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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222433/the-evolution-of-phenotypic-plasticity-under-global-change
#1
Emma M Gibbin, Gloria Massamba N'Siala, Leela J Chakravarti, Michael D Jarrold, Piero Calosi
Marine ecosystems are currently in a state of flux, with ocean warming and acidification occurring at unprecedented rates. Phenotypic plasticity underpins acclimatory responses by shifting the mean phenotype in a population, which may buffer the negative effects of global change. However, little is known about how phenotypic plasticity evolves across multiple generations. We tested this by reciprocally-transplanting the polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica between control and global change scenarios (ocean warming and acidification in isolation and combined) over five generations...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093788/normal-age-adjusted-sagittal-spinal-alignment-is-achieved-with-surgical-correction-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#2
Subaraman Ramchandran, Norah Foster, Akhila Sure, Thomas J Errico, Aaron J Buckland
Study Design: Retrospective analysis. Purpose: Our hypothesis is that the surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) maintains normal sagittal alignment as compared to age-matched normative adolescent population. Overview of Literature: Sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in AIS has been reported, however, whether corrective spinal fusion surgery re-establishes normal alignment remains unverified. Methods: Sagittal profiles and spino-pelvic parameters of thirty-eight postsurgical correction AIS patients ≤21 years old without prior fusion from a single institution database were compared to previously published normative age-matched data...
October 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972843/a-cultural-psychology-of-agency-morality-motivation-and-reciprocity
#3
Joan G Miller, Namrata Goyal, Matthew Wice
We highlight the need to culturally broaden psychological theories of social development in providing an overview of our programs of cross-cultural research on interpersonal morality, motivation, and reciprocity. Our research demonstrates that whereas Americans tend to treat interpersonal morality as a matter of personal choice, Indians tend to treat it as a role-related duty. Furthermore, Americans associate greater satisfaction with acting autonomously than with acting to fulfill social expectations, whereas Indians associate high levels of satisfaction with both types of cases...
September 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961488/preschoolers-group-bias-in-punishing-selfishness-in-the-ultimatum-game
#4
Zhen Wu, Xiaohe Gao
Previous studies have shown that both adults and children tend to favor members of their own group and expect reciprocity of such in-group privilege. If a person is treated unfairly by an in-group member, a conflict arises between the tendency of in-group favoritism and the desire to punish violators of in-group norms. How do children solve the conflict at different points in development? We compared how preschoolers punished in-group and out-group members (marked by color preference) for selfishness in the Ultimatum Game...
February 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955290/selective-fair-behavior-as-a-function-of-psychopathic-traits-in-a-subclinical-population
#5
Takahiro Osumi, Hideki Ohira
Psychopathy is a group of personality traits that are associated with violations of social norms. Previous studies have suggested that people with psychopathic traits in subclinical populations do not necessarily display antisocial, self-defeating behaviors, and instead may strategically show adaptive behaviors in response to cues during reciprocal social interactions. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether the association between psychopathic traits and unfair behavior can be moderated by a potential for punishment and social distance (anonymity), which are known to facilitate fair behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852005/tolerant-indirect-reciprocity-can-boost-social-welfare-through-solidarity-with-unconditional-cooperators-in-private-monitoring
#6
Isamu Okada, Tatsuya Sasaki, Yutaka Nakai
Indirect reciprocity is an important mechanism for resolving social dilemmas. Previous studies explore several types of assessment rules that are evolutionarily stable for keeping cooperation regimes. However, little is known about the effects of private information on social systems. Most indirect reciprocity studies assume public monitoring in which individuals share a single assessment for each individual. Here, we consider a private monitoring system that loosens such an unnatural assumption. We explore the stable norms in the private system using an individual-based simulation...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750842/exploring-the-role-of-social-capital-in-urban-citizens-initiatives-in-the-netherlands
#7
Carlijn Wentink, Lenneke Vaandrager, Rosalie van Dam, Jan Hassink, Irini Salverda
OBJECTIVE: This research explores the role of social capital in urban citizens' initiatives in the Netherlands, by using in-depth interviews. METHOD: Social capital was operationalized as shared norms and values, connectedness, trust and reciprocity. RESULTS: The findings show that initiatives form around a shared idea or ambition (shared norms and values). An existing network of relationships (connectedness) is needed for an idea to emerge and take form...
