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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211015/fifty-years-of-computer-analysis-in-chest-imaging-rule-based-machine-learning-deep-learning
#1
REVIEW
Bram van Ginneken
Half a century ago, the term "computer-aided diagnosis" (CAD) was introduced in the scientific literature. Pulmonary imaging, with chest radiography and computed tomography, has always been one of the focus areas in this field. In this study, I describe how machine learning became the dominant technology for tackling CAD in the lungs, generally producing better results than do classical rule-based approaches, and how the field is now rapidly changing: in the last few years, we have seen how even better results can be obtained with deep learning...
February 16, 2017: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208927/tuberculosis-of-glans-penis-a-rare-presentation
#2
C Gangalakshmi, Sankaramahalingam
Tuberculosis (TB) of penis is a very rare entity, even in developing countries. It may present as primary or secondary to Pulmonary TB (PTB). Penile TB mimics carcinoma penis, granulomatous penile ulcer, genital herpes simplex, granuloma inguinale and HIV infection. We, hereby, present the case of a 57-year-old male patient who presented to us with ulcerative growth over glans penis and was clinically diagnosed as carcinoma penis, however biopsy of the lesion showed evidence of tuberculosis which was supported by chest X-ray...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205000/aortic-knob-width-reflects-left-ventricular-diastolic-function-assessed-by-gated-myocardial-perfusion-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-in-patients-with-normal-myocardial-perfusion
#3
Satoshi Kurisu, Tadanao Higaki, Yoji Sumimoto, Hiroki Ikenaga, Noriaki Watanabe, Ken Ishibashi, Yoshihiro Dohi, Yukihiro Fukuda, Yasuki Kihara
BACKGROUND: Aortic knob width on chest radiography represents the extent of aortic dialation and tortuosity of the aortic arch. We tested the hypothesis that aortic knob width reflected left ventricular (LV) diastolic function assessed by gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with normal myocardial perfusion. METHODS: One hundred and thirty patients with preserved LV ejection fraction and normal myocardial perfusion were enrolled in this study...
February 15, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204920/a-review-of-congenital-lung-malformations-with-a-simplified-classification-system-for-clinical-and-research-use
#4
REVIEW
Michael Seear, Jennifer Townsend, Amy Hoepker, Douglas Jamieson, Deborah McFadden, Patrick Daigneault, William Glomb
PURPOSE: Congenital lung abnormalities are rare malformations increasingly detected early by prenatal ultrasound. Whether management of these frequently asymptomatic lesions should be surgical or conservative is an unresolved issue. The necessary prospective studies are limited by the absence of a widely accepted practical classification system. Our aim was to develop a simple, clinically relevant system for classifying and studying congenital lung abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We based our proposed grouping on a detailed analysis of clinical, radiological, and histological data from well-documented cases, plus an extensive review of the literature...
February 15, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203428/multiple-cavitating-pulmonary-nodules-rare-manifestation-of-benign-metastatic-leiomyoma
#5
Sa Ra Lee, Youn-I Choi, Seok Jeong Lee, Sung Shine Shim, Jin Hwa Lee, Yoo Kyung Kim, Soon Hee Sung
Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease of pathologically benign, but the tumor metastasizes to other organs. The most common organ involved in BML is lung. Pulmonary involvement usually manifested as multiple nodules on chest X-ray, however we experienced an interesting case of a 52-year-old premenopausal woman who presented with multiple bilateral lung cavitations and nodules on a chest X-ray without any respiratory symptoms. Chest computed-tomography identified multiple cavitary lesions of 5-12 mm in diameter and well-defined nodules of 5-10 mm in diameter in both lung fields...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203410/relationship-between-radiologic-patterns-pulmonary-function-values-and-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-cells-in-newly-diagnosed-sarcoidosis
#6
Regina Aleksonienė, Ingrida Zeleckienė, Mindaugas Matačiūnas, Roma Puronaitė, Laimutė Jurgauskienė, Radvilė Malickaitė, Edita Strumilienė, Vygantas Gruslys, Rolandas Zablockis, Edvardas Danila
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to identify specious radiologic and/or physiologic prognostic marker(s), which lead to optimize of the patient follow-up frequency. METHODS: Eighty consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis. Patients underwent chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) examination, pulmonary function tests (PFT), bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung biopsy, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell examination...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203372/diagnostic-challenges-and-management-of-a-patient-with-acromegaly-due-to-ectopic-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-secretion-from-a-bronchial-carcinoid-tumour
