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Reciprocity norm

Masashige Saito, Naoki Kondo, Jun Aida, Ichiro Kawachi, Shihoko Koyama, Toshiyuki Ojima, Katsunori Kondo
BACKGROUND: We developed and validated an instrument to measure community-level social capital based on data derived from older community dwellers in Japan. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, a nationwide survey involving 123,760 functionally independent older people nested within 702 communities (i.e., school districts). We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on survey items to determine the items in a multi-dimensional scale to measure community social capital...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
Joseph Nagoli, Linley Chiwona-Karltun
This paper provides an in-depth understanding of social dynamics in the form of kinship ties in matrilineal societies. It unpacks gender roles and relationships at the community level to understand how social structures, created by the pattern of relations, enhance or hinder coping initiatives during lake recessions in the Lake Chilwa socio-ecological system. Using qualitative and quantitative methods including in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and household questionnaires, this paper provides insights into how people in the Lake Chilwa social-ecological system prepare for and cope with Lake Chilwa water recessions by capitalising on their social networks...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Tatsuya Sasaki, Isamu Okada, Yutaka Nakai
Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse to help the bad should be assessed...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Geoffrey A Jobson, Cornelis J Grobbelaar, Moyahabo Mabitsi, Jean Railton, Remco P H Peters, James A McIntyre, Helen E Struthers
BACKGROUND: The involvement of Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) in delivering health services in low and middle income countries (LMICs) depends on effective collaborative working at scales from the local to the international, and a single GHI is effectively constructed of multiple collaborations. Research is needed focusing on how collaboration functions in GHIs at the level of health service management. Here, collaboration between local implementing agencies and departments of health involves distinct power dynamics and tensions...
January 13, 2017: Globalization and Health
Katie Daughters, Antony S R Manstead, Femke S Ten Velden, Carsten K W De Dreu
Human groups function because members trust each other and reciprocate cooperative contributions, and reward others' cooperation and punish their non-cooperation. Here we examined the possibility that such third-party punishment and reward of others' trust and reciprocation is modulated by oxytocin, a neuropeptide generally involved in social bonding and in-group (but not out-group) serving behavior. Healthy males and females (N=100) self-administered a placebo or 24 IU of oxytocin in a randomized, double-blind, between-subjects design...
December 3, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sara Beattie, Sophie Lebel, Danielle Petricone-Westwood, Keith G Wilson, Cheryl Harris, Gerald Devins, Lothar Huebsch, Jason Tay
OBJECTIVE: \Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is a demanding treatment. Spouses of HSCT patients assume caregiving responsibilities that can induce feelings of burden and disrupt relationship equity. Based on equity theory, we propose a conceptual framework examining the individual and dyadic experience of HSCT patients and their caregivers. The model includes feelings of inequity, patient self- perceived burden (SPB), caregiver burden and distress. METHODS: HSCT patients and their spousal caregivers were recruited prior to HSCT between March 2011 and September 2012...
December 10, 2016: Psycho-oncology
Emma-Louise Aveling, Graham Martin, Georgia Herbert, Natalie Armstrong
Community-based approaches to healthcare improvement are receiving increasing attention. Such approaches could offer an infrastructure for efficient knowledge-sharing and a potent means of influencing behaviours, but their potential is yet to be optimised. After briefly reviewing challenges to community-based approaches, we describe in detail the clinical community model. Through exploring clinical communities in practice, we seek to identify practical lessons for optimising this community-based approach to healthcare improvement...
January 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Fernando P Santos, Jorge M Pacheco, Francisco C Santos
Cooperation has been recognized as an evolutionary puzzle since Darwin, and remains identified as one of the biggest challenges of the XXIst century. Indirect Reciprocity (IR), a key mechanism that humans employ to cooperate with each other, establishes that individual behaviour depends on reputations, which in turn evolve depending on social norms that classify behaviours as good or bad. While it is well known that different social norms give rise to distinct cooperation levels, it remains unclear how the performance of each norm is influenced by the random exploration of new behaviours, often a key component of social dynamics where a plethora of stimuli may compel individuals to deviate from pre-defined behaviours...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Daniel Enemark, Clark C Gibson, Mathew D McCubbins, Brigitte Seim
Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges-whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth-require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kevin Durrheim, Michael Quayle, Colin G Tredoux, Kim Titlestad, Larry Tooke
We investigated the effect of structural interdependencies between groups (especially inequality), and interdependencies between individuals on ingroup favoritism in minimal group situations. Previous research has attempted to determine whether ingroup favoritism is produced by categorization or intragroup interdependencies (reciprocation expectations), but recent literature suggests that it is not possible to tease these influences apart. We report two studies that investigate how ingroup favoritism evolves over time in social interaction...
2016: PloS One
Catherine Diamond, Nicholas Freudenberg
Community schools link students, families, and communities to educate children and strengthen neighborhoods. They have become a popular model for education in many US cities in part because they build on community assets and address multiple determinants of educational disadvantage. Since community schools seek to have an impact on populations, not just the children enrolled, they provide an opportunity to improve community health. Community schools influence the health and education of neighborhood residents though three pathways: building trust, establishing norms, and linking people to networks and services...
