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computer aided diagnosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549293/automated-recognition-of-the-pericardium-contour-on-processed-ct-images-using-genetic-algorithms
#1
É O Rodrigues, L O Rodrigues, L S N Oliveira, A Conci, P Liatsis
This work proposes the use of Genetic Algorithms (GA) in tracing and recognizing the pericardium contour of the human heart using Computed Tomography (CT) images. We assume that each slice of the pericardium can be modelled by an ellipse, the parameters of which need to be optimally determined. An optimal ellipse would be one that closely follows the pericardium contour and, consequently, separates appropriately the epicardial and mediastinal fats of the human heart. Tracing and automatically identifying the pericardium contour aids in medical diagnosis...
May 17, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545366/role-of-positron-emission-tomography-for-central-nervous-system-involvement-in-systemic-autoimmune-diseases-status-and-perspectives
#2
Daniele Mauro, Gaetano Barbagallo, Salvatore D'Angelo, Sannino Pasqualina, Saverio Naty, Caterina Bruno, Ignazio Olivieri, Rosa Daniela Grembiale, Francesco Ursini
In the last years, an increasing interest in molecular imaging has been raised by the extending potential of positron emission tomography (PET). The role of PET imaging, originally confined to the oncology setting, is continuously extending thanks to the development of novel radiopharmaceutical and to the implementation of hybrid imaging techniques, where PET scans are combined with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in order to improve spatial resolution. Early preclinical studies suggested that 18F-FDG PET can detect neuroinflammation; new developing radiopharmaceuticals targeting more specifically inflammation-related molecules are moving in this direction...
May 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542177/mycophenolate-mofetil-for-scleroderma-related-interstitial-lung-disease-a-real-world-experience
#3
Misbah Baqir, Ashima Makol, Thomas G Osborn, Brian J Bartholmai, Jay H Ryu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) remains the number one cause of mortality in scleroderma (SSc). Our goal was to determine the effectiveness of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in treating SSc-ILD in a retrospective study. METHODS: A retrospective, computer-assisted search was performed to identify patients with SSc-ILD treated with MMF from 1997 through 2014. We used a novel software tool, Computer-Aided Lung Informatics for Pathology Evaluation and Rating (CALIPER), to quantify parenchymal lung abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539115/quad-phased-data-mining-modeling-for-dementia-diagnosis
#4
Sunjoo Bang, Sangjoon Son, Hyunwoong Roh, Jihye Lee, Sungyun Bae, Kyungwon Lee, Changhyung Hong, Hyunjung Shin
BACKGROUND: The number of people with dementia is increasing along with people's ageing trend worldwide. Therefore, there are various researches to improve a dementia diagnosis process in the field of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) technology. The most significant issue is that the evaluation processes by physician which is based on medical information for patients and questionnaire from their guardians are time consuming, subjective and prone to error. This problem can be solved by an overall data mining modeling, which subsidizes an intuitive decision of clinicians...
May 18, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537461/an-extensive-review-on-development-of-eeg-based-computer-aided-diagnosis-systems-for-epilepsy-detection
#5
Jagriti Saini, Maitreyee Dutta
Epilepsy is considered as fourth most prominent neurological disorder in the world that can affect people of all age groups. Currently, around 65 million people throughout the world are suffering from epilepsy. It is evident that electroencephalograph (EEG) signals are most commonly used for detection of epileptic seizures but today many modern techniques have been developed to analyze underlying features of these EEG signals. As EEG contains a large amount of complicated information, so many researchers are trying to develop automatic systems for complete feature extraction...
May 24, 2017: Network: Computation in Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534786/evolutionary-computing-enriched-computer-aided-diagnosis-system-for-diabetic-retinopathy-a-survey
#6
Romany Mansour
The alterations caused due to diabetes mellitus results into significant micro-vasculature that eventually causes diabetic retinopathy (DR) that keeps on increasing as per time and eventually causes complete vision loss. Identifying subtle variations in morphological changes in retinal blood vessels, optic disk, exudates, micro-aneurysms, hemorrhage etc is complicate and requires robust computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system so as to enable earlier and efficient DR diagnosis practices. In majority of the existing CAD systems, the need of functional enhancement has been realized time by time to ensure accurate and time efficient DR...
