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Dexmedetomidine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345249/a-multinational-drug-utilisation-study-to-investigate-the-use-of-dexmedetomidine-dexdor%C3%A2-in-clinical-practice-in-the-eu
#1
M Weatherall, R Aantaa, G Conti, C J Garratt, P Pohjanjousi, M A Lewis, N Moore, S Perez-Gutthann
AIMS: Dexmedetomidine (dexdor®) is approved in the EU for sedation of adults in the ICU. This observational, retrospective study was requested by the European Medicines Agency to investigate dexmedetomidine use in clinical practice, with particular focus on off-label use including the paediatric population. METHODS: Study countries and sites were chosen from those with highest dexmedetomidine use, based on sales. Site selection (blind) was conducted by a multi-specialist, independent group...
March 27, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341722/sciatic-and-femoral-nerve-blockade-using-bupivacaine-alone-or-in-combination-with-dexmedetomidine-or-buprenorphine-in-cats
#2
M C Evangelista, G M Doodnaught, D T Fantoni, P V M Steagall
The aim of this study was to determine the onset and offset of antinociception after sciatic (ScN) and femoral (FN) nerve blocks. Six healthy adult cats (4.8±1.3years; 4.3±0.4 kg) were included in a randomised, crossover, blinded and controlled study. Following sedation with dexmedetomidine (25 µg/kg, intramuscular), each ScN and FN injection was performed using 0.1 ml/kg of saline (CONTROL), bupivacaine (0.46 per cent, 0.46 mg/kg; BUPI), bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg; BUPI-DEX) or bupivacaine and buprenorphine (2...
March 24, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338180/influence-of-dexmedetomidine-to-cognitive-function-during-recovery-period-for-children-with-general-anesthesia
#3
Z-M Jia, H-N Hao, M-L Huang, D-F Ma, X-L Jia, B Ma
OBJECTIVE: We studied the influence of Dexmedetomidine on cognitive function in children during the recovery period of general anesthesia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety-three children who underwent general anesthesia were selected and randomly divided into (1) the control group, (2) the dexmedetomidine group, and (3) the dezocine group. Fentanyl, propofol, and rocuronium were used in all patients to induce anesthesia, while sevoflurane inhalation and propofol were used to maintain anesthesia...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338179/effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-immune-function-of-patients-undergoing-radical-mastectomy-a-double-blind-and-placebo-control-study
#4
X-H Yang, Q Bai, M-M Lv, H-G Fu, T-L Dong, Z Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To observe and evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on the perioperative immune function of patients undergoing a radical mastectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 124 patients undergoing radical mastectomy were divided into the observation group (treated with dexmedetomidine) and the control group (treated with saline) by randomized digital table and double blinded and randomized design. 10 min before anesthesia induction, the patients in the observation group were injected with dexmedetomidine 0...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337083/continuous-infusion-etomidate-in-a-patient-receiving-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#5
Joseph M LaRochelle, Bonnie Desselle, Janet L Rossi
We describe a 16-year-old, 65-kg male deployed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for refractory respiratory failure secondary to ingestion of multiple substances. During his ECMO course, standard sedative and analgesic strategies failed and alternative medications were used. The patient received various dosages of fentanyl, morphine, hydromorphone, clonidine patches, dexmedetomidine, lorazepam, methadone, pentobarbital, olanzapine, and propofol. Despite administration of multiple agents, on day 29 of ECMO the patient experienced elevated blood pressures due to agitation, and continuous infusion etomidate was started...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337075/intranasal-dexmedetomidine-as-a-sedative-for-pediatric-procedural-sedation
#6
Natalie Behrle, Esma Birisci, Jordan Anderson, Sara Schroeder, Abdallah Dalabih
OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intranasal (IN) dexmedetomidine as a sedative medication for non-invasive procedural sedation. METHODS: Subjects 6 months to 18 years of age undergoing non-invasive elective procedures were included. Dexmedetomidine (3 mcg/kg) was administered IN 40 minutes before the scheduled procedure time. The IN dexmedetomidine cohort was matched and compared to a cohort of 690 subjects who underwent sedation for similar procedures without the use of dexmedetomidine to evaluate for observed events/interventions and procedural times...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333707/the-effect-of-sedation-on-cortical-activation-a-randomized-study-comparing-the-effects-of-sedation-with-midazolam-propofol-and-dexmedetomidine-on-auditory-processing
#7
Michael A Frölich, Catiffaney Banks, Timothy J Ness
BACKGROUND: Every day, millions of people undergo surgical procedures facilitated by anesthesia. Yet, there is no clinically accepted measure to predict the effects of sedation or anesthesia on the central nervous system. Auditory brain activation may provide an objective and quantifiable method to measure of the effects of sedation on neuronal processing. METHODS: This is a randomized clinical trial. Forty-eight healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 sedative drugs (midazolam [n = 11], propofol [n = 12], or dexmedetomidine [n = 12]) at a concentration adjusted to achieve mild sedation by self-rating, or to a no-drug control group (n = 13)...