July 24, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727521/ethical-guidance-for-disaster-response-specifically-around-crisis-standards-of-care-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Jonathon P Leider, Debra DeBruin, Nicole Reynolds, Angelica Koch, Judy Seaberg
BACKGROUND: Terrorism, disease outbreaks, and other natural disasters and mass casualty events have pushed health care and public health systems to identify and refine emergency preparedness protocols for disaster response. Ethical guidance, alongside legal and medical frameworks, are increasingly common components of disaster response plans. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the prevalence and content of ethical guidance offered for disaster response, specifically around crisis standards of care (CSCs)...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666447/how-female-community-health-workers-navigate-work-challenges-and-why-there-are-still-gaps-in-their-performance-a-look-at-female-community-health-workers-in-maternal-and-child-health-in-two-indian-districts-through-a-reciprocal-determinism-framework
#9
Enisha Sarin, Sarah Smith Lunsford
BACKGROUND: Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are community health workers tasked to deliver health prevention in communities and link them with the health care sector. This paper examines the social, cultural, and institutional influences that either facilitate or impede ASHAs' abilities to deliver services effectively through the lens of the reciprocal determinism framework of social cognitive theory. METHODS: We conducted 98 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with ASHAs (n = 49) and their family members (n = 49) in Gurdaspur and Mewat districts...
July 1, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662621/diabetes-camp-counselors-an-exploration-of-counselor-characteristics-and-quality-of-life-outcomes
#10
Meg C Nicholl, Jessica M Valenzuela, Barry Nierenberg, Gillian S Mayersohn
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of volunteering at a diabetes camp on emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods Thirty counselors with and 22 without T1DM (19.07 ± 2.71 years old) volunteered at a 1-week T1DM camp in the northeastern United States. Counselors with T1DM had a range of self-reported A1C scores (5.8% or 39.9 mmol/mol to 14.0% or 129.5 mmol/mol). Self-report measures of quality of life, hope, and well-being were completed pre- and postcamp at 4 time points: 1 month before camp, arrival at camp, final day of camp, and 2 months postcamp...
August 2017: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649360/competitive-success-of-southern-populations-of-betula-pendula-and-sorbus-aucuparia-under-simulated-southern-climate-experiment-in-the-subarctic
#11
Kari Taulavuori, Erja Taulavuori, Karita Saravesi, Tanja Jylänki, Aila Kainulainen, Jonna Pajala, Annamari Markkola, Otso Suominen, Kari Saikkonen
Global warming has been commonly accepted to facilitate species' range shifts across latitudes. Cross-latitudinal transplantations support this; many tree species can well adapt to new geographical areas. However, these studies fail to capture species' adaptations to new light environment because the experiments were not designed to explicitly separate species' responses to light and temperature. Here we tested reaction norms of tree seedlings in reciprocal transplantations 1,000 km apart from each other at two latitudes (60°N and 69°N)...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479653/cognitive-appraisals-of-alcohol-use-in-early-adolescence-psychosocial-predictors-and-reciprocal-associations-with-alcohol-use
#12
Craig R Colder, Jennifer P Read, William F Wieczorek, Rina D Eiden, Liliana J Lengua, Larry W Hawk, Elisa M Trucco, Hector I Lopez-Vergara
Early adolescence is a dynamic period for the development of alcohol appraisals (expected outcomes of drinking and subjective evaluations of expected outcomes), yet the literature provides a limited understanding of psychosocial factors that shape these appraisals during this period. This study took a comprehensive view of alcohol appraisals and considered positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies, as well as subjective evaluations of expected outcomes. Developmental-ecological theory guided examination of individual, peer, family, and neighborhood predictors of cognitive appraisals of alcohol and use...
April 2017: Journal of Early Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474272/-a-good-collaboration-is-based-on-unique-contributions-from-each-side-assessing-the-dynamics-of-collaboration-in-stem-cell-science
#13
Michael Morrison
The rise of 'big biology' is bringing academic and industrial scientists together in large consortia to address translational challenges in the life sciences. In order to assess the impact of this change, this paper examines the existing norms and styles of collaboration in one high profile translational domain; stem cell research. Data is drawn from qualitative interviews with academic and industry scientists working in a large European stem cell research project. Respondents discussed what they perceived as the main benefits and risks of collaborative research, what styles of collaboration they were familiar with, and what collaborative work in stem cell science normally involves...