May 17, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533683/new-standardized-nursing-cooperation-workflow-to-reduce-stroke-thrombolysis-delays-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#7
Yan Zhou, Zhuojun Xu, Jiali Liao, Fangming Feng, Lai Men, Li Xu, Yanan He, Gang Li
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effectiveness of a new standardized nursing cooperation workflow in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) to reduce stroke thrombolysis delays. PATIENTS AND METHODS: AIS patients receiving conventional thrombolysis treatment from March to September 2015 were included in the control group, referred to as T0. The intervention group, referred to as T1 group, consisted of AIS patients receiving a new standardized nursing cooperation workflow for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) at the emergency department of Shanghai East Hospital (Shanghai, People's Republic of China) from October 2015 to March 2016...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526968/computer-aided-diagnosis-of-lung-nodules-in-computed-tomography-by-using-phylogenetic-diversity-genetic-algorithm-and-svm
#8
Antonio Oseas de Carvalho Filho, Aristófanes Corrêa Silva, Anselmo Cardoso de Paiva, Rodolfo Acatauassú Nunes, Marcelo Gattass
Lung cancer is pointed as the major cause of death among patients with cancer throughout the world. This work is intended to develop a methodology for diagnosis of lung nodules using images from the Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI). The proposed methodology uses image processing and pattern recognition techniques. In order to differentiate between the patterns of malignant and benign nodules, we used phylogenetic diversity by means of particular indexes, that are: intensive quadratic entropy, extensive quadratic entropy, average taxonomic distinctness, total taxonomic distinctness, and pure diversity indexes...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526813/radiomic-model-for-predicting-mutations-in-the-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-gene-in-glioblastomas
#9
Kevin Li-Chun Hsieh, Cheng-Yu Chen, Chung-Ming Lo
The present study proposed a computer-aided diagnosis system based on radiomic features extracted through magnetic resonance imaging to determine the isocitrate dehydrogenase status in glioblastomas. Magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from 32 patients with wild-typeisocitrate dehydrogenase and 7 patients with mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase in glioblastomas. Radiomic features, namely morphological, intensity, and textural features, were extracted from the tumor area of each patient. The feature sets were evaluated using a logistic regression classifier to develop a prediction model...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523503/hierarchical-cluster-analysis-to-aid-diagnostic-image-data-visualization-of-ms-and-other-medical-imaging-modalities
#10
Arul N Selvan, Laura M Cole, Lynne Spackman, Sarah Naylor, Chris Wright
Perceiving abnormal regions in the images of different medical modalities plays a crucial role in diagnosis and subsequent treatment planning. In medical images to visually perceive abnormalities' extent and boundaries requires substantial experience. Consequently, manually drawn region of interest (ROI) to outline boundaries of abnormalities suffers from limitations of human perception leading to inter-observer variability. As an alternative to human drawn ROI, it is proposed the use of a computer-based segmentation algorithm to segment digital medical image data...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523283/variable-temporal-sampling-and-tube-current-modulation-for-myocardial-blood-flow-estimation-from-dose-reduced-dynamic-computed-tomography
#11
Dimple Modgil, Michael D Bindschadler, Adam M Alessio, Patrick J La Rivière
Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) can aid in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease. However, there are no widely accepted clinical methods for estimating MBF. Dynamic cardiac perfusion computed tomography (CT) holds the promise of providing a quick and easy method to measure MBF quantitatively. However, the need for repeated scans can potentially result in a high patient radiation dose, limiting the clinical acceptance of this approach. In our previous work, we explored techniques to reduce the patient dose by either uniformly reducing the tube current or by uniformly reducing the number of temporal frames in the dynamic CT sequence...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516457/computed-tomography-or-necropsy-diagnosis-of-multiple-bullae-and-the-treatment-of-pneumothorax-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#12
Jong-Min Kim, Sungyoung Han, Jun-Seop Shin, Byoung-Hoon Min, Won Young Jeong, Ga Eul Lee, Min Sun Kim, Ju Eun Kim, Hyunwoo Chung, Chung-Gyu Park
Pulmonary bullae and pneumothorax have various etiologies in veterinary medicine. We diagnosed multiple pulmonary bullae combined with or without pneumothorax by computed tomography (CT) or necropsy in seven rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) imported from China. Two of seven rhesus macaques accompanied by pneumothorax were cured by fixation of ruptured lung through left or right 3rd intercostal thoracotomy. Pneumonyssus simicola, one of the etiologies of pulmonary bullae, was not detected from tracheobronchiolar lavage...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513858/an-adaptive-fuzzy-c-means-method-utilizing-neighboring-information-for-breast-tumor-segmentation-in-ultrasound-images
#13
Yuan Feng, Fenglin Dong, Xiaolong Xia, Chun-Hong Hu, Qianmin Fan, Yanle Hu, Mingyuan Gao, Sasa Mutic
PURPOSE: Ultrasound (US) imaging has been widely used in breast tumor diagnosis and treatment intervention. Automatic delineation of the tumor is a crucial first step, especially for the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and US-guided breast procedure. However, the intrinsic properties of US images such as low contrast and blurry boundaries pose challenges to the automatic segmentation of the breast tumor. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a segmentation algorithm that can contour the breast tumor in US images...
