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Dexmedetomidine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222157/dexmedetomidine-preconditioning-may-attenuate-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-down-regulating-the-hmgb1-tlr4-myd88-nf-%C3%B0%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#1
Jing-Jing Zhang, Ke Peng, Juan Zhang, Xiao-Wen Meng, Fu-Hai Ji
AIMS: To investigate whether dexmedetomidine (DEX) preconditioning could alleviate the inflammation caused by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by reducing HMGB1-TLR4-MyD88-NF-кB signaling. METHODS: Seventy rats were randomly assigned into five groups: sham group, myocardial I/R group (I/R), DEX+I/R group (DEX), DEX+yohimbine+I/R group (DEX/YOH), and yohimbine+I/R group (YOH). Animals were subjected to 30 min of ischemia induced by occluding the left anterior descending artery followed by 120 min of reperfusion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217055/ultrasound-guided-transversus-abdominis-plane-block-what-are-the-benefits-of-adding-dexmedetomidine-to-ropivacaine
#2
Manjaree Mishra, Shashi Prakash Mishra, Somendra Pal Singh
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has recently come up as a modality to take care of postoperative pain. It can somewhat avoid the use of intravenous opioid analgesics and hence to avoid its complications. We have performed a prospective, double-blinded, randomized study to assess the analgesic effect of adding dexmedetomidine to local ropivacaine on TAP block for patients undergoing lower abdominal surgeries. AIM: The aim is to assess whether addition of dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine may bring some improvements to the analgesic efficacy of TAP blocks in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgeries...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217045/a-comparative-study-on-the-efficacy-of-dexmedetomidine-and-tramadol-on-post-spinal-anesthesia-shivering
#3
Tanveer Singh Kundra, Gaurav Kuthiala, Anupam Shrivastava, Parminder Kaur
BACKGROUND: Shivering is a common postanesthesia adverse event with multiple etiologies. At present tramadol is a widely used drug for the control of shivering. However, tramadol may cause a lot of nausea and vomiting. Hence, the need to find a better drug with less of side effects. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of dexmedetomidine and tramadol in the treatment of post-spinal anesthesia (SA) shivering as well as to compare their side-effect profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary care hospital...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216706/monitored-anaesthesia-care-comparison-of-nalbuphine-dexmedetomidine-versus-nalbuphine-propofol-for-middle-ear-surgeries-a-double-blind-randomised-trial
#4
Srinivasa Rao Nallam, Sunil Chiruvella, Anjineswar Reddy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Middle ear surgeries (MESs) are usually performed under sedation with local anaesthesia and can be well tolerated by the patient with minimal discomfort. In the present study, we compare the effect of nalbuphine/dexmedetomidine combination with nalbuphine/propofol on sedation and analgesia in monitored anaesthesia care. METHODS: One hundred adult patients undergoing MESs under monitored anaesthesia care (MAC) were randomly allocated into two groups...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216704/attenuation-of-haemodynamic-responses-to-laryngoscopy-and-endotracheal-intubation-with-intravenous-dexmedetomidine-a-comparison-between-two-doses
#5
Bon Sebastian, Anand T Talikoti, Dinesh Krishnamurthy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Laryngoscopic manipulation and endotracheal intubation are noxious stimuli capable of producing tachycardia, arrhythmias and hypertension. The aim of this study was to arrive at an optimal dose of dexmedetomidine by comparing two doses with placebo to attenuate stress response during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. METHODS: It was a randomised, prospective, double-blind placebo-controlled study. After Institutional Ethical Committee clearance, ninety patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status 1 were enrolled in the study and divided into three equal groups...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216703/effects-of-avoiding-neuromuscular-blocking-agents-during-maintenance-of-anaesthesia-on-recovery-characteristics-in-patients-undergoing-craniotomy-for-supratentorial-lesions-a-randomised-controlled-study
#6
Ruchi A Jain, Anita N Shetty, Shrikanta P Oak, Anjana S Wajekar, Madhu B Garasia
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Neuromuscular blocking agents have been one of the cornerstones of anaesthesia. With the advent of newer surgical, anaesthetic and neurological monitoring techniques, their utility in neuroanaesthesia practice seems dispensable. The aim of this prospective, comparative, randomised study was to determine whether neuromuscular blocking agents are required in patients undergoing supratentorial surgery when balanced anaesthesia with desflurane, dexmedetomidine and scalp block is used...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213531/dexmedetomidine-oromucosal-gel-for-noise-associated-acute-anxiety-and-fear-in-dogs-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-study
#7
M Korpivaara, K Laapas, M Huhtinen, B Schöning, K Overall
The aim of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical-field study was to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine oromucosal gel at subsedative doses in alleviation of noise-associated acute anxiety and fear in dogs. On New Year's Eve, 182 dogs with a history of acute anxiety and fear associated with fireworks received treatment as needed up to five times: 89 dogs received dexmedetomidine and 93 dogs received placebo. For the primary efficacy variables, dog owners assessed the overall treatment effect as well as signs and extent of anxiety and fear...
