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Full-fat milk

Elske M Brouwer-Brolsma, Diewertje Sluik, Cecile M Singh-Povel, Edith J M Feskens
Previous studies show associations between dairy product consumption and type 2 diabetes, but only a few studies conducted detailed analyses for a variety of dairy subgroups. Therefore, we examined cross-sectional associations of a broad variety of dairy subgroups with pre-diabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (ND-T2DM) among Dutch adults. In total, 112 086 adults without diabetes completed a semi-quantitative FFQ and donated blood. Pre-diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) between 5·6 and 6·9 mmol/l or HbA1c% of 5·7-6·4 %...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Ronan Lordan, Alexandros Tsoupras, Bhaskar Mitra, Ioannis Zabetakis
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain a major cause of death and morbidity globally and diet plays a crucial role in the disease prevention and pathology. The negative perception of dairy fats stems from the effort to reduce dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake due to their association with increased cholesterol levels upon consumption and the increased risk of CVD development. Institutions that set dietary guidelines have approached dairy products with negative bias and used poor scientific data in the past...
March 1, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Jayna M Dave, Karen W Cullen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the agreement of posted menus with foods served to 3- to 5-year-old children attending federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-enrolled facilities, and the degree to which the facilities met the new meal patterns and best practices. DESIGN: On-site observations and menu coding. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Nine early care and education centers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Agreement of posted menus with foods served, and comparison of foods served and consumed with the new CACFP meal guidelines and best practices...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Angela Filipa Damaso, Martina Velasova, Steven Van Winden, Yu-Mei Chang, Javier Guitian
This study describes the occurrence of preterm calving in Great Britain and evaluates its associations with subsequent milk production and reproductive performances and survival on farm of dairy cows. A total of 53 British dairy farms and 5759 animals with detailed breeding and milk recording data available were used to form two study groups: preterm calving (calving occurring between days 266 and 277 of gestation) and full-term calving (calving occurring at 278 days of gestation and over). Mixed effects models were implemented to compare milk production, clinical cases of mastitis and number of services per conception between groups...
2018: Veterinary Record Open
Maria Lorella Gianni, Paola Roggero, Charlotte Baudry, Catherine Fressange-Mazda, Pascale le Ruyet, Fabio Mosca
BACKGROUND: When breastfeeding is not possible, infants are fed formulas in which lipids are usually of plant origin. However, the use of dairy fat in combination with plant oils enables a lipid profile in formula closer to breast milk in terms of fatty acid composition, triglyceride structure and cholesterol content. The objectives of this study were to investigate the impact on growth and gastrointestinal tolerance of a formula containing a mix of dairy lipids and plant oils in healthy infants...
January 22, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Hajar Mazahery, Carlos A Camargo, Carolyn Cairncross, Lisa A Houghton, Cameron C Grant, Jane Coad, Cathryn A Conlon, Pamela R von Hurst
AIMS: New Zealand dietary guidelines recommend children from two years of age consume low- or reduced-fat milk. We aimed to investigate the predictors of type of milk consumption in preschool children. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study which enrolled preschool children (2-<5 years, n=1,329) from throughout New Zealand. RESULTS: Cows' milk was consumed regularly by 88% of children. Of these, 26% consumed plain low- or reduced-fat milk, while 74% consumed full-fat milk...
January 19, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Hugo Toledo-Alvarado, Ana I Vazquez, Gustavo de Los Campos, Robert J Tempelman, Giovanni Bittante, Alessio Cecchinato
Data on Holstein (16,890), Brown Swiss (31,441), Simmental (25,845), and Alpine Grey (12,535) cows reared in northeastern Italy were used to assess the ability of milk components (fat, protein, casein, and lactose) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral data to diagnose pregnancy. Pregnancy status was defined as whether a pregnancy was confirmed by a subsequent calving and no other subsequent inseminations within 90 d of the breeding of specific interest. Milk samples were analyzed for components and FTIR full-spectrum data using a MilkoScan FT+ 6000 (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Arieh Riskin
The goals of early nutrition in preterm infants are to provide all the necessary vital nutrients, achieve extra-uterine growth rates similar to fetuses of the same gestational age, and support functional neurodevelopmental outcomes that are comparable to those of infants born at term. It is vital to provide nutrition that will maximally support brain growth and development, but over-feeding with accelerated growth, fat accumulation and long-term metabolic consequences should also be avoided. Because the morbidity associated with prematurity increases nutritional and energetic demands, the basic approach is of providing early intensive nutrition...
December 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Alphonsus N Onyiriuka, Theodora E Utomi
Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFNN) is a rare benign inflammatory disorder of the adipose tissue but may be complicated by hypercalcemia or less frequently, hypocalcemia, resulting in morbidity and mortality. Here we report the case of a neonate with subcutaneous fat necrosis who surprisingly developed hypocalcemia instead of hypercalcemia. A full-term female neonate was delivered by emergency cesarean section for fetal distress and was subsequently admitted to the Special Care Baby Unit. The mother's pregnancy was uncomplicated up to delivery...
