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Yanna Si, Yuan Zhang, Liu Han, Lihai Chen, Yajie Xu, Fan Sun, Muhuo Ji, Jianjun Yang, Hongguang Bao
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits could be alleviated by dexmedetomidine in young animal subjects. In the current study, we examine whether dexmedetomidine could also alleviate isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits in senile animals. METHODS: Senile male C57BL/6 mice (20 months) received dexmedetomidine (50 μg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 30 minutes prior to isoflurane exposure (1.3% for 4 h). Cognitive function was assessed 19 days later using a 5-day testing regimen with Morris water maze...
2016: PloS One
Teeda Pinyavat, David O Warner, Randall P Flick, Mary Ellen McCann, Dean B Andropoulos, Danquig Hu, Jeffrey W Sall, Marisa N Spann, Caleb Ing
During the Fifth Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment Symposium, experts and stakeholders met to present and discuss recent advances made in the study of neurodevelopmental outcomes after exposure to anesthetic drugs in infants and children. This article summarizes the update of 5 ongoing clinical studies: General Anesthesia compared to Spinal Anesthesia, Toxicity of Remifentanil and Dexmedetomidine, Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids, the University of California San Francisco human cohort study, and Columbia University Medical Center Neonatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging study...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Nilesh Balu Sonawane, J Balavenkatasubramanian, P Gurumoorthi, Poonam Ashok Jadhav
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Huan Mark Nguyen, Doreen Pon
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate recent clinical studies involving the use of dexmedetomidine (DEX) infusion for the treatment of delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles in MEDLINE (1966-June 2016) using the terms sedation, analgesic, dexmedetomidine, delirium, and critically ill adult patients. RESULTS: Two studies in the ICU setting reported the potential benefits of DEX for managing agitation during weaning from mechanical ventilation...
October 2016: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Ryan C Dillon, Jose-Alberto Palma, Christy L Spalink, Diana Altshuler, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, David Fridman, John Papadopoulos, Horacio Kaufmann
OBJECTIVE: Adrenergic crises are a cardinal feature of familial dysautonomia (FD). Traditionally, adrenergic crises have been treated with the sympatholytic agent clonidine or with benzodiazepines, which can cause excessive sedation and respiratory depression. Dexmedetomidine is a centrally-acting α 2-adrenergic agonist with greater selectivity and shorter half-life than clonidine. We evaluated the preliminary effectiveness and safety of intravenous dexmedetomidine in the treatment of refractory adrenergic crisis in patients with FD...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
L X Quan, H X An, D X Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of 0.4 μg/(kg×h) dose of dexmedetomidine on intra-operative wake-up test in children patients undergoing scoliosis surgery. METHODS: Sixty patients for posterior scoliosis correction (ASA I-II, aged 5-16 years) from March 2013 to April 2015 were enrolled in this prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study, The patients were randomly classified into two groups to receive dexmedetomidine (group RD, n=30) or saline solution (group R, n=30)...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Stefano Busani, Cosetta Cantaroni, Massimo Girardis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Melissa P Knauert, Margaret A Pisani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Reshma B Muniyappa, Geetha C Rajappa, Suresh Govindswamy, Prathima P Thamanna
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Various adjuvants have been introduced to decrease the dose of volatile agents and their side effects. Dexmedetomidine a potent alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist is one such agent. Our objective is to assess the effect of preanesthetic dexmedetomidine on isoflurane consumption and its effect on intraoperative hemodynamic stability and recovery profile. SETTING AND DESIGN: This prospective, randomized controlled, double-blind study was done in a tertiary care hospital...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
P Rani, V R Hemanth Kumar, M Ravishankar, T Sivashanmugam, R Sripriya, M Trilogasundary
BACKGROUND: Fentanyl and dexmedetomidine have been tried to attenuate airway and circulatory reflexes during emergence and extubation individually but have not been compared with respect to the level of sedation to evolve a reliable technique for rapid and smooth extubation. AIM: To compare the effects of fentanyl and dexmedetomidine in attenuating airway and circulatory reflexes during emergence and extubation of the endotracheal tube. SETTING AND DESIGN: This double-blind, randomized, controlled study was done in patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Dhurjoti Prosad Bhattacharjee, Sauvik Saha, Sanjib Paul, Shibsankar Roychowdhary, Shirsendu Mondal, Suhrita Paul
BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery increases arterial pressures, heart rate (HR), and systemic vascular resistance. In this randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, we investigated and compared the efficacy of esmolol and dexmedetomidine to provide perioperative hemodynamic stability in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Sixty patients, of either sex undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were randomly allocated into three groups containing twenty patients each...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Madhavi Unmesh Santpur, Govind Marutrao Kahalekar, Nowreen Saraf, Aparna Losari
