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Positive reciprocity

Laura Vandenbosch, Johanna M F van Oosten
Despite increasing interest in the implications of adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM), we still know little about the relationship between SEIM use and adolescents' casual sexual activities. Based on a three-wave online panel survey study among Dutch adolescents (N = 1079; 53.1% boys; 93.5% with an exclusively heterosexual orientation; Mage  = 15.11; SD = 1.39), we found that watching SEIM predicted engagement in casual sex over time. In turn, casual sexual activities partially predicted adolescents' use of SEIM...
March 19, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
S Barlati, G Deste, M Gregorelli, A Vita
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are currently conceptualized as distinct disorders. However, the relationship between these two disorders has been revisited in recent years due to evidence that they share phenotypic and genotypic expressions. This study aimed to identify ASD traits in patients with schizophrenia, and to define their demographic, psychopathological, cognitive and functional correlates. METHOD: Seventy-five schizophrenia patients (20 females, mean age 42 ± 12) were evaluated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)...
March 20, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Louis Dwyer-Hemmings
Histories of twentieth-century surgery have focused on surgical 'firsts' - dramatic tales of revolutionary procedures. The history of tonsillectomy is less glamorous, but more widespread, representing the experience and understanding of medicine for hundreds of children, parents and surgeons daily. At the start of the twentieth century, tonsillectomy was routine - performed on at least 80 000 schoolchildren each year in Britain. However, by the 1980s, public and professional discourse condemned the operation as a 'dangerous fad'...
April 2018: Medical History
Zefeng Jing, Chenchen Feng, Shuzhong Wang, Donghai Xu
To explore the origin of interactional settling behaviors of multi-particles in wet foam, the sedimentation of two particles placed one above the other as well as placed side by side is studied. According to the average settling velocity in experiment and the average settling drag force of the two particles in numerical simulation, we show that the particles display accelerated sedimentation as placed one above the other while they display hindered sedimentation in the case of the ones positioned side by side...
March 20, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Mariia Rabyk, Oleksandr Yushchuk, Ihor Rokytskyy, Maria Anisimova, Bohdan Ostash
The AdpA protein from a streptomycin producer Streptomyces griseus is a founding member of the AdpA family of pleiotropic regulators, known to be ubiquitously present in streptomycetes. Functional genomic approaches revealed a huge number of AdpA targets, leading to the claim that the AdpA regulon is the largest one in bacteria. The expression of adpA is limited at the level of translation of the rare leucyl UUA codon. All known properties of AdpA regulators were discovered on a few streptomycete strains. There are open questions about the true abundance and diversity of AdpA across actinobacterial taxa (and beyond) and about the possible evolutionary forces that shape the AdpA orthologous group in Streptomyces...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Ling-Yun Wu, Fang-Fang Chang, Shu-Juan Liu, W Scott Armbruster, Shuang-Quan Huang
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Heterostyly, the reciprocal positioning of stigmas and anthers in different floral morphs, has long been thought to promote intermorph pollination. However, extensive intramorph pollination occurs commonly in heterostylous species, leading to recurrent questions about the functional and evolutionary significance of heterostyly. METHODS: To identify the sources of stigmatic pollen (autogamous [intraflower], geitonogamous [intraplant], vs. interplant), we emasculated either one flower or entire plants in experimental populations of the two closely related buckwheat species, distylous Fagopyrum esculentum and homostylous F...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Rolando Robert, Kenneth Francis Rodrigues, Zarinah Waheed, Subbiah Vijay Kumar
This study is aimed at establishing a baseline on the genetic diversity of the Acropora corals of Sabah, North Borneo based on variations in the partial COI and CYB nucleotide sequences. Comparison across 50 shallow-water Acropora morphospecies indicated that the low substitution rates in the two genes were due to negative selection and that rate heterogeneity between them was asymmetric. CYB appeared to have evolved faster than COI in the Acropora as indicated by differences in the rate of pairwise genetic distance, degrees of transition bias (Ts /Tv ), synonymous-to-nonsynonymous rate ratio (dN /dS ), and substitution patterns at the three codon positions...
March 9, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Diana Hilda Hohl, Janina Lüscher, Jan Keller, Silke Heuse, Urte Scholz, Aleksandra Luszczynska, Nina Knoll
OBJECTIVES: In romantic relationships, partners can influence each other's health-relevant behaviour by exerting negative social control (e.g., pressuring), however, with mixed success. To elucidate this phenomenon, we examined couples motivated to increase their physical activity and investigated the degree to which both partners exerted negative control on each other, their self-efficacy, reciprocal associations among the two behaviour-specific constructs, and their relationship with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)...
March 8, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
Adeline A Lau, Sarah J Tamang, Kim M Hemsley
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type IIIA is an inherited, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder resulting from mutations in the SGSH gene. Consequently, N-sulphoglucosamine sulphohydrolase enzyme activity is reduced resulting in impaired catabolism of heparan sulphate. After an asymptomatic period, patients typically show a progressive loss of cognitive and motor skills, with death often during the second decade of life. The diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include impaired communication and social interactions, as well as displays of repetitive behaviours and fixed interests...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Sara Viotti, Lynnette Essenmacher, Lydia E Hamblin, Judith E Arnetz
In spite of the considerable number of studies on co-worker incivility, knowledge on this topic needs to be further enhanced. In particular, no studies have focused on the reciprocal nature of the relationship of incivility with other important aspects of working life, i.e. employee well-being and the quality of the working process. The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-lagged associations among co-worker incivility, work-related exhaustion, and organisational efficiency in a sample of healthcare workers...