November 2017: Oman Medical Journal
Courtney Dow, Francesca Mancini, Kalina Rajaobelina, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Beverley Balkau, Fabrice Bonnet, Guy Fagherazzi
Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes that threatens all individuals with diabetes, leading to vision loss or blindness if left untreated. It is frequently associated with diabetic macular edema, which can occur at any point during the development of diabetic retinopathy. The key factors known to lead to its development include hyperglycemia, hypertension, and the duration of diabetes. Though the diet is important in the development of diabetes, its role in diabetic retinopathy has not been clearly identified...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
M E Johnson
In the beginning, cheese making in the United States was all art, but embracing science and technology was necessary to make progress in producing a higher quality cheese. Traditional cheese making could not keep up with the demand for cheese, and the development of the factory system was necessary. Cheese quality suffered because of poor-quality milk, but 3 major innovations changed that: refrigeration, commercial starters, and the use of pasteurized milk for cheese making. Although by all accounts cold storage improved cheese quality, it was the improvement of milk quality, pasteurization of milk, and the use of reliable cultures for fermentation that had the biggest effect...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
David J Schingoethe
Total mixed rations (TMR) as we know them today did not exist in 1917. In fact, TMR are an invention of primarily the last half of the past 100 yr. Prior to that time many dairy herds were fed only forages, but dairy producers started moving toward TMR feeding as milk production per cow increased, herds became larger, freestall and large-group handling of cows became more common, and milking parlors became more prevalent. The earliest known reports in the Journal of Dairy Science of feeding "complete rations" or TMR may have appeared in the 1950s, but those studies were often reported only as abstracts at annual meetings of the American Dairy Science Association or in extension-type publications...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
W P Weiss
Mineral and vitamin nutrition of dairy cows was studied before the first volume of the Journal of Dairy Science was published and is still actively researched today. The initial studies on mineral nutrition of dairy cows were simple balance experiments (although the methods available at the time for measuring minerals were anything but simple). Output of Ca and P in feces, urine, and milk was subtracted from intake of Ca and P, and if values were negative it was often assumed that cows were lacking in the particular mineral...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
T Snoj, M C Zuzek, N Cebulj-Kadunc, G Majdic
The aim of our study was to establish whether heat treatment and souring of milk affect its estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations. Milk samples were collected from 10 Holstein cows in late pregnancy. Concentrations of E1 and E2 were measured in milk samples that were previously heated to 70 and 95°C for 5 min. Additionally, E1 and E2 concentrations were determined in the same milk samples after 2 d of spontaneous souring at room temperature, and these samples were compared with E1 and E2 levels in raw, unprocessed milk...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Yun Zhang, Qixin Zhong
The objective of this work was to study solid/oil/water (S/O/W) emulsions as delivery systems with retained lactase in milk and controlled release during in vitro digestion. Spray-dried lactase powder was suspended in anhydrous milk fat/Span® 80 emulsified by sodium caseinate and lecithin (5:1). The S/O/W emulsion had an encapsulation efficiency of 75%, a hydrodynamic diameter of 292nm, and a zeta potential of -17.37mV. Cross-linking the dialyzed emulsion with transglutaminase eliminated the detection of free lactase after freeze-drying emulsions and the addition of sodium caseinate further preserved lactase activity...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Rosalia Di Gerlando, Salvatore Mastrangelo, Lina Tortorici, Marco Tolone, Anna Maria Sutera, Maria Teresa Sardina, Baldassare Portolano
The essential role of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA) enzyme in milk fatty acid (FA) synthesis suggests that it may be responsible for the phenotypic variability observed inmilk.Before attempting association analyses between this gene and/or enzyme and phenotypic traits, a study on the genetic variability within this locus is required. The aim of this work was to sequence the entire coding region of ACACA gene in Valle del Belice sheep breed to identify polymorphic sites. A total of 51 coding exons of ACACA gene were sequenced in 32 individuals of Valle del Belice sheep breed...
September 2017: Journal of Genetics
N Shetty, G Difford, J Lassen, P Løvendahl, A J Buitenhuis
Enteric methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, is among the main targets of mitigation practices for the dairy industry. A measurement technique that is rapid, inexpensive, easy to use, and applicable at the population level is desired to estimate CH4 emission from dairy cows. In the present study, feasibility of milk Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-IR) spectral profiles as a predictor for CH4:CO2 ratio and CH4 production (L/d) is explained. The partial least squares regression method was used to develop the prediction models...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Amy L Beck, Melvin Heyman, Cewin Chao, Janet Wojcicki
Consumption of non- or low-fat dairy products is recommended as a strategy to lower the risk of childhood obesity. However, recent evidence suggests that consumption of whole fat dairy products may, in fact, be protective against obesity. Our objective was to determine the association between milk fat consumption and severe obesity among three-year-old Latino children, a population with a disproportionate burden of obesity and severe obesity. 24-hour-dietary recalls were conducted to determine child intake in San Francisco based cohort recruited in 2006-7...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Tingting Wang, Yi-Ping Phoebe Chen, Iona M MacLeod, Jennie E Pryce, Michael E Goddard, Ben J Hayes
BACKGROUND: Using whole genome sequence data might improve genomic prediction accuracy, when compared with high-density SNP arrays, and could lead to identification of casual mutations affecting complex traits. For some traits, the most accurate genomic predictions are achieved with non-linear Bayesian methods. However, as the number of variants and the size of the reference population increase, the computational time required to implement these Bayesian methods (typically with Monte Carlo Markov Chain sampling) becomes unfeasibly long...
August 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
Ellen M Tweney, Pauline M Emmett, Jean Golding, Stephanie Goodfellow, Caroline M Taylor
There is concern regarding the amount of fruit and vegetables consumed and high sugar intakes in children's diets. Regional dietary differences in the British Isles could underlie variations in health outcomes, but little is known about these differences. Our aim was to compare diets of children enrolled in observational birth cohort studies in the Isle of Man (IoM-ELSPAC) and in south-west England (ALSPAC). Dietary intakes were assessed by 3-day food records in IoM and ALSPAC at an age of 7 years. Comparisons of mean daily nutrient, and food and food group intakes were made between the studies and with UK national dietary guidelines...
July 8, 2017: Nutrients
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