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Dexmedetomidine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432759/anesthetic-and-postanesthetic-effects-of-alfaxalone-butorphanol-compared-with-dexmedetomidine-ketamine-in-chinchillas-chinchilla-lanigera
#1
Lily Parkinson, Christoph Mans
Effective and safe anesthetic protocols are required for a variety of surgical and diagnostic procedures in chinchillas.Alfaxalone, a new anesthetic agent in the United States, can be administered intramuscularly and subcutaneously and is therefore potentially useful as an anesthetic induction agent in chinchillas. This study compared the anesthetic efficacy andpostanesthetic effects on food intake and fecal output of a combination of intramuscular alfaxalone (5 mg/kg) and butorphanol(0.5 mg/kg; AB anesthesia) with a combination of dexmedetomidine (0...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425829/effects-of-dexmedetomidine-versus-midazolam-for-premedication-in-paediatric-anaesthesia-with-sevoflurane-a-meta-analysis
#2
Ji-Feng Feng, Xiao-Xia Wang, Yan-Yan Lu, Deng-Ge Pang, Wei Peng, Jian-Lan Mo
Background Dexmedetomidine (DEX), an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, produces ideal sedation and early postoperative recovery for premedication in paediatric surgery, reducing preoperative anxiety and facilitating smooth induction of anaesthesia. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the effects of DEX and midazolam (MDZ) in paediatric anaesthesia with sevoflurane. Methods PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and Public Health Management Corporation were searched through December 2016 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared DEX and MDZ in children undergoing sevoflurane anaesthesia...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425132/early-post-operative-management-after-lung-transplantation-results-of-an-international-survey
#3
Christopher S King, Vincent Valentine, Ashok Cattamanchi, Domingo Franco-Palacios, Oksana A Shlobin, A Whitney Brown, Ramesh Singh, Linda Bogar, Steven D Nathan
INTRODUCTION: Little data exists regarding optimal therapeutic strategies post-operatively after lung transplant (LTx). Current practice patterns rely on expert opinion and institutional experience resulting in non-uniform post-operative care. To better define current practice patterns, an international survey of LTx clinicians was conducted. METHODS: A 30-question survey was sent to transplant clinicians via email to the ISHLT open forum mailing list and directly to the chief transplant surgeon and pulmonologist of all LTx centers in the United States...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424537/awake-craniotomy-anesthetic-management-using-dexmedetomidine-propofol-and-remifentanil
#4
Andrea Prontera, Stefano Baroni, Andrea Marudi, Franco Valzania, Alberto Feletti, Francesca Benuzzi, Elisabetta Bertellini, Giacomo Pavesi
INTRODUCTION: Awake craniotomy allows continuous monitoring of patients' neurological functions during open surgery. Anesthesiologists have to sedate patients in a way so that they are compliant throughout the whole surgical procedure, nevertheless maintaining adequate analgesia and anxiolysis. Currently, the use of α2-receptor agonist dexmedetomidine as the primary hypnotic-sedative medication is increasing. METHODS: Nine patients undergoing awake craniotomy were treated with refined monitored anesthesia care (MAC) protocol consisting of a combination of local anesthesia without scalp block, low-dose infusion of dexmedetomidine, propofol, and remifentanil, without the need of airways management...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422874/consort-the-effect-of-intraoperative-dexmedetomidine-on-hemodynamic-responses-during-emergence-from-nasotracheal-intubation-after-oral-surgery
#5
Youn Yi Jo, Hong Soon Kim, Kyung Cheon Lee, Young Jin Chang, Youseok Shin, Hyun Jeong Kwak
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine provides smooth emergence with reduced agitation. The authors hypothesized low-dose dexmedetomidine infusion might contribute to hemodynamic stability during and after nasotracheal tube extubation. METHODS: Ninety-three adult patients scheduled for oral and maxillofacial surgery were enrolled in this prospective study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive normal saline (control group, n = 31), dexmedetomidine at 0.2 μg/kg/h (DEX0...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421731/intraoperative-dexmedetomidine-sedation-reduces-the-postoperative-agitated-behaviour-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-orthopaedic-surgery-compared-to-the-propofol-sedation-a-retrospective-analysis-of-855-patients
#6
Hyun-Jung Shin, Bon-Wook Koo, Seung-Uk Bang, Jin-Hee Kim, Jung-Won Hwang, Sang-Hwan DO, Hyo-Seok Na
BACKGROUND: Postoperative agitation or confusion is one of the symptoms of hyperactive delirium in elderly patients. We retrospectively evaluated the incidence of postoperative abnormal psychomotor behaviour in elderly surgical patients according to the use of different intraoperative sedative agents: dexmedetomidine vs. propofol. METHODS: The medical records of 855 elderly patients, who underwent orthopaedic surgery with regional anaesthesia between July 2012 and September 2015, were divided into two groups-the dexmedetomidine group (n=263) and the propofol group (n=592)-and evaluated...
