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Reciprocity norm

Fernando P Santos, Jorge M Pacheco, Francisco C Santos
Cooperation has been recognized as an evolutionary puzzle since Darwin, and remains identified as one of the biggest challenges of the XXIst century. Indirect Reciprocity (IR), a key mechanism that humans employ to cooperate with each other, establishes that individual behaviour depends on reputations, which in turn evolve depending on social norms that classify behaviours as good or bad. While it is well known that different social norms give rise to distinct cooperation levels, it remains unclear how the performance of each norm is influenced by the random exploration of new behaviours, often a key component of social dynamics where a plethora of stimuli may compel individuals to deviate from pre-defined behaviours...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Daniel Enemark, Clark C Gibson, Mathew D McCubbins, Brigitte Seim
Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges-whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth-require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kevin Durrheim, Michael Quayle, Colin G Tredoux, Kim Titlestad, Larry Tooke
We investigated the effect of structural interdependencies between groups (especially inequality), and interdependencies between individuals on ingroup favoritism in minimal group situations. Previous research has attempted to determine whether ingroup favoritism is produced by categorization or intragroup interdependencies (reciprocation expectations), but recent literature suggests that it is not possible to tease these influences apart. We report two studies that investigate how ingroup favoritism evolves over time in social interaction...
2016: PloS One
Catherine Diamond, Nicholas Freudenberg
Community schools link students, families, and communities to educate children and strengthen neighborhoods. They have become a popular model for education in many US cities in part because they build on community assets and address multiple determinants of educational disadvantage. Since community schools seek to have an impact on populations, not just the children enrolled, they provide an opportunity to improve community health. Community schools influence the health and education of neighborhood residents though three pathways: building trust, establishing norms, and linking people to networks and services...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Jingjun Zhang, Diana T F Lee
Meaning plays an important role in stroke family caregiving. Understanding meaning facilitates the development of effective interventions that support stroke family caregivers. However, knowledge about this subject is fragmented and sparse. This review fills this knowledge gap by examining existing findings regarding meanings in stroke family caregiving. Specifically, a search of seven databases and a manual search produced a total of five articles for review. Embedded in the lived experience of caregivers, meanings in stroke family caregiving were interpreted as a physical, psychological, and social suffering; an obligation resulting from moral ethics, religion doctrines, others' expectations, and social norms; and a subjective choice based on love, hope, and a sense of reciprocity...
September 23, 2016: Geriatric Nursing
Roger M Whitaker, Gualtiero B Colombo, Stuart M Allen, Robin I M Dunbar
Cooperation is a fundamental human trait but our understanding of how it functions remains incomplete. Indirect reciprocity is a particular case in point, where one-shot donations are made to unrelated beneficiaries without any guarantee of payback. Existing insights are largely from two independent perspectives: i) individual-level cognitive behaviour in decision making, and ii) identification of conditions that favour evolution of cooperation. We identify a fundamental connection between these two areas by examining social comparison as a means through which indirect reciprocity can evolve...
2016: Scientific Reports
Masaaki Mizuochi
BACKGROUND: Refraining from required medical care can worsen health, particularly for the elderly, and increase public medical expenditure, which destabilizes the financial aspect of social security. Social capital, such as trust between residents and the norms of reciprocity in the community, is a possible measure to prevent refraining from medical care. METHODS: We studied survey data collected in a small area in Japan that included a high response rate (91.6 %) to evaluate refraining from medical care...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
E Lance Howe, James J Murphy, Drew Gerkey, Colin Thor West
Integrating information from existing research, qualitative ethnographic interviews, and participant observation, we designed a field experiment that introduces idiosyncratic environmental risk and a voluntary sharing decision into a standard public goods game. Conducted with subsistence resource users in rural villages on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Northeast Siberia, we find evidence consistent with a model of indirect reciprocity and local social norms of helping the needy. When participants are allowed to develop reputations in the experiments, as is the case in most small-scale societies, we find that sharing is increasingly directed toward individuals experiencing hardship, good reputations increase aid, and the pooling of resources through voluntary sharing becomes more effective...
2016: PloS One
Eric L Stocks, Felicia Mirghassemi, Luis V Oceja
In 6 experiments, we manipulated the length of a communication message to assess reciprocity norm-following behaviour during conversational interaction. In Studies 1 and 2, scripts of different length were used in an online chat, and chat logs were analysed. In Studies 3 and 4, participants e-mailed scripts that varied in length to acquaintances, and replies were analysed. In Studies 5 and 6, a confederate initiated conversations with either strangers or acquaintances and recorded the amount of time the person responded...
July 21, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Eduardo A Undurraga, Veronica Nica, Rebecca Zhang, Irene C Mensah, Ricardo A Godoy
Mounting evidence suggests that income inequality is associated with worse individual health. But does the visibility of inequality matter? Using data from a horticultural-foraging society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane'), we examined whether village inequality in resources and behaviors with greater cultural visibility is more likely to bear a negative association with health than village inequality in less conspicuous resources. We draw on a nine-year annual panel (2002-2010) from 13 Tsimane' villages for our main analysis, and an additional survey to gauge the cultural visibility of resources...
