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chest x-ray

Paolo Ciancarella, Fabio Fazzari, Valentina Montano, Marco Guglielmo, Gianluca Pontone
A 21 year old male with no relevant medical history presented to our Institution for further assessments of a right paracardiac mass founded on a chest X-ray. Chest computed tomography revealed a wide median defect of the diaphragm at the level of xiphoid process of the sternum, with the herniation of omental fat tissue in the mediastinum. Cardiac magnetic resonance confirmed the presence of a huge hernia originating from the foramen of Morgagni (sterno-costal hiatus), displacing the heart leftwards and posteriorly and compressing the right ventricle (RV), giving to it a tubular shape...
April 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
Estelle Batin, Nicolas Depauw, Rachel B Jimenez, Shannon MacDonald, Hsiao-Ming Lu
PURPOSE: Proton postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) patients are positioned daily using surface imaging with additional x-ray imaging for confirmation. This study aims to investigate whether weekly x-ray imaging with daily surface imaging, as performed for photon treatment, is sufficient to maintain PMRT patient positioning fidelity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Calculated radiographic corrections and surface imaging residual setup errors were analyzed at the treatment angle for 28 PMRT patients (with and without breast implant, left and right sided)...
March 10, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
Lisa Kawatsu, Kazuhiro Uchimura, Akihiro Ohkado, Seiya Kato
BACKGROUND: The treatment success rate of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients aged 64 years and below in Japan, a tuberculosis (TB) middle-burden country with a notification of 13.9 per 100,000 populations in 2016, has been fluctuating around 70% for some years. In order to improve treatment outcome, it is critical to address those lost to follow-up (LTFU). The objective of the study therefore was to describe the characteristics of, and analyze the risk factors for those LTFU among pulmonary TB patients aged between 15 and 64, and discuss policy implications...
2018: PloS One
Sadeq Al-Murshedi, Peter Hogg, Andrew England
OBJECTIVES: To determine if a relationship exists between low contrast detail (LCD) detectability using the CDRAD 2.0 phantom, visual measures of image quality (IQ) and simulated lesion visibility (LV) when performing digital chest radiography (CXR). METHODS: Using a range of acquisition parameters, a CDRAD 2.0 phantom was used to acquire a set of images with different levels of image quality. LCD detectability using the CDRAD 2.0 phantom, represented by an image quality figure inverse (IQFinv ) metric, was determined using the phantom analyser software...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Behnam Jafari, Gholamabas Sabz, Elahe Masnavi, Roghaye Panahi, Saeid Jokar, Amrollah Roozbehi, Sajad Hasanzadeh
Introduction : Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease with unknown cause that can vary from an asymptomatic condition. Almost half of the patients with sarcoidosis have no symptoms. In this article, we describe a sarcoidosis patient with lung and liver engagement; it may be confused with metastasis. Case report : A 39-year-old man, known as hypothyroidism who had come to the emergency ward with dyspnea and coughing after exposure to detergents in a closed environment A 39-year-old man, known as hypothyroidism who had come to the emergency ward with dyspnea and coughing after exposure to detergents in a closed environment...
2018: F1000Research
Jongmin Sim, Hyun Hee Koh, Sangjoon Choi, Jinah Chu, Tae Sung Kim, Hojoong Kim, Joungho Han
Background: Pulmonary nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (PNLH) is a non-neoplastic pulmonary lymphoid disorder that can be mistaken for malignancy on radiography. Herein, we present nine cases of PNLH, emphasizing clinicoradiological findings and histological features. Materials and Methods: We analyzed radiological and clinicopathological features from the electronic medical records of nine patients (eight females and one male) diagnosed with PNLH. IgG and IgG4 immunohistochemical staining was performed in three patients...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
Rajan Atwal, Charles Stewart
We describe the unique case of a child with pneumonia presenting with acute scoliosis and abdominal pain, without any typical features of the disease.A 10-year-old girl presented to the emergency department on 3 consecutive days with right-sided abdominal pain. There were no associated features, in particular, no fevers or respiratory symptoms. On the first 2 presentations, observation,examination, and blood test findings were unremarkable. Chest x-ray and abdominal ultrasound were also normal. On the third presentation a marked scoliosis was noted and abdominal examination revealed right-sided tenderness with rebound...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Luca Napolitano, Mathew Waku, Gustavo Maggi, Franco Ciarelli
Cystic intestinal pneumatosis (CIP) is the presence of gas bubbles inside the wall of the intestine. In literature it has been reported to be associated with a variety of clinical conditions such as: superior mesenteric ischemia, intestinal perforation, bowel necrosis, infections which can cause mucosal alterations and therefore increasing its permeability, necrotizing enterocolitis in babies, trauma, intestinal obstruction, autoimmune and pulmonary pathologies. Its presence is usually documented by radiological techniques such as abdominal X-ray, CT scan and endoscopy and are usually characterized by the typical pattern of gas bubbles in the wall of the intestine...
