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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347523/microstructure-and-mechanical-properties-of-hyperuniform-heterogeneous-materials
#1
Yaopengxiao Xu, Shaohua Chen, Pei-En Chen, Wenxiang Xu, Yang Jiao
A hyperuniform random heterogeneous material is one in which the local volume fraction fluctuations in an observation window decay faster than the reciprocal window volume as the window size increases. Recent studies show that this class of materials are endowed with superior physical properties such as large isotropic photonic band gaps and optimal transport properties. Here we employ a stochastic optimization procedure to systematically generate realizations of hyperuniform heterogeneous materials with controllable short-range order, which is partially quantified using the two-point correlation function S_{2}(r) associated with the phase of interest...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347437/mechanisms-of-cooperation-and-competition-of-two-species-transport-in-narrow-nanochannels
#2
Wolfgang Rudolf Bauer
Flow of particles of two different species through a narrow channel with solely two discrete spatial positions is analyzed with respect to the species' capability to cooperate or compete for transport. The origin of the latter arises from particle-channel and interparticle interactions within the channel, i.e., blocking the position of a particle, and its interaction with its neighbors in the channel. The variety of occupation options within the channel defines the state space. The transition dynamics within is considered as a continuous Markov process, which, in contrast to mean-field approaches, conserves explicitly spatial correlations...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342218/cross-lagged-structural-equation-models-for-the-relationship-between-health-related-state-and-behaviours-and-body-bullying-in-adolescence-findings-from-longitudinal-study-elana
#3
Viviane S Straatmann, Ylva B Almquist, Aldair J Oliveira, Mikael Rostila, Claudia S Lopes
We investigated the stability and the directionality of being body bullied and a set of four variables- 1) Body Mass Index (BMI), 2) moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), 3) television time (TV) and 4) video game/computer time (VG)-, termed in the present study as 'health-related state and behaviours (HRSB)'-across adolescence. The Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study (ELANA) is a cohort study conducted among middle school students from two public and four private schools in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331250/inferred-joint-multigram-models-for-medical-term-normalization-according-to-icd
#4
Alicia Pérez, Aitziber Atutxa, Arantza Casillas, Koldo Gojenola, Álvaro Sellart
BACKGROUND: Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are written using spontaneous natural language. Often, terms do not match standard terminology like the one available through the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). OBJECTIVE: Information retrieval and exchange can be improved using standard terminology. Our aim is to render diagnostic terms written in spontaneous language in EHRs into the standard framework provided by the ICD. METHODS: We tackle diagnostic term normalization employing Weighted Finite-State Transducers (WFSTs)...
February 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320691/network-features-and-dynamical-landscape-of-naive-and-primed-pluripotency
#5
Benjamin Pfeuty, Clémence Kress, Bertrand Pain
Although the broad and unique differentiation potential of pluripotent stem cells relies on a complex transcriptional network centered around Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog, two well-distinct pluripotent states, called "naive" and "primed", have been described in vitro and markedly differ in their developmental potential, their expression profiles, their signaling requirements, and their reciprocal conversion. Aiming to determine the key features that segregate and coordinate these two states, data-driven optimization of network models is performed to identify relevant parameter regimes and reduce network complexity to its core structure...
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319097/conformational-stabilization-of-a-%C3%AE-hairpin-through-a-triazole-tryptophan-interaction
#6
Donatella Diana, Claudia Di Salvo, Veronica Celentano, Lucia De Rosa, Alessandra Romanelli, Roberto Fattorusso, Luca D D'Andrea
Molecular tools to stabilize the β-hairpin conformation are needed as β-hairpin peptides are useful molecules for pharmaceutical, biological and materials applications. We explored the use of a "triazole bridge", a covalent link between two β-hairpin strands obtained through Cu-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition, combined with an aromatic-aromatic interaction. Highly conformationally stable peptides were identified by NMR screening of a small collection of cyclic peptides based on the Trpzip2 scaffold...
