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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516999/social-norm-complexity-and-past-reputations-in-the-evolution-of-cooperation
#1
Fernando P Santos, Francisco C Santos, Jorge M Pacheco
Indirect reciprocity is the most elaborate and cognitively demanding of all known cooperation mechanisms, and is the most specifically human because it involves reputation and status. By helping someone, individuals may increase their reputation, which may change the predisposition of others to help them in future. The revision of an individual's reputation depends on the social norms that establish what characterizes a good or bad action and thus provide a basis for morality. Norms based on indirect reciprocity are often sufficiently complex that an individual's ability to follow subjective rules becomes important, even in models that disregard the past reputations of individuals, and reduce reputations to either 'good' or 'bad' and actions to binary decisions...
March 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515842/the-narrow-gap-between-norms-and-cooperative-behaviour-in-a-reindeer-herding-community
#2
Matthew Gwynfryn Thomas, Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen, Marius Warg Næss
Cooperation evolves on social networks and is shaped, in part, by norms: beliefs and expectations about the behaviour of others or of oneself. Networks of cooperative social partners and associated norms are vital for pastoralists, such as Saami reindeer herders in northern Norway. However, little is known quantitatively about how norms structure pastoralists' social networks or shape cooperation. Saami herders reported their social networks and participated in field experiments, allowing us to gauge the overlap between reported and emergent cooperation...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514635/patient-data-and-patient-rights-swiss-healthcare-stakeholders-ethical-awareness-regarding-large-patient-data-sets-a-qualitative-study
#3
Corine Mouton Dorey, Holger Baumann, Nikola Biller-Andorno
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in aggregating more biomedical and patient data into large health data sets for research and public benefits. However, collecting and processing patient data raises new ethical issues regarding patient's rights, social justice and trust in public institutions. The aim of this empirical study is to gain an in-depth understanding of the awareness of possible ethical risks and corresponding obligations among those who are involved in projects using patient data, i...
March 7, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504048/the-interplay-between-marijuana-specific-risk-factors-and-marijuana-use-over-the-course-of-adolescence
#4
Katarina Guttmannova, Martie L Skinner, Sabrina Oesterle, Helene R White, Richard F Catalano, J David Hawkins
Permissive attitudes and norms about marijuana use and perceptions of low harm from use are considered risk factors for adolescent marijuana use. However, the relationship between risk and use may be reciprocal and vary across development and socializing domains. We examined the bidirectional relationships between marijuana-specific risk factors in individual, parent, peer, and community domains and adolescent marijuana use. Longitudinal data came from a sample of 2002 adolescents in 12 communities. Controlling for sociodemographic covariates and communities in which the individuals resided, autoregressive cross-lagged models examined predictive associations between the risk factors and marijuana use...
March 5, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499678/social-capital-and-frequent-attenders-in-general-practice-a-register-based-cohort-study
#5
Alexander A Pasgaard, Maiken H Mæhlisen, Charlotte Overgaard, Linda Ejlskov, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Henrik Bøggild
BACKGROUND: Frequent attendance to primary care constitutes a large use of resources for the health care system. The association between frequent attendance and illness-related factors has been examined in several studies, but little is known about the association between frequent attendance and individual social capital. The aim of this study is to explore this association. METHODS: The analysis is conducted on responders to the North Denmark Region Health Profile 2010 (n = 23,384), individually linked with information from administrative registers...
March 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482532/social-capital-in-a-regional-inter-hospital-network-among-trauma-centers-trauma-network-results-of-a-qualitative-study-in-germany
#6
Julika Loss, Johannes Weigl, Antonio Ernstberger, Michael Nerlich, Michael Koller, Janina Curbach
BACKGROUND: As inter-hospital alliances have become increasingly popular in the healthcare sector, it is important to understand the challenges and benefits that the interaction between representatives of different hospitals entail. A prominent example of inter-hospital alliances are certified 'trauma networks', which consist of 5-30 trauma departments in a given region. Trauma networks are designed to improve trauma care by providing a coordinated response to injury, and have developed across the USA and multiple European countries since the 1960s...
