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skim milk

Gracy K V V Medeiros, Rita C R E Queiroga, Whyara K A Costa, Carlos A A Gadelha, Rodrigo R E Lacerda, José T J G Lacerda, Luciano S Pinto, Elizandra Braganhol, Fernanda C Teixeira, Paula P de S Barbosa, Maria I F Campos, Gregório F Gonçalves, Hilzeth L F Pessôa, Tatiane S Gadelha
Goat whey is normally discarded in the milk processing industry. However, several studies have addressed its biological properties and possible use in human or animal diet. The present study aimed to analysis the protein profile of goat whey to evaluate its possible oxidant, antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumour, and cytotoxic activities in vitro against human erythrocytes. Goat whey was skimmed, and crude protein extract (CPE) was obtained. Next, protein fractions (F) were obtained using ammonium sulphate precipitation method...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
M Bergamaschi, G Bittante
The role of each step of cheese and ricotta making in development of flavor of cheese and other dairy products is not yet well known. The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOC) in cheese and ricotta making with bulk milk from cows grazing in a highland area and to evaluate their evolution in the various dairy products and by-products obtained during the production processes. A group of 148 cows was grazed day and night on pasture from June to September. A total of 7 cheese-making sessions were carried out using the bulk milk collected every 2 wk during summer pasturing according to the artisanal procedure used for Malga cheese production...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
C G Davis, J G Cessna, D P Blayney
Dairy industries in Southeast Asia are small and produce less than the domestic market demands. As expenditure and population grow in Southeast Asia, it is expected that the expenditures on skim milk powder (SMP) will grow. In this study, we examined the competitiveness of US SMP in the Southeast Asian market with respect to other leading dairy exporters, including the European Union (EU-28), New Zealand, and Australia. Using monthly data from 2006 to 2015, Rotterdam models were used to estimate import demands for SMP in 4 Southeast Asian countries...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Noemí Redondo, Natalia García-González, Ligia E Diaz-Prieto, Begoña Olmedilla-Alonso, Ana B Martín-Diana, Carmen Asensio-Vegas, Esther Nova
PURPOSE: Ewe's milk yogurt is richer in proteins, minerals and short- and medium-chain fatty acids compared to cow's milk yogurt. We aimed to evaluate the effects of cow's milk yogurt (CW, 3.0% fat), semi-skimmed (ES, 2.8% fat) and whole ewe's milk yogurts (EW, 5.8% fat) on inflammatory markers and gut microbiota in subjects with borderline-high plasma cholesterol. METHODOLOGY: 30 adults (16 women) were randomized into a crossover study to consume 250 g/yogurt/day during three 5-week periods (4-week washouts)...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Rosa Pilolli, Elisabetta De Angelis, Linda Monaci
In recent years, mass spectrometry (MS) has been establishing its role in the development of analytical methods for multiple allergen detection, but most analyses are being carried out on low-resolution mass spectrometers such as triple quadrupole or ion traps. In this investigation, performance provided by a high resolution (HR) hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap™ MS platform for the multiple allergens detection in processed food matrix is presented. In particular, three different acquisition modes were compared: full-MS, targeted-selected ion monitoring with data-dependent fragmentation (t-SIM/dd2), and parallel reaction monitoring...
February 13, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
E J Quinto, J M Marín, I Caro, J Mateo, D W Schaffner
Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food-borne pathogen and is among the bacteria best adapted to grow at low temperatures. Psychrotrophic spoilage microorganisms present in milk and milk products are primarily in the genus Pseudomonas, and their numbers increase during cold storage leading to deterioration and/or spoilage. The nature of the competition in two- or three-species bacterial systems with L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, and P. fluorescens in skimmed milk at 7 or 14°C was studied. The Baranyi growth model was used to estimate the growth rate and the maximum population density of the three microorganisms for each strain in single cultures or in two- or three-strains co-cultures...