December 2017: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426356/focus-group-findings-of-smoking-onset-among-male-youth-in-china
#14
Vivian C Sheer, Chang Molly Mao, Yi-Ru Regina Chen
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is associated with smoking initiation among men in China. The lack of qualitative studies using Chinese adolescent samples can pose challenges to enacting effective smoking prevention messages that resonate with male Chinese teenagers' thoughts, needs, and wishes. OBJECTIVE: This focus group study was designed to obtain in-depth contextual information on early smoking among male teenagers in China. METHODS: Twenty focus groups of 7-10 male students from vocational and junior colleges (N = 165) were conducted, approximately half in Shanxi and half in Guangdong...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381290/the-mothering-experience-of-women-with-fgm-c-raising-uncut-daughters-in-ivory-coast-and-in-canada
#15
Sophia Koukoui, Ghayda Hassan, Jaswant Guzder
BACKGROUND: While Female Genital Cutting (FGM/C) is a deeply entrenched cultural practice, there is now mounting evidence for a gradual decline in prevalence in a number of geographical areas in Africa and following migration to non-practicing countries. Consequently, there is now a growing number of women with FGM/C who are raising 'uncut' daughters. This study used a qualitative methodology to investigate the experience of women with FGM/C raising daughters who have not been subjected to the ritual...
April 5, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362000/emergence-and-evolution-of-cooperation-under-resource-pressure
#16
María Pereda, Débora Zurro, José I Santos, Ivan Briz I Godino, Myrian Álvarez, Jorge Caro, José M Galán
We study the influence that resource availability has on cooperation in the context of hunter-gatherer societies. This paper proposes a model based on archaeological and ethnographic research on resource stress episodes, which exposes three different cooperative regimes according to the relationship between resource availability in the environment and population size. The most interesting regime represents moderate survival stress in which individuals coordinate in an evolutionary way to increase the probabilities of survival and reduce the risk of failing to meet the minimum needs for survival...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319134/genotype-and-local-environment-dynamically-influence-growth-disturbance-response-and-survivorship-in-the-threatened-coral-acropora-cervicornis
#17
Crawford Drury, Derek Manzello, Diego Lirman
The relationship between the coral genotype and the environment is an important area of research in degraded coral reef ecosystems. We used a reciprocal outplanting experiment with 930 corals representing ten genotypes on each of eight reefs to investigate the influence of genotype and the environment on growth and survivorship in the threatened Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis. Coral genotype and site were strong drivers of coral growth and individual genotypes exhibited flexible, non-conserved reaction norms, complemented by ten-fold differences in growth between specific G-E combinations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289230/cross-cousin-marriage-among-the-yanomam%C3%A3-shows-evidence-of-parent-offspring-conflict-and-mate-competition-between-brothers
#18
Napoleon A Chagnon, Robert F Lynch, Mary K Shenk, Raymond Hames, Mark V Flinn
Marriage in many traditional societies often concerns the institutionalized exchange of reproductive partners among groups of kin. Such exchanges most often involve cross-cousins-marriage with the child of a parent's opposite-sex sibling-but it is unclear who benefits from these exchanges. Here we analyze the fitness consequences of marrying relatives among the Yanomamö from the Amazon. When individuals marry close kin, we find that (i) both husbands and wives have slightly lower fertility; (ii) offspring suffer from inbreeding depression; (iii) parents have more grandchildren; and (iv) siblings, especially brothers, benefit when their opposite-sex siblings marry relatives but not when their same-sex siblings do...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276510/processing-of-fair-and-unfair-offers-in-the-ultimatum-game-under-social-observation
#19
Jutta Peterburs, Rolf Voegler, Roman Liepelt, Anna Schulze, Saskia Wilhelm, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Thomas Straube
Social context influences social decisions and outcome processing, partially depending on inter-individual differences. The present study investigated social context-dependent modulation of behavior and feedback processing in the ultimatum game (UG) in relation to inter-individual differences in social anxiety. Thirty-two healthy adults completed the UG both under social observation and without observation. Offers were allegedly either randomly generated by the computer or drawn from a pool of offers from previous human players...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276485/a-norm-knockout-method-on-indirect-reciprocity-to-reveal-indispensable-norms
#20
Hitoshi Yamamoto, Isamu Okada, Satoshi Uchida, Tatsuya Sasaki
Although various norms for reciprocity-based cooperation have been suggested that are evolutionarily stable against invasion from free riders, the process of alternation of norms and the role of diversified norms remain unclear in the evolution of cooperation. We clarify the co-evolutionary dynamics of norms and cooperation in indirect reciprocity and also identify the indispensable norms for the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by the gene knockout method, a genetic engineering technique, we developed the norm knockout method and clarified the norms necessary for the establishment of cooperation...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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