March 22, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332374/comparison-of-dexmedetomidine-and-fentanyl-as-an-adjuvant-to-ropivacaine-for-postoperative-epidural-analgesia-in-pediatric-orthopedic-surgery
#8
Sang Jun Park, Seokyung Shin, Shin Hyung Kim, Hyun Woo Kim, Seung Hyun Kim, Hae Yoon Do, Yong Seon Choi
PURPOSE: Opioids are commonly used as an epidural adjuvant to local anesthetics, but are associated with potentially serious side effects, such as respiratory depression. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine with that of fentanyl as an adjuvant to epidural ropivacaine in pediatric orthopedic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study enrolled 60 children (3-12 years old) scheduled for orthopedic surgery of the lower extremities and lumbar epidural patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)...
May 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331287/does-remifentanil-attenuate-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-better-than-dexmedetomidine-in-rat-kidney
#9
E Erkılıç, E Kesimci, F Alaybeyoğlu, I Kılınç, R Tural, A Yazgan, T Gümüş, A Sepici Dinçel, E G Dumlu, O Kanbak
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common cause of patient morbidity and mortality in the perioperative period. Patients undergoing long-lasting, abdominal, and urogenital surgeries with risk factors such as advanced age, peripheral artery disease, diabetes mellitus, renovascular disease, and congestive heart failure are candidates for acute kidney injury (AKI) due to impaired renal perfusion and decreased functional renal reserve. Pharmacological agents with multiple functions and anti-oxidative and anti-inflammation properties may be promising preventative strategies for AKI...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322414/effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-mortality-and-ventilator-free-days-in-patients-requiring-mechanical-ventilation-with-sepsis-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Yu Kawazoe, Kyohei Miyamoto, Takeshi Morimoto, Tomonori Yamamoto, Akihiro Fuke, Atsunori Hashimoto, Hiroyuki Koami, Satoru Beppu, Yoichi Katayama, Makoto Itoh, Yoshinori Ohta, Hitoshi Yamamura
Importance: Dexmedetomidine provides sedation for patients undergoing ventilation; however, its effects on mortality and ventilator-free days have not been well studied among patients with sepsis. Objectives: To examine whether a sedation strategy with dexmedetomidine can improve clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis undergoing ventilation. Design, Setting, and Participants: Open-label, multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted at 8 intensive care units in Japan from February 2013 until January 2016 among 201 consecutive adult patients with sepsis requiring mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours...
March 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322337/sedation-of-mechanically-ventilated-adults-in-intensive-care-unit-a-network-meta-analysis
#11
Zhongheng Zhang, Kun Chen, Hongying Ni, Xiaoling Zhang, Haozhe Fan
Sedatives are commonly used for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units (ICU). However, a variety of sedatives are available and their efficacy and safety have been compared in numerous trials with inconsistent results. To resolve uncertainties regarding usefulness of these sedatives, we performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials comparing sedatives in mechanically ventilated ICU patients were included. Graph-theoretical methods were employed for network meta-analysis...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306580/comment-on-growth-in-an-anesthesiologist-and-nurse-anesthetist-supervised-sedation-nurse-program-using-propofol-and-dexmedetomidine
#12
Joseph P Cravero, Randall P Flick, Shobha V Malviya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302567/alpha2-adrenoceptor-agonists-trigger-prolactin-signaling-in-breast-cancer-cells
#13
Lilian Fedra Castillo, Ezequiel M Rivero, Vincent Goffin, Isabel Alicia Lüthy
Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women worldwide. We have described the expression of α2-adrenoceptors in breast cancer cell lines, associated with increased cell proliferation and tumor growth. A mitogenic autocrine/paracrine loop of prolactin (Prl) has been described in breast cancer cells. We hypothesized that the α2-adrenergic enhancement of proliferation could be mediated, at least in part, by this Prl loop. In both T47D and MCF-7 cell lines, the incubation with the α2-adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine significantly increased Prl release into the culture medium (measured by the Nb2 bioassay), this effect being reversed by the α2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine...
March 14, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302458/the-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-pretreatment-on-the-pro-and-anti-inflammation-systems-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#14
Hui Rong, Zhibin Zhao, Jiying Feng, Yishan Lei, Hao Wu, Rao Sun, Zuoxia Zhang, Bailing Hou, Wei Zhang, YuE Sun, Xiaoping Gu, Zhengliang Ma, Yue Liu
Excessive inflammatory responses play important roles in the aggravation of secondary damage to an injured spinal cord. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, has recently been implied to be neuroprotective in clinical anesthesia, but the underlying mechanism is elusive. As signaling through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nicotinic receptors (nAChRs, notably α7nAChR) play important roles in the pro- and anti-inflammation systems in the central nervous system, respectively, this study investigated whether and how they were modulated by DEX pretreatment in a rat model of spinal cord compression...
