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Reciprocity norm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917098/guilt-in-adult-mother-child-relationships-connections-to-intergenerational-ambivalence-and-support
#1
Matthijs Kalmijn
Objectives: The concept of guilt is often mentioned in studies on intergenerational ambivalence but its theoretical status in that literature is not clear and the concept is rarely measured. The current study examines how feelings of guilt that adult children have toward their ageing mothers are related to intergenerational ambivalence and support. Method: Using representative survey data from the Netherlands (N = 2,450), adult children (average age 43) were asked to evaluate the relationship with their mother (average age 71)...
June 18, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906218/associations-between-parenting-stress-at-school-entry-and-later-psychosocial-adjustment-a-longitudinal-study-of-children-with-congenital-craniofacial-anomalies
#2
Emily D Wolodiger, Alice W Pope
OBJECTIVE: To examine the reciprocal relationships between parenting stress and psychosocial adjustment of children with congenital craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) at 2 time points: school entry and approximately 2.5 years later, after children had time to adjust to school. DESIGN: Retrospective review of medical charts of children with CFAs. SETTING: Department of reconstructive plastic surgery at an urban medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Parents of 42 children aged 3...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851542/association-between-community-social-capital-and-hospital-readmission-rates
#3
Amanda L Brewster, Suhna Lee, Leslie A Curry, Elizabeth H Bradley
Hospital readmissions remain frequent, and are partly attributable to patients' social needs. The authors sought to examine whether local community levels of social capital are associated with hospital readmission rates. Social capital refers to the connections among members of a society that foster norms of reciprocity and trust, which may influence the availability of support for postdischarge recovery after hospitalization. Associations between hospital-wide, risk-stratified readmission rates for hospitals in the United States (n = 4298) and levels of social capital in the hospitals' service areas were examined...
May 31, 2018: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778958/building-on-common-ground-to-address-biodiversity-conflicts-and-foster-collaboration-in-environmental-management
#4
Lou Lecuyer, Rehema M White, Birgit Schmook, Sophie Calmé
Conservation biology faces critical challenges that require collaborative approaches, including novel strategies to support interactions among actors in biodiversity conflicts. The goals of this study were to investigate the concept of common ground across multiple issues and to explore its practical application for the support of environmental management. We conceptually defined common ground as the areas of relevance underlying the suite of issues expressed by people regarding environmental management in a particular context...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764872/development-and-testing-of-the-youth-alcohol-norms-survey-yans-instrument-to-measure-youth-alcohol-norms-and-psychosocial-influences
#5
Sharyn K Burns, Bruce Maycock, Janina Hildebrand, Yun Zhao, Steve Allsop, Roanna Lobo, Peter Howat
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop and validate an online instrument to: (1) identify common alcohol-related social influences, norms and beliefs among adolescents; (2) clarify the process and pathways through which proalcohol norms are transmitted to adolescents; (3) describe the characteristics of social connections that contribute to the transmission of alcohol norms; and (4) identify the influence of alcohol marketing on adolescent norm development. SETTING: The online Youth Alcohol Norms Survey (YANS) was administered in secondary schools in Western Australia PARTICIPANTS: Using a 2-week test-retest format, the YANS was administered to secondary school students (n=481, age=13-17 years, female 309, 64...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749068/getting-what-you-pay-for-children-s-use-of-market-norms-to-regulate-exchanges
#6
Margaret Echelbarger, Susan A Gelman, Charles W Kalish
Children are sensitive to a number of considerations influencing distributions of resources, including equality, equity, and reciprocity. We tested whether children use a specific type of reciprocity norm-market norms-in which resources are distributed differentially based strictly on amount offered in return. In two studies, 195 children 5-10 years and 60 adults distributed stickers to friends offering same or different amounts of money. Overall, participants distributed more equally when offers were the same and more unequally when offers were different...