March 2018: Food Research International
Rodrigo Otávio Miranda, Maria Emilene Martino Campos-Galvão, Luís Augusto Nero
The use of nisin producers in foods is considered a mitigation strategy to control foodborne pathogens growth, such as Listeria monocytogenes, due to the production of this bacteriocin in situ. However, when the bacteriocin does not reach an adequate concentration, the target bacteria can develop a cross-response to different stress conditions in food, such as acid, thermal and osmotic. This study aimed to evaluate the interaction of a nisin-producing strain of Lactococcus lactis DY-13 and L. monocytogenes in BHI and skim milk, and its influence on general (sigB), acid (gadD2), thermal (groEL) and osmotic (gbu) stress-related genes of the pathogen...
March 2018: Food Research International
N Rafiee Tari, M Z Fan, T Archbold, E Kristo, A Guri, E Arranz, M Corredig
We investigated the effect of protein composition and, in particular, the presence of whey proteins or β-casein on the digestion behavior of a model infant formula using an in vivo piglet model. Three isocaloric diets optimized for piglets were prepared with the same concentrations of protein. For protein source, 1 diet contained only whey proteins and 2 contained a casein:whey protein ratio of 40:60 but differed in the amount of β-casein. To obtain the desired protein compositions, skim milk was microfiltered at 7 or 22°C, and retentates and permeates were combined with whey protein isolate...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Y Li, H S Joyner Melito, B G Carter, M A Drake
Fluid milk may be pasteurized by high-temperature short-time pasteurization (HTST) or ultrapasteurization (UP). Literature suggests that UP increases milk astringency, but definitive studies have not demonstrated this effect. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of pasteurization method, fat content, homogenization pressure, and storage time on milk sensory and mechanical behaviors. Raw skim (<0.2% fat), 2%, and 5% fat milk was pasteurized in duplicate by indirect UP (140°C, 2...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Yang, G D Zhang, J T Yang, D Sun, P C Wen, W B Zhang
The dissociation of yak casein (CN) micelles was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, particle size, fluorescence properties, and soluble mineral and CN molecule content at pH 4.6 to 8.2. The results showed that the size of CN micelles remained constant with decreasing pH from 8.2 to 5.8 but sharply increased at pH ≤5.4. Casein micelles began to aggregate at pH 5.4, and the serum magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper, and manganese levels had their minimum values at this pH level. During acidification, colloidal calcium phosphate dramatically disassociated from yak CN micelles, but the soluble CN monomer content decreased slightly...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Joshua N Bostic, William M Hagopian, A Hope Jahren
RATIONALE: Stable isotope analysis (SIA), a potential method of verifying the geographic origin and production method of dairy products, has not been applied to United States (U.S.) dairy samples on a national scale. To determine the potential of carbon and nitrogen SIA in authenticity assessment of U.S. dairy products, we analyzed a geographically-representative collection of conventional milk samples to determine isotopic variations with (1) Purchase Location and (2) Macronutrient Content...
January 30, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Yaoqin Zhou, Feng You, Jie Zhong, Haoju Wang, Honglei Ding
We developed a method to identify serological humoral immunodominant proteinic antigen of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp). After constructing the recombinant plasmid pGEX-6P-1-mhp366 and transforming it into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), the recombinant GST-Mhp366 protein was expressed successfully. The lysates of the recombinant GST-Mhp366 and genetic engineering GST were added into glutathione coated plates and reacted with 17 positive sera or 13 negative sera. Meanwhile, the optimization of experimental conditions, including coated antigen, blocking buffer, dilutions of sera and second antibody were determined...
January 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Jennifer L Matthews, Joy M Murphy, Carrie Carmichael, Huiping Yang, Terrence Tiersch, Monte Westerfield, Zoltan M Varga
Sperm cryopreservation is a highly efficient method for preserving genetic resources. It extends the reproductive period of males and significantly reduces costs normally associated with maintenance of live animal colonies. However, previous zebrafish (Danio rerio) cryopreservation methods have produced variable outcomes and low post-thaw fertilization rates. To improve post-thaw fertilization rates after cryopreservation, we developed a new extender and cryoprotective medium (CPM), introduced quality assessment (QA), determined the optimal cooling rate, and improved the post-thaw in vitro fertilization process...