April 19, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420386/sedation-levels-in-dogs-a-validation-study
#7
Marika C Wagner, Kent G Hecker, Daniel S J Pang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess validation evidence for a sedation scale for dogs. We hypothesized that the chosen sedation scale would be unreliable when used by different raters and show poor discrimination between sedation protocols. A sedation scale (range 0-21) was used to score 62 dogs scheduled to receive sedation at two veterinary clinics in a prospective trial. Scores recorded by a single observer were used to assess internal consistency and construct validity of the scores...
April 18, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418008/quantitative-analyses-of-the-global-proteome-and-phosphoproteome-reveal-the-different-impacts-of-propofol-and-dexmedetomidine-on-ht22-cells
#8
Honggang Zhang, Juan Ye, Zhaomei Shi, Chen Bu, Fangping Bao
Propofol and dexmedetomidine are both commonly used anaesthetics. Although they employ two different mechanisms to induce anaesthesia, both compounds influence the hippocampus and the HT22 cell line. HT22 cells are broadly used in neurobiological research. In this study, we assessed the effects of propofol and dexmedetomidine on signalling in HT22 cells. Using the SILAC (stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture) labelling technique, IMAC (immobilized metal affinity chromatography) enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) analysis, we investigated the quantitative proteome and phosphoproteome in HT22 cells treated with propofol or dexmedetomidine...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416997/comparison-of-intrathecal-versus-intra-articular-dexmedetomidine-as-an-adjuvant-to-bupivacaine-on-postoperative-pain-following-knee-arthroscopy-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Eman A Ismail, Jehan A Sayed, Mohamed H Bakri, Reda Z Mahfouz
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain is a common, distressing symptom following arthroscopic knee surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the potential analgesic effect of dexmedetomidine after intrathecal versus intra-articular administration following arthroscopic knee surgery. METHODS: Ninety patients undergoing unilateral elective arthroscopic knee surgery were randomly assigned into three groups in a double-blind placebo controlled study. The intrathecal dexmedetomidine group (IT) received an intrathecal block with intrathecal dexmedetomidine, the intra-articular group (IA) received an intrathecal block and intra-articular dexmedetomidine, and the control group received an intrathecal block and intra-articular saline...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415931/comparison-of-dexmedetomidine-and-propofol-for-conscious-sedation-in-inguinal-hernia-repair-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Hong-Mei Wang, Xiao-Yu Shi, Xia-Rong Qin, Jia-Li Zhou, Yan-Fei Xia
Objective The ideal agents for conscious sedation during ambulatory inguinal hernia repair are still unclear. We aimed to compare the analgesic, sedative, haemodynamic, and side effects of dexmedetomidine with those of propofol in combination with fentanyl for conscious sedation in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair. Methods Eighty patients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair were prospectively randomized to receive either dexmedetomidine (n = 40) or propofol (n = 40). Dexmedetomidine and propofol dosages were adjusted to maintain the targeted level of sedation...