2018: Work and Stress
S Hayano, Y Fukui, N Kawanabe, K Kono, M Nakamura, Y Ishihara, H Kamioka
In developing teeth, the sequential and reciprocal interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues promote stem/progenitor cell differentiation. However, the origin of the stem/progenitor cells has been the subject of considerable debate. According to recent studies, mesenchymal stem cells originate from periarterial cells and are regulated by neurons in various organs. The present study examined the role of innervation in tooth development and rodent incisor stem/progenitor cell homeostasis. Rodent incisors continuously grow throughout their lives, and the lower incisors are innervated by the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Ming Gao, Minjun Chen, Changying Li, Ming Xu, Yun Liu, Min Cong, Nan Sang, Sijin Liu
Metallothioneins (MTs) are known to protect cells against oxidative stress, especially providing protection against cadmium (Cd) toxicity in hepatocytes. There are various gene variants and pseudogenes for MTs; however, there is little understanding on the functions of those non-coding MT members that are known to be expressed as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) nowadays. Different from most protein-coding MT members, MT1DP was here found that remarkably induced to provoke cytotoxicity in hepatocytes in response to Cd treatment...
2018: Cell Discovery
Fiona McLeod, Caroline Jamison, Karen Treasure
BACKGROUND: To improve collaboration and the quality of care, healthcare programmes are increasingly promoting interprofessional education thereby enabling students to learn with, from and about each other. A reciprocal peer learning model has developed among pre-registration physiotherapy and adult nursing students at Plymouth University, England. Embedded within the curriculum, it provides voluntary opportunities for year two students to become cross professional peer tutors to year one students while enhancing interprofessional understanding and skills acquisition...
February 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Shanxin Peng, Jing Wang, Songtao Wei, Changfei Li, Kai Zhou, Jun Hu, Xin Ye, Jinghua Yan, Wenjun Liu, George F Gao, Min Fang, Songdong Meng
The reciprocal interaction between influenza virus and host microRNAs (miRNAs) has been implicated in the regulation of viral replication and host tropism. However, the global roles of the cellular miRNA repertoire and the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated antiviral defense await further elucidation. In this study, we systematically screened 297 cellular miRNAs from human and mouse epithelial cells and identified five inhibitory miRNAs that efficiently inhibited influenza virus replication in vitro and in vivo...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Erik I Svensson
Recent calls for a revision of standard evolutionary theory (SET) are based partly on arguments about the reciprocal causation. Reciprocal causation means that cause-effect relationships are bi-directional, as a cause could later become an effect and vice versa. Such dynamic cause-effect relationships raise questions about the distinction between proximate and ultimate causes, as originally formulated by Ernst Mayr. They have also motivated some biologists and philosophers to argue for an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES)...
2018: Evolutionary Biology
Mamoru Uemura, Masataka Ikeda, Kenji Kawai, Junichi Nishimura, Ichiro Takemasa, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Mitsugu Sekimoto, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori
INTRODUCTION: Previous reports indicated the effectiveness of surgical resection for locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC). Most cases with posterior invasion patterns require concomitant sacrectomy to secure negative histologic margins, although this is a highly invasive procedure. Here, we present a new minimally invasive laparoscopic surgical technique for LRRC with concomitant sacrectomy. MATERIALS AND SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: A 64-year-old man presented with LRRC on the surface of the sacral bone...
February 2018: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
Akira Baba, Hideomi Yamauchi, Nobuhiro Ogino, Yumi Okuyama, Shinji Yamazoe, Yohei Munetomo, Yuko Kobashi, Takuji Mogami, Hiroya Ojiri
Positional change in the retropharyngeal carotid artery, a rare phenomenon over time, is even rarer in previous reports, and it is important to be aware of this before any neck surgical procedure. A woman in her 50s underwent an anterior maxillectomy for upper gingival cancer, without neck dissection. The patient had medical histories of diabetes mellitus and liver dysfunction, with unremarkable family histories. Serial neck contrast-enhanced computed tomography for detecting locoregional recurrence had been performed as a follow-up during 4 years...
December 2017: Radiology Case Reports
Prabhakar S Kedar, Vinod Gupta, Prashant Warang, Ashish Chiddarwar, Manisha Madkaikar
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cause of recessive congenital methemoglobinemia (RCM) in Indian families and to identify molecular defect associated with RCM. METHODS: Eight cases of RCM have been addressed to our laboratory in order to investigate the cause of cyanosis associated with genetic disorders. NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (cytb5r) enzyme activities were measured by standard methods, and molecular analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA sequencing...
February 27, 2018: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Hannah Pimperton, Elizabeth A Walker
OBJECTIVES: This study had two key objectives. First, to examine whether children who receive cochlear implants (CIs) before the age of 3 years and who are experienced implant users (mean length of CI use = 6 years; range = 4 to 9 years) show deficits on a word learning task relative to their hearing peers. Second, to examine whether variation in age at implantation within the first 3 years of life relates to later word learning abilities. DESIGN: Twenty-one 6- to 10-year-old children with CIs, 21 chronological age-matched (AM) hearing children, and 21 vocabulary-matched hearing children completed an auditory word learning task in which they were required to learn the names of eight rare animals...
February 22, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Xin Pan, Da Li, Jianing Huo, Fanfei Kong, Hui Yang, Xiaoxin Ma
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in tumorigenesis and cancer progression and are tightly associated with the phenotypes of numerous cancers. However, the functional roles underlying these effects are unknown. The expression levels of LINC01016, miR-302a-3p, miR-3130-3p, NFYA, and SATB1 were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 33 endometrial cancer tissues and 20 normal tissues. Bioinformatics analyses, luciferase reporter analyses, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, and qRT-PCR assays were performed to verify potential binding sites...
February 21, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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