#7
Nikolaos Kyriakakis, Jacqueline Trouillas, Mary N Dang, Julie Lynch, Paul Belchetz, Márta Korbonits, Robert D Murray
: A male patient presented at the age of 30 with classic clinical features of acromegaly and was found to have elevated growth hormone levels, not suppressing during an oral glucose tolerance test. His acromegaly was originally considered to be of pituitary origin, based on a CT scan, which was interpreted as showing a pituitary macroadenoma. Despite two trans-sphenoidal surgeries, cranial radiotherapy and periods of treatment with bromocriptine and octreotide, his acromegaly remained active clinically and biochemically...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203176/a-case-of-gastric-cancer-with-situs-inversus-totalis
#8
Byoung Jo Suh
Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare congenital anomaly that refers to a completely reversed location of the abdominal and thoracic organs. We report the case of 50-year-old man with gastric cancer and SIT who was diagnosed during a screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy. A chest X-ray, abdominopelvic computed tomography, and (18)F-fluoro2-deoxyglucose-D-glucose-positron emission tomography scans revealed SIT. We performed a radical subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection. Advanced surgical skill is required to perform a precise lymphadenectomy in a patient with SIT by visualizing the exact mirror image of the anatomy during the operation...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202294/point-of-care-lung-ultrasound-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#9
Hayri Levent Yilmaz, Ahmet Kağan Özkaya, Sinem Sarı Gökay, Özlem Tolu Kendir, Hande Şenol
OBJECTIVES: To present lung ultrasound findings in children assessed with suspected pneumonia in the emergency department and to show the benefit of lung ultrasound in diagnosing pneumonia in comparison with chest X-rays. METHODS: This observational prospective study was performed in the pediatric emergency department of a single center. Point of care lung ultrasound was performed on each child by an independent sonographer blinded to the patient's clinical and chest X-ray findings...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201922/diagnosis-of-osteoporosis-in-rural-arctic-greenland-a-clinical-case-using-plain-chest-radiography-for-secondary-prevention-and-consideration-of-tools-for-primary-prevention-in-remote-areas
#10
Inuuteq Fleischer, Louise K Schæbel, Nadja Albertsen, Vibeke N Sørensen, Stig Andersen
CONTEXT: Osteoporosis is a frequent disease in many populations. The hallmark is fragility fractures, which are harbingers of future fractures, disability, mortality and cost on society. The occurrence increases with age, low vitamin D level and smoking. Smoking rates are high, vitamin D is low and life expectancy is rising steeply in Greenland, as is the need for focus on osteoporosis. We report a case that uses a simple and readily available tool to diagnose osteoporosis at the hospital in Sisimiut, a town of 5000 inhabitants on the west coast of Greenland...
January 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196648/cardiothoracic-ratio-and-all-cause-mortality-and-cardiovascular-disease-events-in-hemodialysis-patients-the-q-cohort-study
#11
Ryusuke Yotsueda, Masatomo Taniguchi, Shigeru Tanaka, Masahiro Eriguchi, Kiichiro Fujisaki, Kumiko Torisu, Kosuke Masutani, Hideki Hirakata, Takanari Kitazono, Kazuhiko Tsuruya
BACKGROUND: Cardiothoracic ratio by chest radiography is commonly used to assess volume status. Little is known about the relationships between cardiothoracic ratio and the incidence of clinical outcomes in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 3,436 participants in the Q-Cohort Study 18 years or older who underwent maintenance HD in Japan. PREDICTOR: Cardiothoracic ratio...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195659/silica-exposure-and-disease-in-semi-precious-stone-craftsmen-minas-gerais-brazil
#12
Ana Paula S Carneiro, Nayara F T Braz, Eduardo Algranti, Olivia M P A Bezerra, Natália P S Araujo, Lênio S Amaral Eng Hyg, Jean L Edmé, Annie Sobaszek, Nathalie Chérot-Kornobis
BACKGROUND: Brazil is an exporter of precious stones and craftsmen often work in poor conditions. We assessed silica-related diseases among crystal craftsmen and the complexity of its control. METHODS: Case-series including 118 subjects evaluated from 2006 to 2015, based on medical interviews, chest X-rays, spirometry, and respirable silica samples. RESULTS: Median age and length of exposure were 32 and 13 years, respectively. Silicosis, with 1/0 as a threshold, was diagnosed radiologically in 57 individuals (48...