April 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414899/comparison-of-sedation-by-intranasal-dexmedetomidine-and-oral-chloral-hydrate-for-pediatric-ophthalmic-examination
#11
Qianzhong Cao, Yiquan Lin, Zhubin Xie, Weihua Shen, Ying Chen, Xiaoliang Gan, Yizhi Liu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Pediatric ophthalmic examinations can be conducted under sedation either by chloral hydrate or by dexmedetomidine. The objective was to compare the success rates and quality of ophthalmic examination of children sedated by intranasal dexmedetomidine vs oral chloral hydrate. METHODS: One hundred and forty-one children aged from 3 to 36 months (5-15 kg) scheduled to ophthalmic examinations were randomly sedated by either intranasal dexmedetomidine (2 μg·kg(-1) , n = 71) or oral chloral hydrate (80 mg·kg(-1) , n = 70)...
April 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413277/efficacy-of-dexmedetomidine-with-ropivacaine-in-supraclavicular-brachial-plexus-block-for-upper-limb-surgeries
#12
Jithendra Chinnappa, Shivakumar Shivanna, Vinayak Seenappa Pujari, Tejesh Channasandra Anandaswamy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of dexmedetomidine on the duration of analgesia in patients undergoing upper limb surgeries under supraclavicular brachial plexus block. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I/II/III undergoing elective upper limb surgeries under supraclavicular brachial plexus block using nerve stimulator were randomized into two groups...
January 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411582/dexmedetomidine-attenuates-propofol-induce-neuroapoptosis-partly-via-the-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-pathway-in-the-hippocampus-of-neonatal-rats
#13
Jing Lv, Yi Wei, Yanhua Chen, Xu Zhang, Zheng Gong, Yage Jiang, Qin Gong, Lifang Zhou, Hao Wang, Yubo Xie
Recent studies have demonstrated that propofol causes neurodegeneration in developing brains. Evidence has shown that dexmedetomidine has neuroprotective effects. However, whether dexmedetomidine can reduce propofol-induced neuroapoptosis and by what mechanisms it acts remain unclear. We investigated whether dexmedetomidine can attenuate propofol-induced neuroapoptosis by disturbing the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway during brain development. Seven-day-old rats were randomly exposed to 100mg/kg propofol and 100mg/kg propofol plus different doses of dexmedetomidine or 100mg/kg propofol and 75μg/kg dexmedetomidine plus PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or GSK3β inhibitor TDZD-8...
March 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405041/supraclavicular-brachial-plexus-block-comparison-of-varying-doses-of-dexmedetomidine-combined-with-levobupivacaine-a-double-blind-randomised-trial
#14
Srinivasa Rao Nallam, Sunil Chiruvella, Swetha Karanam
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The ideal dose of dexmedetomidine for brachial plexus block is a matter of debate. This study was carried out to evaluate 50 μg or 100 μg of dexmedetomidine added to 0.5% levobupivacaine, with regard to the duration of analgesia. Our study also sought to assess the onset and duration of sensorimotor blockade, haemodynamic effects, sedation and adverse effects. METHODS: One hundred adult patients undergoing upper limb surgeries under supraclavicular brachial plexus block were randomly allocated into two groups...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396128/perioperative-analgesic-profile-of-dexmedetomidine-infusions-in-morbidly-obese-undergoing-bariatric-surgery-a-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis
#15
Preet Mohinder Singh, Rajesh Panwar, Anuradha Borle, Jan P Mulier, Ashish Sinha, Basavana Goudra
BACKGROUND: Opioid-sparing analgesia for bariatric surgery in morbidly obese can potentially prevent catastrophic airway complications. Our meta-analysis attempts to consolidate the evidence on dexmedetomidine evaluating its analgesic and safety profile. METHODS: Trails comparing perioperative dexmedetomidine infusion to conventional analgesic regimens for bariatric surgery were searched. Comparisons were made for 24-hour and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) morphine consumed, PACU pain scores, postoperative nausea and vomiting pain scores, and heartrate...
