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Positive reciprocity

Brigid Wilson, Chin-Lin Tseng, Orysya Soroka, Leonard M Pogach, David C Aron
BACKGROUND: The study objectives were to determine: (1) how statistical outliers exhibiting low rates of diabetes overtreatment performed on a reciprocal measure - rates of diabetes undertreatment; and (2) the impact of different criteria on high performing outlier status. METHODS: The design was serial cross-sectional, using yearly Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data (2009-2013). Our primary outcome measure was facility rate of HbA1c overtreatment of diabetes in patients at risk for hypoglycemia...
November 16, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Lacey Chetcuti, Kristelle Hudry, Megan Grant, Giacomo Vivanti
We examined the role of social motivation and motor execution factors in object-directed imitation difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. A series of to-be-imitated actions was presented to 35 children with autism spectrum disorder and 20 typically developing children on an Apple(®) iPad(®) by a socially responsive or aloof model, under conditions of low and high motor demand. There were no differences in imitation performance (i.e. the number of actions reproduced within a fixed sequence), for either group, in response to a model who acted socially responsive or aloof...
November 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Koen Raymaekers, Leen Oris, Sofie Prikken, Philip Moons, Eva Goossens, Ilse Weets, Koen Luyckx
OBJECTIVE: The increasing importance of peers in adolescence and emerging adulthood has been widely acknowledged. However, longitudinal research linking the peer context to diabetes management and outcomes is scarce. The present longitudinal study in a large sample of youths with type 1 diabetes related both positive and negative peer variables to diabetes outcomes over a time interval of 1 year. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Our sample consisted of 467 adolescents (14-17 years of age) and emerging adults (18-25 years of age) with type 1 diabetes who participated in a two-wave longitudinal study...
November 14, 2017: Diabetes Care
You-Jian Yang, Yan-Ting Zhang, Guo-Qiang Chen, Dan Cheng, Ji-Guo Qiu, Qin He, Jian He
A bacterial strain designated YYJ7-1(T) was isolated from farmland soil in China and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of strain YYJ7-1(T) were Gram-staining-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, motile and endospore-forming. Growth occurred at 18-42 °C (optimum at 35 °C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum at pH 7.5) and with 0.0-4.0 % NaCl (optimum with 0.5 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Paenibacillus and showed high levels of sequence similarity with respect to Paenibacillus provencensis 4401170(T) (98...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Victoria G Twort, Alice B Dennis, Duckchul Park, Kathryn F Lomas, Richard D Newcomb, Thomas R Buckley
Animal reproductive proteins, especially those in the seminal fluid, have been shown to have higher levels of divergence than non-reproductive proteins and are often evolving adaptively. Seminal fluid proteins have been implicated in the formation of reproductive barriers between diverging lineages, and hence represent interesting candidates underlying speciation. RNA-seq was used to generate the first male reproductive transcriptome for the New Zealand tree weta species Hemideina thoracica and H. crassidens...
2017: PloS One
M-N Vacheron, H Veyrat-Masson, E Wehbe
Psychiatric disorders (more specifically mood disorders and psychosis) represent the 1st cause of disability among young people. Unemployment rate between 75 to 95% for the person with schizophrenia. It is correlated to poor social integration and bad economic status, worse symptomatology loss of autonomy as well as global bad functioning. It is responsible of more than half of the overall cost of psychosis. The onset of most of psychiatric disorders occur between the age of 25 and 35 years old, a critical time in young adult life when they should build their professional as well as social future...
November 8, 2017: L'Encéphale
Miia Kaartinen, Kaija Puura, Päivi Pispa, Mika Helminen, Raili Salmelin, Erja Pelkonen, Petri Juujärvi, Esther B Kessler, David H Skuse
Cooperation is a fundamental human ability that seems to be inversely related to aggressive behaviour in typical development. However, there is no knowledge whether similar association holds for children with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 27 boys with autism spectrum disorder and their gender, age and total score intelligence matched controls were studied in order to determine associations between cooperation, reactive aggression and autism spectrum disorder-related social impairments. The participants performed a modified version of the Prisoner's Dilemma task and the Pulkkinen Aggression Machine which measure dimensions of trust, trustworthiness and self-sacrifice in predisposition to cooperate, and inhibition of reactive aggression in the absence and presence of situational cues, respectively...