February 26, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448348/quantum-work-relations-and-response-theory-in-parity-time-symmetric-quantum-systems
#7
Bo-Bo Wei
In this work, we show that a universal quantum work relation for a quantum system driven arbitrarily far from equilibrium extends to a parity-time- (PT-) symmetric quantum system with unbroken PT symmetry, which is a consequence of microscopic reversibility. The quantum Jarzynski equality, linear response theory, and Onsager reciprocal relations for the PT-symmetric quantum system are recovered as special cases of the universal quantum work relation in a PT-symmetric quantum system. In the regime of broken PT symmetry, the universal quantum work relation does not hold because the norm is not preserved during the dynamics...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424063/it-is-only-fair-blood-donors-are-more-sensitive-to-violations-of-fairness-norms-than-nondonors-converging-psychometric-and-ultimatum-game-evidence
#8
E Ferguson, C Lawrence
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The design of effective donor recruitment campaigns requires an accurate understanding of donor motivations. This requires cross-validation of theoretically derived, psychometrically assessed motivations with behavioural preferences. Theoretical models suggest that blood donors should be more sensitive than nondonors to violations of fairness norms. Specifically, active blood donors, compared to nondonors, should endorse beliefs of reciprocal fairness, norms of both positive and negative reciprocity and reject more unfair offers in a behavioural economic game (the ultimatum game)...
February 9, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351015/temperature-dependent-growth-and-fission-rate-plasticity-drive-seasonal-and-geographic-changes-in-body-size-in-a-clonal-sea-anemone
#9
Will H Ryan
The temperature-size rule is a commonly observed pattern where adult body size is negatively correlated with developmental temperature. In part, this may occur as a consequence of allometric scaling, where changes in the ratio of surface area to mass limit oxygen diffusion as body size increases. As oxygen demand increases with temperature, a smaller body should be favored as temperature increases. For clonal animals, small changes in growth and/or fission rate can rapidly alter the average body size of clonal descendants...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222433/the-evolution-of-phenotypic-plasticity-under-global-change
#10
Emma M Gibbin, Gloria Massamba N'Siala, Leela J Chakravarti, Michael D Jarrold, Piero Calosi
Marine ecosystems are currently in a state of flux, with ocean warming and acidification occurring at unprecedented rates. Phenotypic plasticity underpins acclimatory responses by shifting the mean phenotype in a population, which may buffer the negative effects of global change. However, little is known about how phenotypic plasticity evolves across multiple generations. We tested this by reciprocally-transplanting the polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica between control and global change scenarios (ocean warming and acidification in isolation and combined) over five generations...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093788/normal-age-adjusted-sagittal-spinal-alignment-is-achieved-with-surgical-correction-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#11
Subaraman Ramchandran, Norah Foster, Akhila Sure, Thomas J Errico, Aaron J Buckland
Study Design: Retrospective analysis. Purpose: Our hypothesis is that the surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) maintains normal sagittal alignment as compared to age-matched normative adolescent population. Overview of Literature: Sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in AIS has been reported, however, whether corrective spinal fusion surgery re-establishes normal alignment remains unverified. Methods: Sagittal profiles and spino-pelvic parameters of thirty-eight postsurgical correction AIS patients ≤21 years old without prior fusion from a single institution database were compared to previously published normative age-matched data...
October 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972843/a-cultural-psychology-of-agency-morality-motivation-and-reciprocity
#12
Joan G Miller, Namrata Goyal, Matthew Wice
We highlight the need to culturally broaden psychological theories of social development in providing an overview of our programs of cross-cultural research on interpersonal morality, motivation, and reciprocity. Our research demonstrates that whereas Americans tend to treat interpersonal morality as a matter of personal choice, Indians tend to treat it as a role-related duty. Furthermore, Americans associate greater satisfaction with acting autonomously than with acting to fulfill social expectations, whereas Indians associate high levels of satisfaction with both types of cases...
September 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961488/preschoolers-group-bias-in-punishing-selfishness-in-the-ultimatum-game
#13
Zhen Wu, Xiaohe Gao
Previous studies have shown that both adults and children tend to favor members of their own group and expect reciprocity of such in-group privilege. If a person is treated unfairly by an in-group member, a conflict arises between the tendency of in-group favoritism and the desire to punish violators of in-group norms. How do children solve the conflict at different points in development? We compared how preschoolers punished in-group and out-group members (marked by color preference) for selfishness in the Ultimatum Game...