March 10, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393778/safety-and-efficacy-of-ketamine-dexmedetomidine-versus-ketamine-propofol-combinations-for-sedation-in-patients-after-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery
#16
Mona Mohamed Mogahd, Mohammed Shafik Mahran, Ghada Foad Elbaradi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prolonged mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery is associated with serious complications that increase morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to compare ketamine-propofol (KP) and ketamine-dexmedetomidine (KD) combinations for sedation and analgesia in patients after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery as regards hemodynamics, total fentanyl dose, time of weaning from mechanical ventilation, time of extubation, and any adverse outcome...
April 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393773/impact-of-dexmedetomidine-on-hemodynamic-changes-during-and-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#17
Morteza Hashemian, Mehdi Ahmadinejad, Seyed Amir Mohajerani, Alireza Mirkheshti
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on hemodynamic changes during cardiopulmonary pump and postoperative period in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS AND DESIGN: This study is designed as a double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. SETTING: University hospital and single center. PARTICIPANTS: patients candidate for elective CABG. INTERVENTION: Dex 0.5 μg/kg/h or placebo was infused from the initiation of anesthesia up to extubation in Intensive Care Unit (ICU)...
April 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392361/dexmedetomidine-confers-neuroprotection-against-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-by-inhibiting-inflammation-through-inactivation-of-the-tlr-4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#18
Eugene Kim, Hyun-Chang Kim, Seungmi Lee, Ho-Geol Ryu, Yong-Hee Park, Jun Hyun Kim, Young-Jin Lim, Hee-Pyoung Park
Dexmedetomidine (DXM) has anti-inflammatory effects, which is considered an important mechanism of DXM-induced neuroprotection from cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. We determined whether the anti-inflammatory effects of DXM are associated with inhibition of the toll-like receptor (TLR)-4/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in a rat model of transient global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Fifty rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups (10 rats/group): Group S received no treatment; Group C underwent transient global ischemia (10min); Group D received DXM 30min before ischemia; Group R received resatorvid, a selective TLR-4 antagonist, 30min before ischemia; and Group RD received resatorvid and DXM 30min before ischemia...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391258/dexmedetomidine-combined-with-therapeutic-hypothermia-is-associated-with-cardiovascular-instability-and-neurotoxicity-in-a-piglet-model-of-perinatal-asphyxia
#19
Mojgan Ezzati, Go Kawano, Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, Daniel Alonso-Alconada, Jane K Hassell, Kevin D Broad, Igor Fierens, Bobbi Fleiss, Alan Bainbridge, David L Price, Pardis Kaynezhad, Brian Anderson, Mariya Hristova, Ilias Tachtsidis, Xavier Golay, Pierre Gressens, Robert D Sanders, Nicola J Robertson
The selective α2-adrenoreceptor agonist dexmedetomidine has shown neuroprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sympatholytic properties that may be beneficial in neonatal encephalopathy (NE). As therapeutic hypothermia is only partially effective, adjunct therapies are needed to optimize outcomes. The aim was to assess whether hypothermia + dexmedetomidine treatment augments neuroprotection compared to routine treatment (hypothermia + fentanyl sedation) in a piglet model of NE using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) biomarkers, which predict outcomes in babies with NE, and immunohistochemistry...
April 8, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387890/effects-of-propofol-and-dexmedetomidine-anesthesia-on-th1-th2-of-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#20
F-Y He, W-Z Feng, J Zhong, W Xu, H-Y Shao, Y-R Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients had major trauma during surgery, which thus necessitates optimal choice of anesthesia drugs. The specific selection of anesthesia agents may affect body immune system. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the anesthesia effect of propofol and dexmedetomidine on the rat SCI and their effects of Th1/Th2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Improved ALLEN's pouching method was used to generate rat SCI model. The SCI rat models were further divided into propofol and dexmedetomidine group for analyzing anesthesia time, duration, post-op analgesia time, SCI sensory function Reuter score...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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