BACKGROUND: Regional anesthesia is the preferred technique for most of lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries. For decades, lignocaine had been the local anesthetic of choice for spinal anesthesia. Recent studies show that intravenous clonidine and dexmedetomidine can prolong the duration of the spinal anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine is a more suitable adjuvant compared to clonidine due to its more selective α2A receptor agonist activity. AIM: The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of intravenous administration of dexmedetomidine on spinal anesthesia with 0...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
H D Rashmi, H K Komala
BACKGROUND: The procedures in anesthesia such as laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation are the most important skills to be mastered by an anesthesiologist. However, they produce marked cardiovascular responses such as hypertension and tachycardia. Various drugs have been used to suppress this response. One of those is a novel centrally acting α2 agonist - dexmedetomidine. It has numerous uses in anesthesia as it is having sedative, analgesic, hypnotic, and opioid sparing effects. It is also known to suppress the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Amar Parkash Kataria, Joginder Pal Attri, Ramita Kashyap, Leena Mahajan
BACKGROUND: The advent of laparoscopic surgeries has proved to be beneficial for both patient and surgeon although increased morbidity may result from hemodynamic changes associated with laryngoscopy, intubation, and pneumoperitoneum (PNP). AIM: The present study was prospective, randomized, double-blind conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dexmdetomidine and fentanyl in attenuation of pressor responses to laryngoscopy, intubation, and PNP in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC)...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Arvinder Pal Singh, Malika Mahindra, Ruchi Gupta, Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Supplementation of dexmedetomidine produces a dose-dependent sedation, anxiolysis and analgesia without respiratory depression. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible effect of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to levobupivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block in upper limb surgery. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Tertiary care institute, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, a placebo-controlled study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining Ethical Committee approval, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II patients in the age group of 18-60 years, divided randomly into two groups, Group I received 30 ml of 0...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Daiki Yamanaka, Takashi Kawano, Atsushi Nishigaki, Bun Aoyama, Hiroki Tateiwa, Marie Shigematsu-Locatelli, Fabricio M Locatelli, Masataka Yokoyama
PURPOSE: In the present study, we examined whether and by what mechanisms dexmedetomidine (DMED) prevents the development of systemic inflammation (SI)-induced cognitive dysfunction in aged rats. METHODS: Animals received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either 5.0 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle. LPS-treated rats were further divided into three groups: early DMED, late DMED, or midazolam (MDZ) treatment (n = 12 each). Seven days after LPS injection, cognitive function was evaluated using a novel object recognition task, followed by measurement of hippocampal levels of proinflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) expression...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
Paulo Gabriel Melo Brandão, Francisco Ricardo Lobo, Serginando Laudenir Ramin, Yasser Sakr, Mauricio Nassau Machado, Suzana Margareth Lobo
Objective: α-2-agonists cause sympathetic inhibition combined with parasympathetic activation and have other properties that could be beneficial during cardiac anesthesia. We evaluated the effects of dexmedetomidine as an anesthetic adjuvant compared to a control group during cardiac surgery. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from all adult patients (> 18 years old) undergoing cardiac surgery. Patients were divided into two groups, regarding the use of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant intraoperatively (DEX group) and a control group who did not receive α-2-agonist (CON group)...
May 2016: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Babita Ghai, Kajal Jain, Akshay Kumar Saxena, Nidhi Bhatia, Kushaljit Singh Sodhi
BACKGROUND: Children undergoing computerized tomography (CT) frequently require sedation to allay their anxiety, and prevent motion artifacts and stress of intravenous (IV) cannulation. AIMS: The aim of this trial was to compare the effectiveness of oral midazolam and intranasal dexmedetomidine as sole premedicants in children for carrying out both IV cannulation as well as CT scanning, without the need for additional IV sedatives. METHODS: Fifty-nine children, aged 1-6 years, scheduled to undergo CT imaging under sedation were randomized to receive either 0...
October 13, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Xming Yang, Jie Xie, Jun Liu, Tao Wang
This study aims to study the impact of dexmedetomidine on the deformability of erythrocyte in patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. 40 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly divided into 2 groups: Dexmedetomidine group (0.5µg/kg loading within 10 min and 0.5μg•kg-1•h-1maintenance to the end of pneumoperitoneum, n=20, Group A) and control group (normal saline at the identical, n=20, Group B). The induction and maintenance of anesthesia of two groups were identical. Erythrocyte deformability index (EI) and haematocrit (Hct) were assayed before anesthesia and after the operation...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Pilar Anton-Martin, Vinai Modem, Donna Taylor, Donald Potter, Cindy Darnell-Bowens
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to describe the sedative and analgesic requirements identifying factors associated with medication escalation in neonates and children supported on ECMO. METHOD: Observational retrospective cohort study in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit from June 2009 to June 2013. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty patients were included in the study. Fentanyl and midazolam were the first line agents used while on ECMO...
October 10, 2016: Perfusion
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