February 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955290/selective-fair-behavior-as-a-function-of-psychopathic-traits-in-a-subclinical-population
#14
Takahiro Osumi, Hideki Ohira
Psychopathy is a group of personality traits that are associated with violations of social norms. Previous studies have suggested that people with psychopathic traits in subclinical populations do not necessarily display antisocial, self-defeating behaviors, and instead may strategically show adaptive behaviors in response to cues during reciprocal social interactions. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether the association between psychopathic traits and unfair behavior can be moderated by a potential for punishment and social distance (anonymity), which are known to facilitate fair behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852005/tolerant-indirect-reciprocity-can-boost-social-welfare-through-solidarity-with-unconditional-cooperators-in-private-monitoring
#15
Isamu Okada, Tatsuya Sasaki, Yutaka Nakai
Indirect reciprocity is an important mechanism for resolving social dilemmas. Previous studies explore several types of assessment rules that are evolutionarily stable for keeping cooperation regimes. However, little is known about the effects of private information on social systems. Most indirect reciprocity studies assume public monitoring in which individuals share a single assessment for each individual. Here, we consider a private monitoring system that loosens such an unnatural assumption. We explore the stable norms in the private system using an individual-based simulation...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750842/exploring-the-role-of-social-capital-in-urban-citizens-initiatives-in-the-netherlands
#16
Carlijn Wentink, Lenneke Vaandrager, Rosalie van Dam, Jan Hassink, Irini Salverda
OBJECTIVE: This research explores the role of social capital in urban citizens' initiatives in the Netherlands, by using in-depth interviews. METHOD: Social capital was operationalized as shared norms and values, connectedness, trust and reciprocity. RESULTS: The findings show that initiatives form around a shared idea or ambition (shared norms and values). An existing network of relationships (connectedness) is needed for an idea to emerge and take form...
July 24, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727521/ethical-guidance-for-disaster-response-specifically-around-crisis-standards-of-care-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Jonathon P Leider, Debra DeBruin, Nicole Reynolds, Angelica Koch, Judy Seaberg
BACKGROUND: Terrorism, disease outbreaks, and other natural disasters and mass casualty events have pushed health care and public health systems to identify and refine emergency preparedness protocols for disaster response. Ethical guidance, alongside legal and medical frameworks, are increasingly common components of disaster response plans. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the prevalence and content of ethical guidance offered for disaster response, specifically around crisis standards of care (CSCs)...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666447/how-female-community-health-workers-navigate-work-challenges-and-why-there-are-still-gaps-in-their-performance-a-look-at-female-community-health-workers-in-maternal-and-child-health-in-two-indian-districts-through-a-reciprocal-determinism-framework
#18
Enisha Sarin, Sarah Smith Lunsford
BACKGROUND: Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are community health workers tasked to deliver health prevention in communities and link them with the health care sector. This paper examines the social, cultural, and institutional influences that either facilitate or impede ASHAs' abilities to deliver services effectively through the lens of the reciprocal determinism framework of social cognitive theory. METHODS: We conducted 98 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with ASHAs (n = 49) and their family members (n = 49) in Gurdaspur and Mewat districts...
July 1, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662621/diabetes-camp-counselors-an-exploration-of-counselor-characteristics-and-quality-of-life-outcomes
#19
Meg C Nicholl, Jessica M Valenzuela, Barry Nierenberg, Gillian S Mayersohn
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of volunteering at a diabetes camp on emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods Thirty counselors with and 22 without T1DM (19.07 ± 2.71 years old) volunteered at a 1-week T1DM camp in the northeastern United States. Counselors with T1DM had a range of self-reported A1C scores (5.8% or 39.9 mmol/mol to 14.0% or 129.5 mmol/mol). Self-report measures of quality of life, hope, and well-being were completed pre- and postcamp at 4 time points: 1 month before camp, arrival at camp, final day of camp, and 2 months postcamp...
August 2017: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649360/competitive-success-of-southern-populations-of-betula-pendula-and-sorbus-aucuparia-under-simulated-southern-climate-experiment-in-the-subarctic
#20
Kari Taulavuori, Erja Taulavuori, Karita Saravesi, Tanja Jylänki, Aila Kainulainen, Jonna Pajala, Annamari Markkola, Otso Suominen, Kari Saikkonen
Global warming has been commonly accepted to facilitate species' range shifts across latitudes. Cross-latitudinal transplantations support this; many tree species can well adapt to new geographical areas. However, these studies fail to capture species' adaptations to new light environment because the experiments were not designed to explicitly separate species' responses to light and temperature. Here we tested reaction norms of tree seedlings in reciprocal transplantations 1,000 km apart from each other at two latitudes (60°N and 69°N)...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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