June 23, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
Tatsuya Sasaki, Isamu Okada, Yutaka Nakai
Indirect reciprocity is one of the major mechanisms of the evolution of cooperation. Because constant monitoring and accurate evaluation in moral assessments tend to be costly, indirect reciprocity can be exploited by cost evaders. A recent study crucially showed that a cooperative state achieved by indirect reciprocators is easily destabilized by cost evaders in the case with no supportive mechanism. Here, we present a simple and widely applicable solution that considers pre-assessment of cost evaders. In the pre-assessment, those who fail to pay for costly assessment systems are assigned a nasty image that leads to them being rejected by discriminators...
July 2016: Biology Letters
Doug Jones
Kin selection, which can lead organisms to behave altruistically to their genetic relatives, works differently when-as is often the case in human societies-altruism can be boosted by social pressure. Here I present a model of social norms enforced by indirect reciprocity. In the model there are many alternative stable allocations of rewards ("distributional norms"); a stable norm is stable in the sense that each player is best off following the norm if other players do the same. Stable norms vary widely in how equally they reward players with unequal abilities...
2016: PloS One
Claire Thompson, Steven Cummins, Tim Brown, Rosemary Kyle
Family meals, as acts of domestic food provisioning, are shaped by the competing influences of household resources, food preferences and broader cultural norms around dietary practices. The place of children's food tastes in family meal practices is particularly complex. Food tastes stand in a reciprocal relationship with family food practices: being both an influence on and a product of them. This paper explores how parents think about and respond to their children's food preferences in relation to family meal practices...
May 26, 2016: Critical Public Health
David B King, Sarah L Canham, Rebecca J Cobb, Norm O'Rourke
OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to examine bidirectional effects of well-being over time in long-wed couples. METHOD: We recruited 125 couples 50+ years of age who had been married 20+ years. Both spouses reported life satisfaction and depressive symptoms independently at three annual points over 2 years. We computed actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs) to identify concomitant and longitudinal bidirectional effects between long-wed spouses. Where parallel associations were found between models of life satisfaction and depressive symptoms, we undertook invariance analyses to compare the relative strength of associations...
February 11, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Benjamin Grant Purzycki, Coren Apicella, Quentin D Atkinson, Emma Cohen, Rita Anne McNamara, Aiyana K Willard, Dimitris Xygalatas, Ara Norenzayan, Joseph Henrich
Since the origins of agriculture, the scale of human cooperation and societal complexity has dramatically expanded. This fact challenges standard evolutionary explanations of prosociality because well-studied mechanisms of cooperation based on genetic relatedness, reciprocity and partner choice falter as people increasingly engage in fleeting transactions with genetically unrelated strangers in large anonymous groups. To explain this rapid expansion of prosociality, researchers have proposed several mechanisms...
February 18, 2016: Nature
Szabolcs Számadó, Ferenc Szalai, István Scheuring
Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded...
2016: PloS One
Rebecca A Seguin, Galen Eldridge, Meredith L Graham, Sara C Folta, Miriam E Nelson, David Strogatz
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and places substantial burden on the health care system. Rural populations, especially women, have considerably higher rates of cardiovascular disease, influenced by poverty, environmental factors, access to health care, and social and cultural attitudes and norms. METHODS/DESIGN: This community-based study will be a two-arm randomized controlled efficacy trial comparing a multi-level, community program (Strong Hearts, Healthy Communities) with a minimal intervention control program (Strong Hearts, Healthy Women)...
2016: BMC Public Health
Fernando P Santos, Francisco C Santos, Jorge M Pacheco
Indirect reciprocity, besides providing a convenient framework to address the evolution of moral systems, offers a simple and plausible explanation for the prevalence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. By helping someone, an individual may increase her/his reputation, which may change the pre-disposition of others to help her/him in the future. This, however, depends on what is reckoned as a good or a bad action, i.e., on the adopted social norm responsible for raising or damaging a reputation. In particular, it remains an open question which social norms are able to foster cooperation in small-scale societies, while enduring the wide plethora of stochastic affects inherent to finite populations...
January 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Alex R Zablah, Brad D Carlson, D Todd Donavan, James G Maxham, Tom J Brown
Due to its practical importance, the relationship between customer satisfaction and frontline employee (FLE) job satisfaction has received significant attention in the literature. Numerous studies to date confirm that the constructs are related and rely on this empirical finding to infer support for the "inside-out" effect of FLE job satisfaction on customer satisfaction. In doing so, prior studies ignore the possibility that-as suggested by the Service Profit Chain's satisfaction mirror-a portion of the observed empirical effect may be due to the "outside-in" impact of customer satisfaction on FLE job satisfaction...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Nicolas Guéguen, Sébastien Meineri, Clément Ruiz, Alexandre Pascual
Research has reported that reciprocity is an important social norm in relationships. In previous studies on reciprocity, participants' behavior was examined after receiving a favor from someone. In a series of field studies, we examined the effect of a statement that proved that a solicitor was someone who respected this principle. Confederates solicited participants for money or a cigarette in exchange for stamps or money, respectively. It was found that the participants complied more readily with the request in the promised favor condition, but most of them refused to take the promised favor...
September 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
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