, Tiziana Zangardi, Antonio Clavenna, Luca Ronfani
The use of antiemetics for vomiting in acute gastroenteritis in children is still a matter of debate. We conducted a double-blind randomized trial to evaluate whether a single oral dose of ondansetron vs domperidone or placebo improves outcomes in children with gastroenteritis. After failure of initial oral rehydration administration, children aged 1-6 years admitted for gastroenteritis to the pediatric emergency departments of 15 hospitals in Italy were randomized to receive one oral dose of ondansetron (0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868231/aprepitant-in-pediatric-patients-using-moderate-and-highly-emetogenic-protocols-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
REVIEW
Lucas Miyake Okumura, Fernanda D'Athayde Rodrigues, Maria Angelica Pires Ferreira, Leila Beltrami Moreira
AIMS: To review the efficacy and safety of aprepitant in combination with ondansetron and dexamethasone (triple therapy) in children and adolescents on moderate to highly emetogenic chemotherapy. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Scielo, Lilacs, Cochrane and congress abstracts published until September 2016 were used as data sources. Two reviewers independently selected manuscripts and extracted data. A third reviewer solved discrepancies in study selection and data extraction...
May 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814325/fatal-cardiac-arrest-in-2-children-possible-role-of-ondansetron
#18
Scott M Brenner, Jenny Boucher
INTRODUCTION: Ondansetron is commonly used to treat vomiting in gastroenteritis, but has a United States Food and Drug Administration black box warning for risk of Q wave to T wave time interval (QT) prolongation. We report 2 pediatric cases of fatal refractory cardiac arrest after administration of ondansetron. CASES: A 10-year-old previously healthy boy presented to the emergency room with gastroenteritis symptoms. After intravenous fluids, morphine, antibiotics, and 2 doses of ondansetron, the patient became unresponsive with agonal respirations and a wide complex tachycardia consistent with ventricular tachycardia...
November 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757817/novel-treatments-for-cyclic-vomiting-syndrome-beyond-ondansetron-and-amitriptyline
#19
REVIEW
Sanjay Bhandari, Thangam Venkatesan
Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by episodic nausea and vomiting. Initially thought to only affect children, CVS in adults was often misdiagnosed with significant delays in therapy. Over the last decade, there has been a considerable increase in recognition of CVS in adults but there continues to be a lack of knowledge about management of this disorder. This paper seeks to provide best practices in the treatment of CVS and also highlight some novel therapies that have the potential in better treating this disorder in the future...
December 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624509/ondansetron-oral-dissolve-tab-vs-oral-solution-in-children-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with-gastroenteritis
#20
Graham C Thompson, Ellen L Morrison, David Chaulk, Holly Wobma, Simon Kwong, David W Johnson
BACKGROUND: Ondansetron is often used in the emergency department (ED) to promote oral rehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE), yet medication solutions administered orally may be poorly tolerated in this population. OBJECTIVES: We compared the tolerability of ondansetron oral dissolve tab (ODT) to oral solution (OS) in children presenting to the ED with AGE. METHODS: Using alternate-day controlled clinical trial design, children aged 3 months to 10 years received either ondansetron ODT or OS...
November 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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