March 19, 2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Ahmad Farooq Alsayed Hasanain, Khalid M El-Maghraby, Ali A H Zayed, Amany M A Nafee, Sherif M Abdel-Aal, Sally M Bakkar
Background: The activation of the cell-mediated immune responses by Mycobacterium tuberculosis can promote atherogenesis. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among patients with coronary artery stenosis (CAS) and to explore the association between LTBI and development of CAS. We conducted a case-control study which included 183 patients' who underwent percutaneous coronary angiography (121 patients with CAS and 62 patients without as a control group)...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Masoud Shamaei, Shahrbanoo Esmaeili, Majid Marjani, Payam Tabarsi
Background: Close contact investigation is the essential key in tuberculosis (TB) case finding and an effective strategy for TB control program within any society. Methods: In this prospective study, 1186 close family contacts of hospitalized TB patients (index) in a referral TB hospital in Tehran-Iran were passively studied. These people were studied to rollout TB infection and disease. Demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory data of these individuals were reviewed and summarized for analysis...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Barbara Kabai Burmen, Joseph Mogunde, Timothy Malika
Background: The former Nyanza Province of Kenya bore the brunt of HIV-driven tuberculosis (TB); 62% of the 19,152 cases in 2010 were HIV co-infected. The use of laypersons to improve TB case finding in community settings has shown rewarding results in other countries. We have no documented Kenyan experience in health facility settings. We evaluated the benefit of using laypersons to support TB screening and referrals at the former Nyanza Province of kenya province's largest regional referral facility...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
E J Yates, L C Yates, H Harvey
AIM: To develop a machine learning-based model for the binary classification of chest radiography abnormalities, to serve as a retrospective tool in guiding clinician reporting prioritisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The open-source machine learning library, Tensorflow, was used to retrain a final layer of the deep convolutional neural network, Inception, to perform binary normality classification on two, anonymised, public image datasets. Re-training was performed on 47,644 images using commodity hardware, with validation testing on 5,505 previously unseen radiographs...
June 10, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Demet Sergin, Burçak Tanattı, Sezgin Ulukaya
Scimitar syndrome is a rare complex of congenital anomalies of the cardiopulmonary system. In patients with scimitar syndrome, the right pulmonary vein abnormally drains into the inferior vena cava, right atrium, coronary sinus, azygos vein, portal vein, or hepatic vein. The syndrome gets its name from the Turkish sword-like image that appears on chest x-ray. Some patients with scimitar syndrome survive in adulthood undiagnosed. Herein, we discuss positional oxygenation and hemodynamic changes associated with scimitar syndrome, especially in the left lateral decubitus position, detected during preoperative anesthetic examination in an adult patient who underwent general anesthesia for left mastectomy...
June 11, 2018: A&A practice
Diego Pérez Díez, José Manuel Rubín, David Calvo Cuervo, Daniel García Iglesias, César Morís De La Tassa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early failure of Biotronik Linox and Linox Smart leads has been reported in numerous recent publications. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of this lead compared with that of 2 other contemporary leads. METHODS: We conducted an ambispective study of all consecutive first implantations of defibrillator leads carried out in our center: Endotak (Boston Scientific, model 148, 158)(n = 173), Sprint Quattro (Medtronic, model 6644, 6947)(n = 145) and Linox Smart (Biotronik, model SD 65/16)(n = 120)...
