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Giusy Ranucci, Vittoria Buccigrossi, Eleonora Borgia, Daniela Piacentini, Federica Visentin, Luigi Cantarutti, Paola Baiardi, Mariagrazia Felisi, Maria Immacolata Spagnuolo, Stefania Zanconato, Eugenio Baraldi, Carlo Giaquinto, Alfredo Guarino
BACKGROUND: Early nutrition affects the risk of atopy and infections through modifications of intestinal microbiota. The Prebiotics in the Prevention of Atopy (PIPA) study was a 24-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. It aimed to evaluate the effects of a galacto-oligosaccharide/polydextrose (GOS/PDX)-formula (PF) on atopic dermatitis (AD) and common infections in infants who were born to atopic parents and to investigate the relationship among early nutrition, gut microbiota and clinical outcomes...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
Stephen A Fleming, Supida Monaikul, Alexander J Patsavas, Rosaline V Waworuntu, Brian M Berg, Ryan N Dilger
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that dietary prebiotics have the potential to improve memory, alter social behavior, and reduce anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. The present research sought to expand upon such results and describe the effects of feeding prebiotics early in life on cognition and neurochemistry using a translational piglet model. METHODS: Pigs were provided customized milk replacer containing 2 g/L each of polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharide (PDX/GOS) or 0 g/L (Control) from postnatal day (PND) 2-33...
December 18, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Karen-Anne McVey Neufeld, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Alan E Hoban, Rosaline V Waworuntu, Brian M Berg, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Early life is a period of significant brain development when the brain is at its most plastic and vulnerable. Stressful episodes during this window of development have long-lasting effects on the central nervous system. Rodent maternal separation (MS) is a reliable model of early-life stress and induces alterations in both physiology and behaviour. Intriguingly, the gut microbiota of MS offspring differ from that of non-separated offspring, suggesting a mechanistic role for the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Hence, we tested whether dietary factors known to affect the gut microbiota alter the neurobehavioural effects of MS...
November 27, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Agnieszka Mika, Heidi E W Day, Alexander Martinez, Nicole L Rumian, Benjamin N Greenwood, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Manipulating gut microbes may improve mental health. Prebiotics are indigestible compounds that increase the growth and activity of health-promoting microorganisms, yet few studies have examined how prebiotics affect CNS function. Using an acute inescapable stressor known to produce learned helplessness behaviours such as failure to escape and exaggerated fear, we tested whether early life supplementation of a blend of two prebiotics, galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX), and the glycoprotein lactoferrin (LAC) would attenuate behavioural and biological responses to stress later in life...
February 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kirsten Berding, Mei Wang, Marcia H Monaco, Lindsey S Alexander, Austin T Mudd, Maciej Chichlowski, Rosaline V Waworuntu, Brian M Berg, Michael J Miller, Ryan N Dilger, Sharon M Donovan
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that the addition of prebiotics and 2 functional milk ingredients to infant formula would maintain normal growth and gut development, and modify microbiota composition and neurotransmitter gene expression in neonatal piglets. METHODS: Two-day-old male piglets (n = 24) were fed formula (CONT) or formula with polydextrose (1.2 g/100 g diet), galactooligosaccharides (3.5 g/100 g diet), bovine lactoferrin (0.3 g/100 g diet), and milk fat globule membrane-10 (2...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
M V Pontes, T C M Ribeiro, H Ribeiro, A P de Mattos, I R Almeida, V M Leal, G N Cabral, S Stolz, W Zhuang, D M F Scalabrin
BACKGROUND: Nutrients such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), prebiotics and β-glucan have been associated with reduced incidence of respiratory illnesses and allergic manifestations (AM). Our objective was to assess if consumption of a cow's milk-based beverage with these and other nutrients supports respiratory, gastrointestinal, and skin health in otherwise well-nourished, healthy children. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, healthy children (1-4 years of age) from two daycare centers in Brazil were fed three servings/day of a cow's milk-based beverage (CMBB; n = 125) containing DHA, the prebiotics polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS), β-glucan, and other key nutrients, or a control cow's milk-based beverage (control; n = 131) for up to 28 weeks...