November 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Raoul Bell, Laura Mieth, Axel Buchner
Most theories of social exchange distinguish between two different types of cooperation, depending on whether or not cooperation occurs conditional upon the partner's previous behaviors. Here, we used a multinomial processing tree model to distinguish between positive and negative reciprocity and cooperation bias in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. In Experiments 1 and 2, the facial expressions of the partners were varied to manipulate cooperation bias. In Experiment 3, an extinction instruction was used to manipulate reciprocity...
2017: PloS One
Katia Fève, Sylvain Foissac, Alain Pinton, Florence Mompart, Diane Esquerré, Thomas Faraut, Martine Yerle, Juliette Riquet
Reciprocal translocations are the most frequently occurring constitutional structural rearrangements in mammalian genomes. In phenotypically normal pigs, an incidence of 1/200 is estimated for such rearrangements. Even if constitutional translocations do not necessarily induce defects and diseases, they are responsible for significant economic losses in domestic animals due to reproduction failures. Over the last 30 years, advances in molecular and cytogenetic technologies have led to major improvements in the resolution of the characterization of translocation events...
2017: PloS One
Il-Hwan Choe, Junweon Byun, Ko Keun Kim, Sol Park, Isaac Kim, Jaeseung Jeong, Hee-Sup Shin
Disorderly resolution of conflict is costly, whereas orderly resolution by consent rules enables quick settlement. However, it is unclear whether non-human animals can make and observe rules to resolve conflict without aggression. Here we report a new behavioral paradigm for mice: a modified two-armed maze that uses wireless electrical brain stimulation as reward. First, the mice were individually operant-trained to initiate and then receive the reward at the signaled arm. Next, two mice were coupled and had to cooperate to initiate reward but then to compete over reward allocation...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
Lyndsay N Boggess
Prior research has found that racial/ethnic change and residential instability are positively related to neighborhood crime. However, the process of racial/ethnic change differentially influences crime above and beyond residential instability. While both processes affect crime through the disruption of existing social ties, racial/ethnic change has additional consequences for crime by heightening racial/ethnic tensions and undercutting cross-group interactions. This means racial/ethnic change is a different process than residential instability, and suggests that neighborhoods experiencing high rates of instability and high rates of racial/ethnic change may be particularly susceptible to crime...
November 2017: Social Science Research
Mohammad Hussein, Enrico Clementel, David J Eaton, Peter B Greer, Annette Haworth, Satoshi Ishikura, Stephen F Kry, Joerg Lehmann, Jessica Lye, Angelo F Monti, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Coen Hurkmans, Catharine H Clark
PURPOSE: Quality assurance (QA) for clinical trials is important. Lack of compliance can affect trial outcome. Clinical trial QA groups have different methods of dose distribution verification and analysis, all with the ultimate aim of ensuring trial compliance. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of different processes to inform future dosimetry audit reciprocity. MATERIALS: Six clinical trial QA groups participated. Intensity modulated treatment plans were generated for three different cases...