January 10, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305824/social-capital-and-health-among-older-chinese-immigrants-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-a-sample-in-a-canadian-prairie-city
#7
Hai Luo, Verena Menec
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between social capital and health among Chinese immigrants. The sample included 101 older Chinese immigrants aged 60 to 96 who were recruited in 2013 in a city on the Canadian prairies. Participant completed a questionnaire assessing their structural and cognitive social capital (views on community, trust and reciprocity, civic participation, social networks and support, and social participation), physical and mental health status (SF-36), and sociodemographic characteristics...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cross-cultural Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299159/lactate-activated-macrophages-induced-aerobic-glycolysis-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-breast-cancer-by-regulation-of-ccl5-ccr5-axis-a-positive-metabolic-feedback-loop
#8
Sensen Lin, Li Sun, Xiaodan Lyu, Xiongfei Ai, Danyu Du, Nan Su, Hongyang Li, Luyong Zhang, Jun Yu, Shengtao Yuan
Aberrant energy metabolism is critical for cancer progression. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can stimulate tumor angiogenesis and enhance cancer metastasis; however, the metabolic interaction between cancer cells and macrophages characterized by lactate shuttles remains unclear. Here, we showed that lactate activated human macrophages to a TAM-like phenotype and stimulated the secretion of CCL5 by activation of Notch signaling in macrophages. Reciprocally, CCL5 increased cell migration, induced cancer cell EMT, and promoted aerobic glycolysis in breast cancer cells, suggesting a positive metabolic feedback loop in the co-culture system...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298655/fisetin-attenuates-akt-associated-growth-promoting-events-in-aflatoxinb1-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Brajesh Kumar Maurya, Surendra Kumar Trigun
Recently we have reported that Fisetin, a natural flavonol, is able to regress Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS) led pro-inflammatory factors in rats. In the current study, we aimed to delineate whether Fisetin does so by modulating the cell growth promoting signaling cascade in HCC. The reciprocal interplay of 3-phosphoinositol kinase (PI3K) vs phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) displays Akt, a protein kinase B, to get phosphorylated at Thr308 by a 3-phosphoinositol dependent kinase 1 (PDK1)...
December 29, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294980/cycle-of-violence-in-schools-longitudinal-reciprocal-relationship-between-student-s-aggression-and-teacher-s-use-of-corporal-punishment
#10
Boungho Choi
The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal reciprocal relationship between student's aggression and teacher's use of corporal punishment. An autoregressive cross-lagged model was analyzed with the data drawn from 4,051 Korean secondary students (male = 2,084, female = 1,967), in Gyeonggi Education Panel Study for three waves (seventh-ninth grades). Results revealed that student's aggression provoke teacher's use of corporal punishment and also teacher's use of corporal punishment provokes student's aggression...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294917/bidirectional-relations-between-dating-violence-victimization-and-substance-use-in-a-diverse-sample-of-early-adolescents
#11
Katherine A Taylor, Terri N Sullivan
Substance use and dating violence victimization are common in adolescence and represent significant public health concerns. Although theoretical accounts suggest a bidirectional association between substance use and victimization within dating relationships, this has not been tested during early adolescence. Thus, the current study examined bidirectional associations between physical and psychological dating violence victimization and substance use across 6 months among an ethnically diverse sample of early adolescents...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291598/work-family-conflict-and-depressive-complaints-among-dutch-employees-examining-reciprocal-associations-in-a-longitudinal-study
#12
Yoy Bergs, Huub Hoofs, IJmert Kant, Jos Slangen, Nicole Wh Jansen
Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the reciprocal association between work-family conflict and depressive complaints over time. Methods Cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM) was used and three-wave follow-up data from the Maastricht Cohort Study with six years of follow-up [2416 men and 585 women at T1 (2008)]. Work-family conflict was operationalized by distinguishing both work-home interference and home-work interference, as assessed with two subscales of the Survey Work-Home Interference Nijmegen...
January 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286513/influence-of-polymorphic-variants-of-the-slc6a4-gene-on-the-frequency-of-detection-of-depressive-states-in-the-group-of-the-clean-up-workers-of-consequences-of-chornobyl-accident-in-the-remote-period-after-the-chornobyl-catastrophe
#13
I V Abramenko, N I Bilous, S A Chumak, K M Loganovsky
Mental disorders of the victims are one of the important medical consequences of the Chornobyl accident. It is also known that in the implementation of the pathogenesis of depressive states a significant role belongs to the sero tonin transporter gene (SLC6A4). OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of polymorphic variants of the SLC6A4 gene on the frequency of detection of depression in a group of clean up workers in the remote period after the Chornobyl catastrophe. METHODS: The study was conducted in a group of 59 victims of the Chornobyl NPP accident, divided into two groups (without depression and with depressive symptoms)...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286110/tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-acts-reciprocally-with-solute-carrier-family-26-member-3-downregulated-in-adenoma-and-reduces-its-expression-leading-to-intestinal-inflammation
#14
Xiangming Ding, Dongxiao Li, Mengke Li, Dean Tian, Hongbing Yu, Qin Yu
Solute carrier family 26, member 3 (Slc26a3), also termed downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) is a member of the Slc26 family of anion transporters and is mutated in congenital chloride diarrhea. Our previous study demonstrated that DRA deficiency is associated with severely reduced colonic HCO3‑ secretion, a loss of colonic fluid absorption, a lack of a firmly adherent mucus layer and a severely reduced colonic mucosal resistance to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) damage. However, the direct effect of mediators that trigger intestinal inflammatory factors on DRA has not been fully investigated...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284488/unexpected-high-circulation-of-plasmodium-vivax-in-asymptomatic-children-from-k%C3%A3-dougou-southeastern-senegal
#15
Makhtar Niang, Fode Diop, Oulimata Niang, Bacary D Sadio, Abdourahmane Sow, Ousmane Faye, Mawlouth Diallo, Amadou A Sall, Ronald Perraut, Aissatou Toure-Balde
BACKGROUND: Malaria in Senegal is due essentially to infections by Plasmodium falciparum and, to a lesser extent to Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale. By the use of molecular methods, detection of Plasmodium vivax has been recently reported in the region of Kedougou, raising the question of appraisal of its potential prevalence in this setting. METHODS: A retrospective serological study was carried out using 188 samples taken from 2010 to 2011 in a longitudinal school survey during which 48 asymptomatic children (9-11 years) were recruited...