February 27, 2016: Nutrition Journal
William H Johnston, Claude Ashley, Michael Yeiser, Cheryl L Harris, Suzanne I Stolz, Jennifer L Wampler, Anja Wittke, Timothy R Cooper
BACKGROUND: Human milk provides necessary macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate, fat) required for infant nutrition. Lactoferrin (Lf), a multifunctional iron-binding protein predominant in human milk, shares similar protein sequence, structure, and bioactivity with bovine Lf (bLf). This large-scale pediatric nutrition study was designed to evaluate growth and tolerance in healthy infants who received study formulas with bLf at concentrations within the range of mature human milk. METHODS: In this multi-center, double-blind, parallel-designed, gender-stratified prospective study 480 infants were randomized to receive a marketed routine cow's milk-based infant formula (Control; n = 155) or one of two investigational formulas with bLf at 0...
November 7, 2015: BMC Pediatrics
Jennifer L Hoeflinger, Dimitri O Kashtanov, Stephen B Cox, Scot E Dowd, Zeina E Jouni, Sharon M Donovan, Michael J Miller
Recently, prebiotic supplementation of infant formula has become common practice; however the impact on the intestinal microbiota has not been completely elucidated. In this study, neonatal piglets were randomized to: formula (FORM, n = 8), formula supplemented with 2 g/L each galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX, F+GP, n = 9) or a sow-reared (SOW, n = 12) reference group for 19 days. The ileal (IL) and ascending colon (AC) microbiota were characterized using culture-dependent and -independent methods...
2015: PloS One
Seppo Salminen, Akihito Endo, Erika Isolauri, Deolinda Scalabrin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the mode of delivery and type-of-feeding impact on gut microbiota. We demonstrated higher fecal bifidobacteria in infants who were breast-fed (BF) or fed formula with prebiotics polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) versus formula without prebiotics. Here, we tested feces of that cohort for lactobacilli and Staphylococcus aureus, 2 types of bacteria present in breast milk. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized study, 21- to 30-day-old term infants vaginally delivered and exclusively formula-fed received a cow's milk-based formula (control, n = 80) or the same formula with 4 g/L (1:1 ratio) of PDX/GOS (PDX/GOS, n = 77)...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jon Vanderhoof, Paul Ferguson, Rosemary Pauley-Hunter, Laurel Prestridge
Prebiotics play a role in the development of intestinal flora. When exposed to unabsorbed food, such as prebiotic carbohydrates, intestinal bacteria produce hydrogen. Increases in hydrogen may signify a slower rate of fermentation or digestion. In this blinded, crossover study, infants (n = 13) consumed formula containing either 4 g/L galactooligosaccharide (GOS) or 4 g/L polydextrose (PDX) + GOS, and breath hydrogen was measured. Breath hydrogen was higher in the PDX/GOS group versus GOS alone (mean ± standard error, 25...
May 2015: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
P Kannampalli, S Pochiraju, M Chichlowski, B M Berg, C Rudolph, M Bruckert, A Miranda, J N Sengupta
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates a positive effect of probiotics on the nervous system. The objective of this study was to determine if probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and/or prebiotics polydextrose/galactooligosaccharide (PDX/GOS) can alter the colonic sensitivity in a neonatal rat model of chronic visceral hyperalgesia and to determine whether altered sensitivity is associated with changes in neurotransmitter levels in the brain. METHODS: Chronic visceral hyperalgesia was induced in rats by intracolonic administration of zymosan for 3 days during postnatal day 14-16 (P14-P16)...
December 2014: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Fei Li, Xingming Jin, Bryan Liu, Weihong Zhuang, Deolinda Scalabrin
OBJECTIVE: Children are vulnerable to diet inadequacies, which may affect immune function. Our objective was to determine if a follow-up formula (FUF) containing DHA, the prebiotics PDX and GOS, and yeast β-glucan affects incidence of respiratory infections and diarrheal disease in healthy children. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, controlled, prospective trial, 3-4 year old children were fed 3 servings per day of either a FUF with 25 mg DHA, 1.2 g PDX/GOS, and 8...
June 2014: Pediatrics
Christin Weise, Dennis Ernst, Eric A F van Tol, Margitta Worm
BACKGROUND: Oral administration of specific food ingredients can modify mucosal and systemic inflammatory processes. Such food components are fatty acids or carbohydrates. Nevertheless, little is known about the impact of oral administration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and non-digestible oligosaccharides on allergen-induced dermatitis. METHOD: In this pilot study, skin inflammation was induced by serial epicutaneous OVA applications in OVA-sensitized mice...