February 17, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212354/the-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-oxidative-stress-response-following-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats-and-the-expression-of-intracellular-adhesion-molecule-1-icam-1-and-s100b
#8
Yanwen Li, Shikun Liu
BACKGROUND Ischemia-reperfusion injury of whole brain involves a complicated pathophysiology mechanism. Dexmedetomidine (Dex) has been shown to have neuro protective functions. This study observed the effect of Dex on serum S100B and cerebral intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS Healthy Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (males, 7 weeks old) were randomly divided into sham, model, and Dex groups (n=20 each). A cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model was prepared by clipping of the bilateral common carotid artery combined with hypotension...
February 17, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211248/anesthetic-considerations-for-pediatric-electroconvulsive-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Andrew D Franklin, Jenna H Sobey, Eric T Stickles
Electroconvulsive therapy is being used more frequently in the treatment of many chronic and acute psychiatric illnesses in children. The most common psychiatric indications for pediatric electroconvulsive therapy are refractory depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, catatonia, and autism. In addition, a relatively new indication is the treatment of pediatric refractory status epilepticus. The anesthesiologist may be called upon to assist in the care of this challenging and vulnerable patient population...
February 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210917/adjuvant-agents-in-regional-anesthesia-in-the-ambulatory-setting
#10
REVIEW
Veerandra Koyyalamudi, Sudipta Sen, Shilpadevi Patil, Justin B Creel, Elyse M Cornett, Charles J Fox, Alan D Kaye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A majority of surgical practice has involved ambulatory centers with the number of outpatient operations in the USA doubling to 26.8 million per year. Local anesthesia delivery provides numerous benefits, including increased satisfaction, earlier discharge, and reduction in unplanned hospital admission. Further, with the epidemic of opioid mediated overdoses, local anesthesia can be a key tool in providing an opportunity to reduce the need for other analgesics postoperatively...
January 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210272/injectable-anesthesia-for-mice-combined-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam-and-butorphanol
#11
Laura A Cagle, Lisa M Franzi, Steven E Epstein, Philip H Kass, Jerold A Last, Nicholas J Kenyon
Anesthetic protocols for murine models are varied within the literature and medetomidine has been implicated in the development of urethral plugs in male mice. Our objective was to evaluate the combination of butorphanol, dexmedetomidine, and tiletamine-zolazepam. A secondary objective was to identify which class of agent was associated with urethral obstructions in male mice. BALB/c male (n = 13) and female (n = 23) mice were assigned to dexmedetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam with or without butorphanol or to single agent dexmedetomidine or tiletamine-zolazepam...
2017: Anesthesiology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207529/comparison-of-the-pro-postoperative-analgesia-of-intraoperative-dexmedetomidine-with-and-without-loading-dose-following-general-anesthesia-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#12
Wei Fan, Haikou Yang, Yong Sun, Jun Zhang, Guangming Li, Ying Zheng, Yi Liu
Intraoperative dexemdetomidine (DEX) with or without loading dose is well-established to improve postoperative pain control in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). This study was designed to compare the pro-analgesia effect between the 2 in patients received general anesthesia.Seventy patients shceduced abdominal surgery under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into 3 groups which were maintained using propofol/remifentanil/Ringer solution (PRR), propofol/remifentanil/dexmedetomidine with (PRDw) or without (PRDo) a loading dose of dexmedetomidine before induction...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190788/a-comparison-of-cardiopulmonary-effects-and-anaesthetic-requirements-of-two-dexmedetomidine-continuous-rate-infusions-in-alfaxalone-anaesthetized-greyhounds
#13
Setefilla Quirós-Carmona, Rocío Navarrete, Juan M Domínguez, María Del Mar Granados, Rafael J Gómez-Villamandos, Pilar Muñoz-Rascón, Daniel Aguilar, Francisco J Funes, Juan Morgaz
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of two dexmedetomidine continuous rate infusions on the minimum infusion rate of alfaxalone for total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA), and subsequent haemodynamic and recovery effects in Greyhounds undergoing laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized and blinded clinical study. ANIMALS: Twenty-four female Greyhounds. METHODS: Dogs were premedicated with dexmedetomidine 3 μg kg(-1) and methadone 0...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188055/the-emergency-medicine-management-of-severe-alcohol-withdrawal
#14
Drew Long, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol use is widespread, and withdrawal symptoms are common after decreased alcohol intake. Severe alcohol withdrawal may manifest with delirium tremens, and new therapies may assist in management of this life-threatening condition. OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based review of the emergency medicine management of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. DISCUSSION: The underlying pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is central nervous system hyperexcitation...