October 31, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Christian Kappel, Cuong Nguyen Huu, Michael Lenhard
Heterostyly is a fascinating adaptation to promote outbreeding and a classical paradigm of botany. In the most common type of heterostyly, plants either form flowers with long styles and short stamens, or short styles and long stamens. This reciprocal organ positioning reduces pollen wastage and promotes cross-pollination, thus increasing male fitness. In addition, in many heterostylous species selfing and the generation of unfit progeny due to inbreeding depression is limited by a self-incompatibility system, thus promoting female fitness...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Dong An, Jiu-Geng Chen, Yi-Qun Gao, Xiang Li, Zhen-Fei Chao, Zi-Ru Chen, Qian-Qian Li, Mei-Ling Han, Ya-Ling Wang, Yong-Fei Wang, Dai-Yin Chao
Arabidopsis thaliana high-affinity potassium transporter 1 (AtHKT1) limits the root-to-shoot sodium transportation and is believed to be essential for salt tolerance in A. thaliana. Nevertheless, natural accessions with 'weak allele' of AtHKT1, e.g. Tsu-1, are mainly distributed in saline areas and are more tolerant to salinity. These findings challenge the role of AtHKT1 in salt tolerance and call into question the involvement of AtHKT1 in salinity adaptation in A. thaliana. Here, we report that AtHKT1 indeed drives natural variation in the salt tolerance of A...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
Maciel M Hernández, Richard W Robins, Keith F Widaman, Rand D Conger
School belonging (i.e., social connectedness to school) has positive implications for academic achievement and well-being. However, few studies have examined the developmental antecedents of school belonging, particularly for students of Mexican origin. To address this gap in the research literature, the present study examined reciprocal relations between school belonging and two self-affirmation beliefs-self-esteem and ethnic pride-using data from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin students followed from fifth to ninth grade (N = 674, Mage at Wave 1 = 10...
October 30, 2017: Developmental Psychology
Zhengli Wang, Aye Myat Myat Thinn, Jieqing Zhu
The ligand-binding βI and αI domains of integrin are the best-studied von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domains undergoing significant conformational changes for affinity regulation. In both βI and αI domains, the α1- and α7-helixes work in concert to shift the metal-ion-dependent-adhesion-site between the resting and active states. An absolutely conserved Gly in the middle of the α1-helix of βI helps maintain the resting βI conformation, while the homologous position in the αI α1-helix contains a conserved Phe...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Fabiola Müller, Ellen Stephenson, Anita DeLongis, Ans Smink, Robert J Van Ginkel, Marrit A Tuinman, Mariët Hagedoorn
OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is a distressing symptom many cancer patients experience even after completion of treatment. Although theory and empirical evidence indicate that negative cognitions perpetuate fatigue after completion of treatment, insight into how this process unfolds in daily life is limited. This study used an intensive longitudinal design to investigate the reciprocal relationship between catastrophizing and fatigue in daily life and whether affective and behavioral processes mediate these relationships...
October 27, 2017: Psycho-oncology
Anthony D Gromovsky, Rebecca C Schugar, Amanda L Brown, Robert N Helsley, Amy C Burrows, Daniel Ferguson, Renliang Zhang, Brian E Sansbury, Richard G Lee, Richard E Morton, Daniela S Allende, John S Parks, Matthew Spite, J Mark Brown
OBJECTIVE: Human genetic variants near the FADS (fatty acid desaturase) gene cluster (FADS1-2-3) are strongly associated with cardiometabolic traits including dyslipidemia, fatty liver, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. However, mechanisms underlying these genetic associations are unclear. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Here, we specifically investigated the physiological role of the Δ-5 desaturase FADS1 in regulating diet-induced cardiometabolic phenotypes by treating hyperlipidemic LDLR (low-density lipoprotein receptor)-null mice with antisense oligonucleotides targeting the selective knockdown of Fads1...
October 26, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Peter Kämpfer, Hans-Jürgen Busse, John A McInroy, Chia-Hui Hu, Joseph W Kloepper, Stefanie P Glaeser
A Gram-positive-staining, aerobic, non-endospore-forming bacterial strain (JJ-59(T)), isolated from a field-grown maize plant in Dunbar, Nebraska in 2014 was studied by a polyphasic approach. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain JJ-59(T) was shown to be a member of the genus Paenibacillus, most closely related to the type strains of Paenibacillus aceris (98.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Paenibacillus chondroitinus (97.8 %). For all other type strains of species of the genus Paenibacillus lower 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were obtained...
October 23, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Tengyao Song, Yun-Min Zheng, Yong-Xiao Wang
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) occurs during both fetal and postnatal development and plays a critical role in matching regional alveolar perfusion with ventilation in humans and animals. HPV also contributes significantly to the development of pulmonary hypertension. Although the molecular mechanisms of HPV and pulmonary hypertension remain incompletely understood, increasing evidence demonstrates that hypoxia induces an elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration ([ROS]i) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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