March 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194823/personal-smartphones-for-neonatal-diagnostic-imaging-a-prospective-crossover-study
#13
Margreta Westberg, Theresia Vasko, Louise S Owen, Risha Bhatia, Marta Thio Lluch, Susan Donath, Peter G Davis, Jennifer A Dawson
AIM: Neonatal clinicians may be asked to review X-ray images when unable to directly access the original image. Transmitting an X-ray image to a smartphone is a technique increasingly being used by clinicians in a number of settings. Minimal data exist on its use in the neonatal setting. Our aim was to compare the ability of neonatal clinicians to correctly diagnose a pneumothorax from a chest radiograph (CXR) viewed on a smartphone, paralleled with the same image viewed on a computer screen...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194212/clinical-predictors-of-chest-radiographic-abnormalities-in-young-children-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis-a-single-center-study
#14
Ga Ram Kim, Min Sun Na, Kyung Suk Baek, Seung Jin Lee, Kyung Suk Lee, Young Ho Jung, Hye Mi Jee, Tae Hee Kwon, Man Yong Han, Youn Ho Sheen
PURPOSE: Chest radiography is often performed on patients hospitalized with typical clinical manifestations of bronchiolitis. We aimed to determine the proportion of subjects with pathologic chest radiographic findings and the clinical predictors associated with pathologic chest radiographic findings in young children admitted with the typical presentation of bronchiolitis. METHODS: We obtained the following data at admission: sex, age, neonatal history, past history of hospitalization for respiratory illnesses, heart rate, respiratory rate, the presence of fever, total duration of fever, oxygen saturation, laboratory parameters (i...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188237/first-identification-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-2-mutation-in-heritable-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#15
Christina A Eichstaedt, Jie Song, Rebecca Rodríguez Viales, Zixuan Pan, Nicola Benjamin, Christine Fischer, Marius Hoeper, Silvia Ulrich, Katrin Hinderhofer, Ekkehard Grünig
Heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease caused by mutations in the bone morphogenic protein receptor 2 gene and/or genes of its signalling pathway in about 85% of patients. We clinically and genetically analysed a HPAH family without mutations in previously described PAH genes. Clinical assessment included electrocardiogram, lung function, blood gas analysis, chest X-ray, laboratory testing, echocardiography and right heart catheterisation in case of suspected disease...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187791/primary-mediastinal-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-a-woman-who-is-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-presenting-with-superior-vena-cava-syndrome-a-case-report
#16
Pedro Pallangyo, Paulina Nicholaus, Frederick Lyimo, Elikaanany Urio, Peter Kisenge, Mohamed Janabi
BACKGROUND: The risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is increased 200-fold in individuals seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus compared to those free from human immunodeficiency virus. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma is known for its atypical presentation, aggressive ability, widespread involvement, poor response to chemotherapy, and high relapse potential which makes both the diagnosis and management a difficult undertaking especially in resource-poor settings...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187019/persistent-left-superior-vena-cava-unusual-catheter-position-on-chest-x-ray-film
#17
Ranjit Deshpande, Matthew Band, Viji Kurup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185691/thoracic-ultrasound-technique-applications-and-interpretation
#18
REVIEW
Suraj H Rambhia, Catherine A D'Agostino, Ali Noor, Robert Villani, Jason J Naidich, John S Pellerito
Thoracic ultrasound is used at the bedside in emergency and critical care settings. Advantages of ultrasound include rapid real-time, low-cost, diagnostic information that can direct patient care without the use of ionizing radiation. We describe methods on how to perform lung ultrasound, with the intent to educate the radiologist who might otherwise be relatively unfamiliar with thoracic sonography. We describe and depict the normal sonographic appearance of lung anatomy. We also show the sonographic appearance of a wide range of lung and pleural pathologies such as pneumonia, pneumothorax, as well as lung and pleural masses...
December 15, 2016: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185620/pulmonary-tuberculosis
#19
Sarah M Lyon, Milton D Rossman
This review on pulmonary tuberculosis includes an introduction that describes how the lung is the portal of entry for the tuberculosis bacilli to enter the body and then spread to the rest of the body. The symptoms and signs of both primary and reactivation tuberculosis are described. Routine laboratory tests are rarely helpful for making the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The differences between the chest X ray in primary and reactivation tuberculosis is also described. The chest computed tomography appearance in primary and reactivation tuberculosis is also described...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185411/htlv-1-seroprevalance-in-sarcoidosis-a-clinical-and-laboratory-study-in-northeast-of-iran
#20
Massoud Saghafi, Zahra Rezaieyazdi, Shima Nabavi, Zahra Mirfeizi, Maryam Sahebari, Masoumeh Salari
AIM: Sarcoidosis is an autoimmune multiorgan granulomatosis disease with unknown origin. Some environmental factors such as viruses may induce the disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can dysregulate the human immune system and the role of this virus in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has been investigated and documented, such as in uveitis. In this study, we have focused on the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 in sarcoidosis in comparison to the normal population in the northeast of Iran, an endemic area for HTLV-1...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
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