January 25, 2018: Zebrafish
Li-Jing Du, Ling Yi, Li-Hong Ye, Yu-Bo Chen, Jun Cao, Li-Qing Peng, Yu-Ting Shi, Qiu-Yan Wang, Yu-Han Hu
A simple and effective method of miniaturized solid-phase extraction (mini-SPE) was developed for the simultaneous purification and enrichment of macrolide antibiotics (MACs) (i.e. azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, lincomycin and roxithromycin) from honey and skim milk. Mesoporous MCM-41 silica was synthesized and used as sorbent in mini-SPE. Several key parameters affecting the performance of mini-SPE procedure were thoroughly investigated, including sorbent materials, amount of sorbent and elution solvents...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
L Lin, M Wong, H C Deeth, H E Oh
This study investigated the effects of heating skim milk with soluble calcium salts, calcium chloride, calcium lactate, calcium gluconate and calcium lactobionate, on the physico-chemical and rheological properties of milk. Regardless of the type of salt added, the amount of casein in milk serum decreased and the amount of calcium in centrifuge sediment increased along with the serum calcium. The amount of calcium salt required for gelation and the gel firmness (G') varied depending on the salt. The aCa2+ order in milk was calcium chloride>calcium lactate>calcium gluconate>calcium lactobionate...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Lokesh Kumar, Margaret Brennan, Haotian Zheng, Charles Brennan
The effects of milk ingredients, whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey lactalbumin (WLAC) and skim milk powder (SMP) on oat starch characteristics in terms of pasting, rheological, freeze-thaw and swelling behaviour, were investigated. Oat starch was extracted from oat flour and different proportions of dairy ingredients were mixed with oat starch. Substitution of oat starch with milk components increased hot paste stability and reduced peak viscosity using the RVA method of assessment. Furthermore, thermal processing affected the granules size, swelling power and flow behaviour of the mixtures containing oat starch in combination with different dairy ingredients...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yingchen Lin, Alan L Kelly, James A O'Mahony, Timothy P Guinee
Skim milk was pH-adjusted from 6.6 to 7.5, high heat treated (HHT, 95 °C × 2 min) or held unheated for 1 h, re-adjusted to pH 6.6, and analysed. HHT at pH 6.6 resulted in denaturation of ∼ 67% of total whey protein, partial association of denatured whey protein with the casein micelle, an increase in casein micelle size, and reductions in concentrations of serum casein, Ca and P. These changes were paralleled by a marked deterioration in rennet coagulability, higher ethanol stability in the pH range of 6...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Xiaoji Zheng, Kaixiong Li, Xuewei Shi, Yongqing Ni, Baokun Li, Bin Zhuge
Cheese is a typical handcrafted fermented food in Kazak minority from the Uighur Autonomy Region in China and Central Asia. Among the microbial community that is responsible for Kazak cheese fermentation, yeasts play important role in flavor formation during ripening. To develop ripening cultures, we isolated 123 yeasts from 25 cheese products in Kazak, and identified 87 isolates by the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA gene sequence. Pichia kudriavzevii was the dominant yeast in Kazak cheese, followed by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Kluyveromyces lactis...
December 26, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Eva Kuhn, Lisbeth Meunier-Goddik, Joy G Waite-Cusic
The US Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) allows milk tanker trucks to be used repeatedly for 24 h before mandatory clean-in-place cleaning, but no specifications are given for the length of time a tanker can be empty between loads. We defined a worst-case hauling scenario as a hauling vessel left empty and dirty (idle) for extended periods between loads, especially in warm weather. Initial studies were conducted using 5-gallon milk cans (pilot-scale) as a proof-of-concept and to demonstrate that extended idle time intervals could contribute to compromised raw milk quality...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Sara Engel, Tine Tholstrup, Jens M Bruun, Arne Astrup, Bjørn Richelsen, Anne Raben
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Milk contributes with saturated fat, but randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the effects of dairy on the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) where dairy is given as whole foods are scarce. The objective of our study was to investigate the long-term effects of semi-skimmed milk on insulin sensitivity and further to compare milk with sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSSD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: A secondary analysis of a 6-month RCT with 60 overweight and obese subjects randomly assigned to 1 L/d of either milk (1...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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