December 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Jingjun Zhang, Diana T F Lee
Meaning plays an important role in stroke family caregiving. Understanding meaning facilitates the development of effective interventions that support stroke family caregivers. However, knowledge about this subject is fragmented and sparse. This review fills this knowledge gap by examining existing findings regarding meanings in stroke family caregiving. Specifically, a search of seven databases and a manual search produced a total of five articles for review. Embedded in the lived experience of caregivers, meanings in stroke family caregiving were interpreted as a physical, psychological, and social suffering; an obligation resulting from moral ethics, religion doctrines, others' expectations, and social norms; and a subjective choice based on love, hope, and a sense of reciprocity...
September 23, 2016: Geriatric Nursing
Roger M Whitaker, Gualtiero B Colombo, Stuart M Allen, Robin I M Dunbar
Cooperation is a fundamental human trait but our understanding of how it functions remains incomplete. Indirect reciprocity is a particular case in point, where one-shot donations are made to unrelated beneficiaries without any guarantee of payback. Existing insights are largely from two independent perspectives: i) individual-level cognitive behaviour in decision making, and ii) identification of conditions that favour evolution of cooperation. We identify a fundamental connection between these two areas by examining social comparison as a means through which indirect reciprocity can evolve...
August 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Masaaki Mizuochi
BACKGROUND: Refraining from required medical care can worsen health, particularly for the elderly, and increase public medical expenditure, which destabilizes the financial aspect of social security. Social capital, such as trust between residents and the norms of reciprocity in the community, is a possible measure to prevent refraining from medical care. METHODS: We studied survey data collected in a small area in Japan that included a high response rate (91.6 %) to evaluate refraining from medical care...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
E Lance Howe, James J Murphy, Drew Gerkey, Colin Thor West
Integrating information from existing research, qualitative ethnographic interviews, and participant observation, we designed a field experiment that introduces idiosyncratic environmental risk and a voluntary sharing decision into a standard public goods game. Conducted with subsistence resource users in rural villages on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Northeast Siberia, we find evidence consistent with a model of indirect reciprocity and local social norms of helping the needy. When participants are allowed to develop reputations in the experiments, as is the case in most small-scale societies, we find that sharing is increasingly directed toward individuals experiencing hardship, good reputations increase aid, and the pooling of resources through voluntary sharing becomes more effective...
2016: PloS One
Eric L Stocks, Felicia Mirghassemi, Luis V Oceja
In 6 experiments, we manipulated the length of a communication message to assess reciprocity norm-following behaviour during conversational interaction. In Studies 1 and 2, scripts of different length were used in an online chat, and chat logs were analysed. In Studies 3 and 4, participants e-mailed scripts that varied in length to acquaintances, and replies were analysed. In Studies 5 and 6, a confederate initiated conversations with either strangers or acquaintances and recorded the amount of time the person responded...
July 21, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Eduardo A Undurraga, Veronica Nica, Rebecca Zhang, Irene C Mensah, Ricardo A Godoy
Mounting evidence suggests that income inequality is associated with worse individual health. But does the visibility of inequality matter? Using data from a horticultural-foraging society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane'), we examined whether village inequality in resources and behaviors with greater cultural visibility is more likely to bear a negative association with health than village inequality in less conspicuous resources. We draw on a nine-year annual panel (2002-2010) from 13 Tsimane' villages for our main analysis, and an additional survey to gauge the cultural visibility of resources...
December 2016: Economics and Human Biology
Tatsuya Sasaki, Isamu Okada, Yutaka Nakai
Indirect reciprocity is one of the major mechanisms of the evolution of cooperation. Because constant monitoring and accurate evaluation in moral assessments tend to be costly, indirect reciprocity can be exploited by cost evaders. A recent study crucially showed that a cooperative state achieved by indirect reciprocators is easily destabilized by cost evaders in the case with no supportive mechanism. Here, we present a simple and widely applicable solution that considers pre-assessment of cost evaders. In the pre-assessment, those who fail to pay for costly assessment systems are assigned a nasty image that leads to them being rejected by discriminators...
July 2016: Biology Letters
Doug Jones
Kin selection, which can lead organisms to behave altruistically to their genetic relatives, works differently when-as is often the case in human societies-altruism can be boosted by social pressure. Here I present a model of social norms enforced by indirect reciprocity. In the model there are many alternative stable allocations of rewards ("distributional norms"); a stable norm is stable in the sense that each player is best off following the norm if other players do the same. Stable norms vary widely in how equally they reward players with unequal abilities...
2016: PloS One
Claire Thompson, Steven Cummins, Tim Brown, Rosemary Kyle
Family meals, as acts of domestic food provisioning, are shaped by the competing influences of household resources, food preferences and broader cultural norms around dietary practices. The place of children's food tastes in family meal practices is particularly complex. Food tastes stand in a reciprocal relationship with family food practices: being both an influence on and a product of them. This paper explores how parents think about and respond to their children's food preferences in relation to family meal practices...
May 26, 2016: Critical Public Health
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