May 11, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686434/social-dilemma-cooperation-unlike-dictator-game-giving-is-intuitive-for-men-as-well-as-women
#7
David G Rand
Does intuition favor prosociality, or does prosocial behavior require deliberative self-control? The Social Heuristics Hypothesis (SHH) stipulates that intuition favors typically advantageous behavior - but which behavior is typically advantageous depends on both the individual and the context. For example, non-zero-sum cooperation (e.g. in social dilemmas like the Prisoner's Dilemma) typically pays off because of the opportunity for reciprocity. Conversely, reciprocity does not promote zero-sum cash transfers (e...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516999/social-norm-complexity-and-past-reputations-in-the-evolution-of-cooperation
#8
Fernando P Santos, Francisco C Santos, Jorge M Pacheco
Indirect reciprocity is the most elaborate and cognitively demanding of all known cooperation mechanisms, and is the most specifically human because it involves reputation and status. By helping someone, individuals may increase their reputation, which may change the predisposition of others to help them in future. The revision of an individual's reputation depends on the social norms that establish what characterizes a good or bad action and thus provide a basis for morality. Norms based on indirect reciprocity are often sufficiently complex that an individual's ability to follow subjective rules becomes important, even in models that disregard the past reputations of individuals, and reduce reputations to either 'good' or 'bad' and actions to binary decisions...
March 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515842/the-narrow-gap-between-norms-and-cooperative-behaviour-in-a-reindeer-herding-community
#9
Matthew Gwynfryn Thomas, Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen, Marius Warg Næss
Cooperation evolves on social networks and is shaped, in part, by norms: beliefs and expectations about the behaviour of others or of oneself. Networks of cooperative social partners and associated norms are vital for pastoralists, such as Saami reindeer herders in northern Norway. However, little is known quantitatively about how norms structure pastoralists' social networks or shape cooperation. Saami herders reported their social networks and participated in field experiments, allowing us to gauge the overlap between reported and emergent cooperation...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514635/patient-data-and-patient-rights-swiss-healthcare-stakeholders-ethical-awareness-regarding-large-patient-data-sets-a-qualitative-study
#10
Corine Mouton Dorey, Holger Baumann, Nikola Biller-Andorno
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in aggregating more biomedical and patient data into large health data sets for research and public benefits. However, collecting and processing patient data raises new ethical issues regarding patient's rights, social justice and trust in public institutions. The aim of this empirical study is to gain an in-depth understanding of the awareness of possible ethical risks and corresponding obligations among those who are involved in projects using patient data, i...
March 7, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504048/the-interplay-between-marijuana-specific-risk-factors-and-marijuana-use-over-the-course-of-adolescence
#11
Katarina Guttmannova, Martie L Skinner, Sabrina Oesterle, Helene R White, Richard F Catalano, J David Hawkins
Permissive attitudes and norms about marijuana use and perceptions of low harm from use are considered risk factors for adolescent marijuana use. However, the relationship between risk and use may be reciprocal and vary across development and socializing domains. We examined the bidirectional relationships between marijuana-specific risk factors in individual, parent, peer, and community domains and adolescent marijuana use. Longitudinal data came from a sample of 2002 adolescents in 12 communities. Controlling for sociodemographic covariates and communities in which the individuals resided, autoregressive cross-lagged models examined predictive associations between the risk factors and marijuana use...
March 5, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499678/social-capital-and-frequent-attenders-in-general-practice-a-register-based-cohort-study
#12
Alexander A Pasgaard, Maiken H Mæhlisen, Charlotte Overgaard, Linda Ejlskov, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Henrik Bøggild
BACKGROUND: Frequent attendance to primary care constitutes a large use of resources for the health care system. The association between frequent attendance and illness-related factors has been examined in several studies, but little is known about the association between frequent attendance and individual social capital. The aim of this study is to explore this association. METHODS: The analysis is conducted on responders to the North Denmark Region Health Profile 2010 (n = 23,384), individually linked with information from administrative registers...
March 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482532/social-capital-in-a-regional-inter-hospital-network-among-trauma-centers-trauma-network-results-of-a-qualitative-study-in-germany
#13
Julika Loss, Johannes Weigl, Antonio Ernstberger, Michael Nerlich, Michael Koller, Janina Curbach
BACKGROUND: As inter-hospital alliances have become increasingly popular in the healthcare sector, it is important to understand the challenges and benefits that the interaction between representatives of different hospitals entail. A prominent example of inter-hospital alliances are certified 'trauma networks', which consist of 5-30 trauma departments in a given region. Trauma networks are designed to improve trauma care by providing a coordinated response to injury, and have developed across the USA and multiple European countries since the 1960s...