May 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508359/evolving-relevance-of-neuroproteomics-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Simone Lista, Henrik Zetterberg, Sid E O'Bryant, Kaj Blennow, Harald Hampel
Substantial progress in the understanding of the biology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been achieved over the past decades. The early detection and diagnosis of AD and other age-related neurodegenerative diseases, however, remain a challenging scientific frontier. Therefore, the comprehensive discovery (relating to all individual, converging or diverging biochemical disease mechanisms), development, validation, and qualification of standardized biological markers with diagnostic and prognostic functions with a precise performance profile regarding specificity, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive value are warranted...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506672/comparison-of-the-nosocomial-pneumonia-mortality-prediction-npmp-model-with-standard-mortality-prediction-tools
#15
M Srinivasan, N Shetty, S Gadekari, G Thunga, K Rao, V Kunhikatta
BACKGROUND: Severity or mortality prediction of nosocomial pneumonia could aid in the effective triage of patients and assisting physicians. AIM: To compare various severity assessment scoring systems for predicting intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in nosocomial pneumonia patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care university-affiliated hospital in Manipal, India. One hundred patients with nosocomial pneumonia, admitted in the ICUs who developed pneumonia after >48h of admission, were included...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503554/multimodality-imaging-of-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#16
REVIEW
Kelly Fábrega-Foster, Mounes Aliyari Ghasabeh, Timothy M Pawlik, Ihab R Kamel
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas account for approximately 20% of cases of cholangiocarcinomas. Three growth patterns or morphologic subtypes exist, including mass-forming, periductal-infiltrating, and intraductal-growth subtypes. Knowledge of these morphologic subtypes and their radiologic appearance aids in timely diagnosis, a key to optimizing patient outcomes. The morphologic variability of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas has a direct impact on the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of various diagnostic imaging modalities, including ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), and positron emission tomography (PET)...
April 2017: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501942/pulmonary-nodule-classification-with-deep-residual-networks
#17
Aiden Nibali, Zhen He, Dennis Wollersheim
PURPOSE  : Lung cancer has the highest death rate among all cancers in the USA. In this work we focus on improving the ability of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems to predict the malignancy of nodules from cropped CT images of lung nodules. METHODS: We evaluate the effectiveness of very deep convolutional neural networks at the task of expert-level lung nodule malignancy classification. Using the state-of-the-art ResNet architecture as our basis, we explore the effect of curriculum learning, transfer learning, and varying network depth on the accuracy of malignancy classification...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495009/a-two-step-convolutional-neural-network-based-computer-aided-detection-scheme-for-automatically-segmenting-adipose-tissue-volume-depicting-on-ct-images
#18
Yunzhi Wang, Yuchen Qiu, Theresa Thai, Kathleen Moore, Hong Liu, Bin Zheng
Accurately assessment of adipose tissue volume inside a human body plays an important role in predicting disease or cancer risk, diagnosis and prognosis. In order to overcome limitation of using only one subjectively selected CT image slice to estimate size of fat areas, this study aims to develop and test a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme based on deep learning technique to automatically segment subcutaneous fat areas (SFA) and visceral fat areas (VFA) depicting on volumetric CT images. A retrospectively collected CT image dataset was divided into two independent training and testing groups...
June 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494110/computerized-detection-of-lung-nodules-through-radiomics
#19
Jingchen Ma, Zien Zhou, Yacheng Ren, Junfeng Xiong, Ling Fu, Qian Wang, Jun Zhao
PURPOSE: Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer deaths, and the 5-year survival rate of stage IV lung cancer patients is only 2%. However, the 5-year survival rate of stage I lung cancer patients significantly increases to 50%. As such, spiral computed tomography (CT) scans are necessary to diagnose high-risk lung cancer patients in early stages. In this study, a computer-aided detection (CAD) system with radiomics was proposed. This system could automatically detect pulmonary nodules and reduce radiologists' workload and human errors...
May 11, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491869/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-suicidal-ideation-and-attempt-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-at-zewditu-memorial-hospital-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Etsay Hailu Gebremariam, Mebratu Mitiku Reta, Zebiba Nasir, Fisseha Zewdu Amdie
Background. Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS) continues to be an underrecognized risk for suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, and completion of suicide. Suicidal ideation and attempt in HIV/AIDS is not only a predictor of future attempted suicide and completed suicide. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-positive patients attending HIV care at Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 423 participants from April to May 2014...
2017: Psychiatry Journal
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