June 12, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
S Trad, D Saadoun, M H Errera, S Abad, P Bielefeld, C Terrada, D Sène, B Bodaghi, P Sève
Despite extensive investigations, including the use of Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA), the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis (TB) remains challenging. Ocular evidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in low endemic countries for TB is extremely rare, leading mostly to a TB-related ocular inflammation presumptive diagnosis. This present work aims: to highlights the main clinical patterns suggestive of ocular TB; and the latest recommended guidelines for diagnosing ocular TB to clarify interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) contribution and accuracy to the management of intraocular TB and its diagnosis, in addition to other available diagnostic tools, such as tuberculin skin test, bacteriologic and histologic analysis from intra/extra ocular sample and radiographic investigations; to define the accuracy of these diagnostic tools according to the endemic TB prevalence; and finally to identify therapeutic strategies adapted to the main clinical presentations of ocular TB...
June 8, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Pastora Gallego, María José Rodríguez-Puras, Pilar Serrano Gotarredona, Israel Valverde, Begoña Manso, Antonio González-Calle, Alejandro Adsuar, Jose M Cubero, Luis Díaz de la Llera, Antonio Ordoñez, Amir-Reza Hosseinpour
BACKGROUND: Prevalence and prognostic significance of pulmonary artery (PA) dilatation in congenital heart disease (CHD) have never been studied systematically. METHODS: Chest X-rays of 1192 consecutive adults with CHD were reviewed. Major diameter of the PA was determined by imaging techniques in those with PA dilatation. A value >29 mm was considered abnormal. Data on anatomy, hemodynamics, residual lesions and outcomes were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of PA dilatation was 18%...
June 2, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Lambert M Felix, Seamus Grundy, Stephen J Milan, Ross Armstrong, Haley Harrison, Dave Lynes, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation of the smaller airways and associated with a mortality rate greater than twice that of the general population. Antibiotics serve as front-line therapy for managing bacterial load, but their use is weighed against the development of antibiotic resistance. Dual antibiotic therapy has the potential to suppress infection from multiple strains of bacteria, leading to more successful treatment of exacerbations, reduced symptoms, and improved quality of life...
June 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Zhijiang Wang, Qinghuang Ye, Yan Chen, Jinhui Zhu
BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic eventeration is a rare congenital anomaly consisting of defect of diaphragm muscular development, which can be diagnosed with chest radiography and clinical evaluation. Diaphragmatic plication is a well-established treatment for diaphragmatic eventeration, which can be done through the thoracic or abdominal route, and minimally invasive became the trend in recent years. METHODS: The study retrospectively analyzed 3 cases of diaphragmatic eventeration with the procedure of laparoscopic diaphragmatic plication with mesh repair from August 2016 to April 2017...
June 7, 2018: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
Xiaobo Li, Benhua Xu, Yu Lei, Jianping Zhang, Zhixing Lin, Sicong Li
BACKGROUND: Differences often exist in the dose calculation accuracy caused by using different dose calculation algorithms in non-uniform tissues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of dose calculation with inhomogeneity correction in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by comparing dose calculated in Monaco with measurements in lung-chest phantom for esophagus cancer treatments. METHODS: Finite size pencil beam (FSPB) and X-ray voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) were used respectively for IMRT dose recalculations...
June 5, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Kumpol Amnuaypattanapon, Chitlada Limjindaporn, Winchana Srivilaithon, Ittabud Dasanadeba
INTRODUCTION: The characteristics and treatment outcomes of status asthmaticus patients in emergency department (ED) have not been described previously especially in Thailand. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics, treatment outcomes and factors associated with status asthmaticus in Thai patients presenting to a single center ED. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed at Thammasat University hospital, Thailand. The data collected included demographics, asthma history and control, previous ED attendances and hospital admissions, presenting clinical, laboratory and radiographic features, treatments given, and outcomes...
June 11, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
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