February 26, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448348/quantum-work-relations-and-response-theory-in-parity-time-symmetric-quantum-systems
#14
Bo-Bo Wei
In this work, we show that a universal quantum work relation for a quantum system driven arbitrarily far from equilibrium extends to a parity-time- (PT-) symmetric quantum system with unbroken PT symmetry, which is a consequence of microscopic reversibility. The quantum Jarzynski equality, linear response theory, and Onsager reciprocal relations for the PT-symmetric quantum system are recovered as special cases of the universal quantum work relation in a PT-symmetric quantum system. In the regime of broken PT symmetry, the universal quantum work relation does not hold because the norm is not preserved during the dynamics...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424063/it-is-only-fair-blood-donors-are-more-sensitive-to-violations-of-fairness-norms-than-nondonors-converging-psychometric-and-ultimatum-game-evidence
#15
E Ferguson, C Lawrence
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The design of effective donor recruitment campaigns requires an accurate understanding of donor motivations. This requires cross-validation of theoretically derived, psychometrically assessed motivations with behavioural preferences. Theoretical models suggest that blood donors should be more sensitive than nondonors to violations of fairness norms. Specifically, active blood donors, compared to nondonors, should endorse beliefs of reciprocal fairness, norms of both positive and negative reciprocity and reject more unfair offers in a behavioural economic game (the ultimatum game)...
April 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351015/temperature-dependent-growth-and-fission-rate-plasticity-drive-seasonal-and-geographic-changes-in-body-size-in-a-clonal-sea-anemone
#16
Will H Ryan
The temperature-size rule is a commonly observed pattern where adult body size is negatively correlated with developmental temperature. In part, this may occur as a consequence of allometric scaling, where changes in the ratio of surface area to mass limit oxygen diffusion as body size increases. As oxygen demand increases with temperature, a smaller body should be favored as temperature increases. For clonal animals, small changes in growth and/or fission rate can rapidly alter the average body size of clonal descendants...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222433/the-evolution-of-phenotypic-plasticity-under-global-change
#17
Emma M Gibbin, Gloria Massamba N'Siala, Leela J Chakravarti, Michael D Jarrold, Piero Calosi
Marine ecosystems are currently in a state of flux, with ocean warming and acidification occurring at unprecedented rates. Phenotypic plasticity underpins acclimatory responses by shifting the mean phenotype in a population, which may buffer the negative effects of global change. However, little is known about how phenotypic plasticity evolves across multiple generations. We tested this by reciprocally-transplanting the polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica between control and global change scenarios (ocean warming and acidification in isolation and combined) over five generations...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093788/normal-age-adjusted-sagittal-spinal-alignment-is-achieved-with-surgical-correction-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#18
Subaraman Ramchandran, Norah Foster, Akhila Sure, Thomas J Errico, Aaron J Buckland
Study Design: Retrospective analysis. Purpose: Our hypothesis is that the surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) maintains normal sagittal alignment as compared to age-matched normative adolescent population. Overview of Literature: Sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in AIS has been reported, however, whether corrective spinal fusion surgery re-establishes normal alignment remains unverified. Methods: Sagittal profiles and spino-pelvic parameters of thirty-eight postsurgical correction AIS patients ≤21 years old without prior fusion from a single institution database were compared to previously published normative age-matched data...
October 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972843/a-cultural-psychology-of-agency-morality-motivation-and-reciprocity
#19
Joan G Miller, Namrata Goyal, Matthew Wice
We highlight the need to culturally broaden psychological theories of social development in providing an overview of our programs of cross-cultural research on interpersonal morality, motivation, and reciprocity. Our research demonstrates that whereas Americans tend to treat interpersonal morality as a matter of personal choice, Indians tend to treat it as a role-related duty. Furthermore, Americans associate greater satisfaction with acting autonomously than with acting to fulfill social expectations, whereas Indians associate high levels of satisfaction with both types of cases...
September 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961488/preschoolers-group-bias-in-punishing-selfishness-in-the-ultimatum-game
#20
Zhen Wu, Xiaohe Gao
Previous studies have shown that both adults and children tend to favor members of their own group and expect reciprocity of such in-group privilege. If a person is treated unfairly by an in-group member, a conflict arises between the tendency of in-group favoritism and the desire to punish violators of in-group norms. How do children solve the conflict at different points in development? We compared how preschoolers punished in-group and out-group members (marked by color preference) for selfishness in the Ultimatum Game...
February 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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