December 29, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284374/safer-sex-practices-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china-results-from-an-ethnographic-study
#16
Haochu Li, Andrea Sankar, Eleanor Holroyd, Baofa Jiang
The study reported here sought to understand the rationales of safer sex practices adopted by newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Guided by a socio-ecological framework, an ethnography was conducted among newly diagnosed HIV-positive MSM. In-depth interviews and participant observation were employed to produce an account of the social and cultural settings that was faithful to the perspectives of participants. A total of 31 participants with diverse backgrounds were recruited in a southern city of China...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282318/src1-promotes-th17-differentiation-by-overriding-foxp3-suppression-to-stimulate-ror%C3%AE-t-activity-in-a-pkc-%C3%AE-dependent-manner
#17
Subha Sen, Fei Wang, Jing Zhang, Zhiheng He, Jian Ma, Yousang Gwack, Jianming Xu, Zuoming Sun
Th17 cells are major players in multiple autoimmune diseases and are developmentally contingent on reciprocal functionality between the transcription factor Retineic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma (RORγt) and Forkhead box protein P3 (Foxp3). Here we deciphered a previously unappreciated role of Steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1) in defining the lineage decision for the development of Th17 versus induced T-regulatory (iTreg) cells. We demonstrate that SRC1 functions as a critical coactivator for RORγt in vivo to promote the functional dominance of RORγt over Foxp3 and thus establishing an unopposed Th17 differentiation program...
December 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259132/histone-deacetylase-6-hdac6-deacetylates-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-erk1-and-thereby-stimulates-erk1-activity
#18
Jheng-Yu Wu, Shengyan Xiang, Mu Zhang, Bin Fang, He Huang, Oh Kwang Kwon, Yingming Zhao, Zhe Yang, Wenlong Bai, Gerold Bepler, Xiaohong Mary Zhang
Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), a class IIb HDAC, plays an important role in many biological and pathological processes. Previously, we found that ERK1, a downstream kinase in the MAPK signaling pathway, phosphorylates HDAC6, thereby increasing HDAC6-mediated deacetylation of α-tubulin. However, whether HDAC6 reciprocally modulates ERK1 activity is unknown. Here, we report that both ERK1 and 2 are acetylated and that HDAC6 promotes ERK1 activity via deacetylation. Briefly, we found that both ERK1 and 2 physically interact with HDAC6...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248093/-it-has-changed-understanding-change-in-a-parenting-program-in-south-africa
#19
Jenny Doubt, Rachel Bray, Heidi Loening-Voysey, Lucie Cluver, Jasmina Byrne, Divane Nzima, Barnaby King, Yulia Shenderovich, Janina Steinert, Sally Medley
BACKGROUND: Poor parenting that leads to child maltreatment during adolescence presents a major public health burden. Research from high-income countries indicates that evidence-based parenting program interventions can reduce child maltreatment. Much less is known, however, about how beneficiaries of these programs experience this process of change. Understanding the process that brings about change in child maltreatment practices is essential to understanding intervention mechanisms of change...
September 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243318/effect-of-maturity-and-infection-on-the-rate-of-relaxation-of-the-respiratory-muscles-in-ventilated-newborn-infants
#20
Theodore Dassios, Ourania Kaltsogianni, Paul Dixon, Anne Greenough
AIM: To assess the respiratory muscle time constant of relaxation (τ), an index of respiratory muscle function in ventilated newborns. METHODS: Sixty-two infants (42 born prematurely) with a median gestational age of 29 [interquartile range (IQR) 26-37] weeks were prospectively studied. Measurement of τ was done during spontaneous breathing on endotracheal continuous positive airway pressure prior to extubation and τ was calculated from the reciprocal of the slope of the airway pressure decline versus time...
December 15, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
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