March 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298895/two-phase-modulation-of-formula-see-text-entry-and-cl-formula-see-text-exchanger-in-submandibular-glands-cells-by-dexmedetomidine
#15
Minjeong Ji, Chul-Kyu Park, Jin Woo Lee, Kook Yang Park, Kuk Hui Son, Jeong Hee Hong
Dexmedetomidine (Dex), a highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, attenuates inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and induces sedative and analgesic effects. Administration of Dex also reduces salivary secretion in human subjects and inhibits osmotic water permeability in rat cortical collecting ducts. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the effects of Dex on salivary glands fluid secretion. We demonstrated the α2-adrenoceptor expression in the basolateral membrane of mouse submandibular glands (SMG)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298792/comparison-of-king-vision-and-truview-laryngoscope-for-postextubation-visualization-of-vocal-cord-mobility-in-patients-undergoing-thyroid-and-major-neck-surgeries-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Anto Sahaya Priyanka, Kusha Nag, V R Hemanth Kumar, Dewan Roshan Singh, Senthil Kumar, T Sivashanmugam
BACKGROUND: Visualization of vocal cords following extubation after thyroid and major neck surgeries is highly desirable for the surgeon as well as the anaesthesiologist to rule out vocal cord palsy or oedema. As the patient is emerging from general anaesthesia, it may be challenging for the anaesthesiologist to optimally visualise and grade vocal cord movement following extubation. SETTING: Randomized clinical trial at a tertiary care centre. METHODOLOGY: After obtaining institutional ethics committee approval, 60 patients posted for thyroid and major neck surgeries under American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade I and II were recruited for the study...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298786/comparison-of-dexmedetomidine-and-magnesium-sulfate-as-adjuvants-with-ropivacaine-for-spinal-anesthesia-in-infraumbilical-surgeries-and-postoperative-analgesia
#17
Reena Makhni, Joginder Pal Attri, Payal Jain, Veena Chatrath
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative pain is a major cause of fear and anxiety in hospitalized patients and so if patients remain pain-free during this period, they can cooperate with the circumstances well, leading to early recovery. Over the last two decades, there has been considerable revival of interest in the use of regional anesthesia techniques for surgery and pain management. As very few studies have been conducted using ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) as adjuvants, the present study was undertaken with primary aims to compare the hemodynamic stability, onset and duration of sensory and motor block and with secondary aims of the postoperative analgesic effect of dexmedetomidine and MgSO4 along with ropivacaine...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298785/the-effect-of-intravenous-dexmedetomidine-compared-to-propofol-on-patients-hemodynamics-as-a-sedative-in-brachial-plexus-block-a-comparative-study
#18
Amarjeet Kumar, Chandni Sinha, Ajeet Kumar, Poonam Kumari
BACKGROUND: The quest for an ideal sedative during regional anesthesia is on. Although propofol has been accepted as a sedative intraoperatively, it can be associated with troublesome hemodynamic changes. Dexmedetomidine is a new alpha 2 agonist used widely for sedation. AIMS: In this study, we tried to compare equivalent doses of dexmedetomidine infusion with propofol with emphasis on their effect on the hemodynamics. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective, single-blinded randomized controlled trial...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298782/comparison-of-oral-clonidine-oral-dexmedetomidine-and-oral-midazolam-for-premedication-in-pediatric-patients-undergoing-elective-surgery
#19
Sarika Kumari, Nidhi Agrawal, G Usha, Vandana Talwar, Poonam Gupta
BACKGROUND: Midazolam has been commonly used orally for premedication in children. A search for a better alternative continues to overcome its side effects. Recently alpha-2 agonists, clonidine, and dexmedetomidine have been used for premedication in children. AIM: To study and compare the efficacy of oral clonidine, oral dexmedetomidine, and oral midazolam for premedication in pediatric surgical patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This prospective, randomized, double blind study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298775/a-comparative-study-of-intravenous-dexmedetomidine-and-intravenous-clonidine-for-postspinal-shivering-in-patients-undergoing-lower-limb-orthopedic-surgeries
#20
Manohar Panneer, Prakash Murugaiyan, Sufala Viswas Rao
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine and clonidine have been used for the prevention and treatment of shivering following spinal blockade. A prospective randomized, double-blinded study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and clonidine in controlling postspinal shivering. METHODS: A total of sixty participants of equal sex, aged between 18 and 60 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I/II Class, who underwent orthopedic lower limb surgeries under spinal anesthesia with ≥Grade III shivering were randomly divided into two groups, Group D (n = 30) received injection dexmedetomidine 0...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
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