June 2013: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Claude Ashley, William H Johnston, Cheryl L Harris, Suzanne I Stolz, Jennifer L Wampler, Carol Lynn Berseth
BACKGROUND: To ensure the suitability of an infant formula as the sole source of nutrition or provide benefits similar to outcomes in breastfed infants, advancements in formula composition are warranted as more research detailing the nutrient composition of human milk becomes available. This study was designed to evaluate growth and tolerance in healthy infants who received one of two investigational cow's milk-based formulas with adjustments in carbohydrate, fat, and calcium content and supplemented with a prebiotic blend of polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) or GOS alone...
June 7, 2012: Nutrition Journal
Min Li, Laura L Bauer, Xin Chen, Mei Wang, Theresa B Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S Kuhlenschmidt, George C Fahey, Sharon M Donovan
The microbial composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), a 2:1 mixture of polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS), and short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) by pooled ascending colonic microbiota from 9- and 17-d-old formula-fed (FF) and sow-reared (SR) piglets were assessed. pH change and gas, SCFA, and lactate production were determined after 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h of incubation. In most donor groups, the pH change was greater for scFOS fermentation and lower for PDX/GOS than for other substrates...
April 2012: Journal of Nutrition
Tereza C M Ribeiro, Hugo Costa-Ribeiro, Patricia S Almeida, Mariana V Pontes, Maria E Q Leite, Lais R Filadelfo, Jane C Khoury, Judy A Bean, Susan H Mitmesser, Jon A Vanderhoof, Deolinda M F Scalabrin
Healthy 9- to 48-month-old children (n = 133) were randomized to receive a cow's-milk-based follow-on formula (control) or the same formula with polydextrose and galactooligosaccharides (PDX/GOS) for 108 days. Pediatricians assessed diarrheal disease, stool pattern, acute respiratory infection, systemic antibiotic use, and growth. The 2 groups had similar weight-for-length/height z score and similar odds of having diarrheal disease, acute respiratory infection, and systemic antibiotic use; however, PDX/GOS had greater odds of increased defecation than control (P ≤ 0...
February 2012: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Deolinda M F Scalabrin, Susan H Mitmesser, Gjalt W Welling, Cheryl L Harris, John D Marunycz, D Carey Walker, Nico A Bos, Satu Tölkkö, Seppo Salminen, Jon A Vanderhoof
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of infant formula with polydextrose (PDX) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) on fecal microbiota and secretory IgA (sIgA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present double-blind, randomized study, term infants received control (Enfamil Lipil) or the same formula with PDX/GOS (4 g/L, 1:1 ratio; PDX/GOS) for 60 days; a reference breast-fed group was included. Formula intake, tolerance, and stool characteristics were collected via electronic diary and analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance...
March 2012: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Maria Quintero, Maria Maldonado, Mariaelisa Perez-Munoz, Roberto Jimenez, Terry Fangman, John Rupnow, Anja Wittke, Michael Russell, Robert Hutkins
Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that has been implicated in meningitis, NEC, and sepsis in neonates. Colonization and subsequent infection and invasion of C. sakazakii require that the organism adheres to host cell surfaces. Agents that inhibit or block attachment of the pathogen to epithelial cells could be useful in reducing infections. The goal of this research was to assess the ability of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX) to inhibit adherence of C. sakazakii 4603 to a HEp-2 human cell line...
May 2011: Current Microbiology
Marcia H Monaco, Dimitri O Kashtanov, Mei Wang, D Carey Walker, Deshanie Rai, Zeina E Jouni, Michael J Miller, Sharon M Donovan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on bacterial translocation (BT) in neonatal piglets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Piglets (n = 36) were randomized 12 hours after birth to receive total enteral nutrition (TEN) as formula; TEN + GOS (4 g/L), TEN + PDX (4 g/L), or TEN + GOS + PDX (2 g/L each) for 7 days or were supported by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) as a positive control for BT (n = 8)...
February 2011: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Noriko Nakamura, H Rex Gaskins, Chad T Collier, Gerardo M Nava, Deshanie Rai, Bryon Petschow, W Michael Russell, Cheryl Harris, Roderick I Mackie, Jennifer L Wampler, D Carey Walker
Supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotic ingredients continues the effort to mimic functional properties of human milk. In this double-blind, controlled, 28-day study, healthy term infants received control formula (control group; n = 25) or control formula supplemented with polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharide (GOS) (4 g/liter) (PG4 group; n = 27) or with PDX, GOS, and lactulose (LOS) (either 4 g/liter [PGL4 group; n = 27] or 8 g/liter [PGL8 group; n = 25]). A parallel breast-fed group (BF group) (n = 30) was included...
February 2009: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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