February 4, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186850/the-use-of-dexmedetomidine-in-pediatric-palliative-care-a-preliminary-study
#15
Jamie Burns, Kevin Jackson, Kathy A Sheehy, Julia C Finkel, Zenaide M Quezado
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine infusions in patients with advanced malignancies, advanced heart disease, or after stem cell transplantation (SCT), who during end-of-life care had pain and/or agitation unresponsive to conventional therapies. BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with intractable advanced malignancies, end-stage congenital heart diseases, or after SCT can suffer a great deal during end of life. Pain, drowsiness, fatigue, irritability, and worrying are experienced frequently, considered distressing, and are strongly associated with reductions in health-related quality-of-life scores...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186665/dexmedetomidine-enhances-human-lung-fluid-clearance-through-improving-alveolar-sodium-transport
#16
Yong Cui, Yan Ding, Lei Chen, Yue Li, Yan Chun Li, Hongguang Nie
Accumulating evidence shows that dexmedetomidine can attenuate lung edema with acute lung injury in experimental mouse and rat models, but the mechanisms of dexmedetomidine on human alveolar fluid transport are still unknown. We measured the effects of dexmedetomidine on alveolar fluid clearance in human lung lobes ex vivo. Moreover, we measured the regulation of transepithelial Na(+) transport by dexmedetomidine in H441 cells by electrophysiological technique and western blot method. Our results showed that intratracheal instillation of dexmedetomidine markedly increased the re-absorption of 5% bovine serum albumin instillate (19...
February 10, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186425/influence-of-two-administration-rates-of-propofol-at-induction-of-anaesthesia-on-its-relative-potency-in-cats-a-pilot-study
#17
Sébastien H Bauquier, Wendy Bayldon, Leon N Warne, Jennifer E Carter, Thierry Beths
Objectives This was a randomised, blinded trial to investigate the influence of administration rate on the dose of propofol required for the orotracheal intubation of cats. Methods Twenty-four female domestic cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy were premedicated with oral tramadol (6 mg/kg) or intramuscular tramadol (4 mg/kg), and intramuscular dexmedetomidine (0.007 mg/kg). Oral or intramuscular (IM) tramadol was administered 60 or 30 mins prior to induction of anaesthesia, respectively. Dexmedetomidine was administered 30 mins prior to anaesthetic induction...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184265/effects-of-preanesthetic-dexmedetomidine-on-hemodynamic-responses-to-endotracheal-intubation-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-treatment-for-hypertension-a-randomized-double-blinded-trial
#18
Chan Woo Lee, Miwoon Kim
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine is an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist with sedative, anxiolytic, and analgesic properties. This study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of preoperative administration of 0.5 µg/kg dexmedetomidine on hemodynamic responses caused by endotracheal intubation in elderly patients undergoing treatment for hypertension. METHODS: Forty elderly (≥ 65 years old) patients who had been receiving hypertension treatment, had American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II, and were scheduled to undergo elective noncardiac surgery were randomly selected and assigned to 2 groups...
February 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183547/effects-of-dexmedetomidine-administered-for-postoperative-analgesia-on-sleep-quality-in-patients-undergoing-abdominal-hysterectomy
#19
Zuolei Chen, Rundong Tang, Rui Zhang, Yan Jiang, Yingzhi Liu
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of postoperative dexmedetomidine infusion on sleep quality in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind study. SETTING: Postoperative recovery area and ward. PATIENTS: Sixty patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II scheduled for elective hysterectomy were enrolled. INTERVENTIONS: Patients in group C received sufentanil infusion (a continuous dosage of 0...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182698/prevention-of-remifentanil-induced-postoperative-hyperalgesia-by-dexmedetomidine-via-regulating-the-trafficking-and-function-of-spinal-nmda-receptors-as-well-as-pkc-and-camkii-level-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#20
Yuan Yuan, Zhe Sun, Yi Chen, Yuxin Zheng, Ke-Liang Xie, Ying He, Zhifen Wang, Guo-Lin Wang, Yong-Hao Yu
Remifentanil-induced secondary hyperalgesia has been demonstrated in both animal experiments and clinical trials. Enhancement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor trafficking as well as protein kinase C (PKC) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) have been reported to be involved in the induction and maintenance of central sensitization. In the current study, it was demonstrated that dexmedetomidine could prevent remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia (RIH) via regulating spinal NMDAR-PKC-Ca2+/ CaMKII pathway in vivo and in vitro...
2017: PloS One
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